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Transformational Leadership: Understanding the Knowledge and Applying the Concepts West Virginia 21 st Century Leadership Institute November, 2008 Jerry.

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Presentation on theme: "Transformational Leadership: Understanding the Knowledge and Applying the Concepts West Virginia 21 st Century Leadership Institute November, 2008 Jerry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transformational Leadership: Understanding the Knowledge and Applying the Concepts West Virginia 21 st Century Leadership Institute November, 2008 Jerry Valentine

2 Our Process Today Brief look at Leadership in general Background perspective: Transactional and Transformational Leadership Small group activity: Contrast Transactional and Transformational Leadership Current perspective: Transformational Leadership Functions and Practices The Big Picture for Principal Leadership

3 Leadership I find the great thing in this world is not so much where we stand, as in what direction we are moving. To reach the port of heaven, we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against itbut we must sail, and not drift; nor lie at anchor. –Oliver Wendell Holmes

4 Goal of Leadership The goal of leadership is improvement… more specifically, establishing widely agreed upon and worthwhile directions for the organization and doing whatever it takes to prod and support people to move in those directions Leadership is working with members so the organization improves. (Leithwood et al., 2006)

5 Absence of Leadership… In the absence of leadership an organization experiences Drift and Detachment. –Drift Drift is sailing without a rudder –Detachment Detachment is a psychological state where the group lacks any deep commitment…just going through the motions. (Dan Duke, U. of Va at WVa Institute, )

6 Drift-Detachment You know you are in Drift or have Detachment when members of the organization –cannot visualize what the leader wants –cannot visualize what the leader believes –cannot identify any of the priorities of the organization –cannot discern which of the (too) many priorities are really the key priorities.

7 James McGregor Burns Leadership (1978) seminal book conceptualized transformational leadership Explains and contrasts leadership as –transactional or –transformational

8 Burns: Transactional Leadership is initiated solely by the formal leader is based upon the exchange of valued goods between the leader and followers is based on tangible (money, resources) or intangible (time, recognition, praise, etc.) goods is not based on an enduring relationship; therefore both parties go their separate ways is based on a shrewd eye for opportunity, a good hand at bargaining, persuading, and reciprocating uses extrinsic motivation

9 Burns: Transformational Leadership is initiated by the leader is based on mutual reciprocal relationship elevates both leader and followers to higher levels of motivation and morality promotes high levels of conduct and ethical aspirations uses intrinsic motivation

10 Burns: Transactional and Transformational Leadership Compared Transactional… –is based upon the fulfillment of lower-order needs, such as psychological well-being and safety –is based upon model of punishment, deference to authority, conformity, and social convention Transformational… –is based upon the fulfillment of higher-order needs, such as self- esteem, self-actualization –is based upon a model of principled morality –is grounded in the needs and values of both leaders and followers –provides the opportunity over time followers have the potential to be changed (transformed) into leaders themselves –is a mechanism for the authentic empowerment of followers

11 Scenario: Transactional or Transformational For this activity, we will work first in pairs and then quartets. Working first in your assigned pairs, read the scenario and then discuss the scenario. In your pairing, indicate for each scenario whether the description represents a principal who is functioning as a Transactional or Transformational leader. Discuss what makes the leadership transactional or transformational. Move into your quartet, share/discuss your findings from your pairing, then for each Transactional scenario determine how the scenario would be different if the leader was functioning as a Transformational leader…be prepared to share with whole group as time permits.

12 Scenario A Principal: M. Y. Way (female) In the spring the new principal must address, for the first time, the assignment of teachers to specific classes and/or grade levels for the coming year. Principal Way studies the course (or grade level) assignments for a couple of weeks and then posts them on the schedule board in the faculty lounge. She then calls each teacher into her office for a private conversation with the intent to convince the teacher that his/her respective assignment is the best for the school. For the few teachers who complain, Principal Way offers incentives (e.g. released time) to convince the teacher that the assignment is appropriate.

13 Small Group Tasks Pairs: Is the leadership in the scenario transactional or transformational? Pairs: Why (what evidence) do you see that supports your conclusion? Quartet: If you decided it was transactional, what aspects of leadership could the principