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Leading Second Order Change The 21 st Century Leadership Challenge: Leading Second Order Change General Session.

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Presentation on theme: "Leading Second Order Change The 21 st Century Leadership Challenge: Leading Second Order Change General Session."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leading Second Order Change The 21 st Century Leadership Challenge: Leading Second Order Change General Session

2 The Welsh Congregations Dilemma We must build the new system while were in the old system 20 th Century Expectation: TIME 21 st Century Expectation: PROFICIENCY Perspective

3 Q - If you LEAD an organization over time, and it significantly improves, what happened to the organization? A- CHANGE

4 The Practice of Leadership Largest-ever Sample for Research on Leadership Practice Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005 All studies, > 5,000 studies of relationship between school leadership & achievement examined 69 met McRELs criteria for rigor 2,802 schools, all levels, K-12 represented 14,000 Teachers 1.4 million students

5 Three Findings School-level leadership impacts student achievement Principals use 66 leadership practices to fulfill 21 essential responsibilities that correlate with student achievement. Strong principals can have either a positive or negative impact on student achievement

6 Finding #1: School leadership impacts student achievement. School Leadership that Works: The Effect of Principal Leadership on Student Achievement If principals leadership improves from 50 th to 84 th percentile, researchers predict a 10 percentile gain in student achievement

7 Finding #2 The Practice of Leadership Identified 21 Principal responsibilities that positively correlate with student achievement All 21 responsibilities are important for raising student achievement. All are important in First-order change. 7 responsibilities are essential for Second-Order change. Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005

8 Finding #3: Strong leaders who have established purposeful communities can have either a positive or negative impact on student achievement. Why? Leadership

9 Purposeful Community Leadership

10 Collective Efficacy: We can make a difference. Building a Purposeful Community Collective Efficacy - The group members shared perception or belief that they can dramatically enhance the effectiveness of an organization. The collective efficacy of the teachers in a school is a better predictor of student success in schools than is the socioeconomic status of the students. Goddard, Hoy, and Hoy, 2004

11 Definition: Purposeful Community A purposeful community is one with the collective efficacy and capability to develop and use assets to accomplish goals that matter to all community members through agreed-upon processes. Marzano, Waters, McNulty, 2005

12 Build a purposeful community Focus on the right things Assess and manage the magnitude of change Leadership FocusMagnitude

13 Finding #3: Strong leaders who have established purposeful communities can have either a positive or negative impact on student achievement. Why? Leadership

14 Purposeful Community Leadership FocusMagnitude Maintain stability in existing system Challenge normal routines that do not produce results that achieve mission

15 Purposeful Community Leadership FocusMagnitude Classroom Research School Research Student Research Create demand Implement change Manage transitions Monitor/Evaluate

16 Implement Create Demand Monitor and Evaluate 1 st Order The Four Phases of Change McREL First Order Change

17 Implement Create Demand Manage Personal Transitions Monitor and Evaluate 2nd Order The Four Phases of Change McREL

18 Implement Create Demand Manage Personal Transitions Monitor and Evaluate 1 st Order The Four Phases of Change McREL

19 Purposeful Community Leadership FocusMagnitude of Change On the right things Gentle pressure, applied relentlessly

20 How Do We Lead for Systemic Change? Knowing what to do Knowing how to do it Knowing when to do it Knowing why to do it

21 First-Order Change* An extension of past knowledge Implemented with existing knowledge and skills Within existing paradigms Consistent with prevailing values and norms Incremental *Marzano, Waters, McNulty, 2005

22 First-Order Change? 1.Professional development to implement new editions of social studies textbooks 2.Reading The Five Dysfunctions of a Team and establishing norms for faculty meetings 3.Implementing a new dress code 4.Revamping the master schedule, moving from 7 periods per day to 6 5.Converting your school to International Baccalaureate (IB) status

23 Second-Order Change* A break with the past Outside of existing paradigms Conflicts with prevailing values and norms Complex Requires new knowledge and skills to implement Marzano, Waters, McNulty, 2005

24 First- or Second-Order Change? 1.Adopting mathematics textbooks 2.Adding 15 additional minutes of instruction to the school day 3.Moving to non-graded classrooms 4.Assessing writing across the curriculum 5.Standardizing cafeteria menus across all schools in the district to meet new government requirements 6.Implementing new student data management software

25 First Order Second Order When stakeholders see the change as: Consistent with existing values and norms Advantageous for stakeholders Readily implement-able with existing knowledge and resources When stakeholders: Are unclear about how it will make things better for them Must master new knowledge, practices, or approaches to implement the change Feel the change conflicts with prevailing personal values and organizational norms

26 First or Second Order Change? Its a matter of perspective!

27 Super- intendent Principals Leadership Team and Central Staff School Staff School Board Strategy Team Program Design Achievement Monitoring School Support Governance Team Community Engagement System Values & Policy Beliefs, Vision, Mission Goals & Operational Expectations Superintendent Accountability Instructional Team Student Achievement Program Delivery School-based Decisions Systemic Change

28 First or Second Order Change? Its a matter of perspective!

29 20 th Century Expectation: TIME 21 st Century Expectation: PROFICIENCY Perspective

30 Balanced Leadership Framework Responsibilities Affirmation Change Agent Communication Contingent Rewards Culture Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment involvement Discipline Flexibility Focus Ideals/beliefs Input Intellectual stimulation Knowledge of C, I, A Monitors/evaluates Optimizer Order Outreach Relationship Resources Situational awareness Visibility

31 Purposeful Community Leadership FocusMagnitude

32 Purposeful Community FocusMagnitude Affirmation Communication Culture Ideals/Beliefs Input Relationships Situational awareness Visibility Contingent rewards Discipline Involvement C,I,A Focus Order Outreach Resources Change agent Flexibility Ideals/Beliefs Intellectual stimulation Knowledge of C,I,A Monitor/evaluate Optimize

33 Balancing Leadership Principal leadership in highly effective schools is: Helpful but not threatening, Directive but not overbearing, Facilitative but not laissez faire. Rosenholtz, 1989 Louis & Murphy, 1994

34 //////////////// Balancing Leadership for Change What an organization needs from its leader depends on the magnitude of change occurring for the organization Direct Support Answer Question Step up / Manage Step back / Learn

35 The art of progress is to preserve order amid change and preserve change amid order. ~ Alfred North-Whitehead

36 7 Responsibilities Critical for 2 nd Order Change** AffirmationInvolvement in C,I,A Change Agent**Knowledge of C,I,A** Contingent RewardsMonitoring/Evaluating** CommunicationOptimizer (Optimist)** CultureOrder DisciplineOutreach Flexibility**Relationships FocusResources Ideals/beliefs**Situational Awareness InputVisibility Intellectual stimulation**

37 7 Responsibilities Critical to Support Second-Order Change 1.Change Agent 2.Flexibility 3.Ideals & beliefs 4.Intellectual stimulation 5.Knowledge of Curriculum Instruction, Assessment 6.Monitor and evaluate 7.Optimizer

38 ResponsibilityDefinitionPractice 1. Change Agent 2. Flexibility 3. Ideals and Beliefs 4. Knowledge of CIA 5. Intellectual Stimulation 6. Monitor and Evaluate 7. Optimizer

39 ResponsibilityDefinitionPractice 1. Change AgentActively challenge status quo Challenges status quo Comfortable leading change Looks for new, better ways 2.FlexibilityAdapts behavior; OK with dissent Comfortable making change OK w/ diverse opinions 3. Ideals and Beliefs Well-defined beliefs Behavior models beliefs 4. Knowledge of CIAContent, instruction, and assessment Extensive knowledge Provides guidance -teachers 5. Intellectual Stimulation Discusses current theory, practice Keeps informed Fosters discussions, etc. 6. Monitor and Evaluate Impact and effective- ness of practice Continually monitors C-I-A Impact of practice on achievement 7. OptimizerInspires, leads new & challenging innovation Inspires; driving force Positive challenges

40 2 nd order change Is a horse of a different color from a leadership perspective. To successfully implement a second order change initiative, a school leader must ratchet up her/his idealism, energy, and enthusiasm. Additionally, he must be willing to live through a period of frustration and even anger from some staff members. No doubt this takes a great personal toll on a school leader and might explain why many promising practices have not led to improved student achievement and ultimately have been abandoned. Ron Heifitz Marzano, Waters, McNulty

41 Optimizer Inspires teachers and staff to accomplish things that might seem beyond their grasp Portrays a positive attitude about the ability of teachers and staff to accomplish substantial things Is a driving force behind major initiatives Helps people find JOY in tackling the tough challenges

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43 Ideals and Beliefs What Is Our Purpose? To improve the quality of human life. To create schools in which every child learns at high levels. To secure Americas futureone student at a time!

44 What Do We Value? We put service to students above all else. We take responsibility for the success of all students. We care passionately about our work with children. We build strong, positive relationships with students, staff, parents, and community. We model and promote civility and integrity.

45 What/How We Taught What Students Learned Knowing the connections that enhance and increase learning Building a Culture of Continuous Improvement PAGE 9

46 Change Agent ~ Leadership is Difficult! Perhaps the most revealing aspect of analysis is that some responsibilities are negatively affected by second-order change: Culture (Strongest negative relationship with 2 nd order change) Communication Order Input

47 Possible perceptions of principal leading 2 nd order change Team spirit, cooperation, and common language have deteriorated as a result of the innovation (Culture) Communication has deteriorated as a result of the innovation (Communication) Order and routine have deteriorated as a result of the innovation (Order) The level of input from all members of the staff has deteriorated as a result of the innovation (Input)

48 Pages 12 & 13 Purposeful Community Leadership FocusMagnitude Classroom Research School Research Student Research Create demand Implement change Manage transitions Monitor/Evaluate

49 1 st Order The Four Phases of Change McREL Second Order

50 LeadershipA Balancing Act Adaptive work creates risk, conflict, and instability because addressing the issues underlying adaptive problems may involve upending deep and entrenched norms. Thus, leadership requires disturbing peoplebut at a rate they can absorb. Heifitz

51 True Leadership is Risky Business When exercising leadership, you risk getting marginalized, diverted, attacked, or seduced. Regardless of the form, however, the point is the same. When people resist adaptive work, their goal is to shut down those who exercise leadership in order to preserve what they have. Leithwood

52 The more complex society gets, the more sophisticated leadership must become. Michael Fullan The most essential pre- requisite for success is commitment from leaders. Joseph Murphy Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all factors that contribute to what students learn in school. Kenneth Leithwood Leaders... challenge peoples habits, beliefs, and values. Ron Heifitz The Challenges of Leadership

53 Change is MESSY! Fullan: The more accustomed one becomes to dealing with the unknown, the more one understands that creative breakthroughs are always preceded by periods of cloudy thinking, confusion, exploration, trial and stress; followed by periods of excitement and growing confidence as one pursues purposeful change, or copes with unwanted change.

54 Change is like a planned journey into uncharted waters on a leaky boat with a mutinous crew. Michael Fullan

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58 Five minutes before the party is not the time to learn to dance. - - Snoopy

59 How We Can ALL students achieving at high levels Why We Cant X

60 Fullan Those individuals and organizations that are most effective do not experience fewer problems, less stressful situations, and greater fortune, they just deal with them differently.

61 Daniel Boone Cant say that I was lost, but I was bewildered once... for three days. Change will be Change will be uncomfortable uncomfortable at times. at times.

62 FIDO

63 Always Give 100% at Work 12% Monday 23% Tuesday 40% Wednesday 20% Thursday 5% Friday

64 Trustworthiness Truthfulness Active Listening Doing Your Personal Best No Put Downs Lifelong Guidelines* * from Susan Kovalik & Associates, Inc.

65 FINDING JOY IN THE WORK COURAGECONFIDENCEENTHUSIASM Eleanor Roosevelt The Wright BrothersDr. Martin Luther King Jr.

66 Dum spiro, spero As I breathe, I hope.

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68 Contact Information McREL documents were referenced throughout this presentation. Copies of McREL research reports can be downloaded from their website: mcrel.org Gerrita Postlewait 617 Ellsworth Court Myrtle Beach, SC 29579


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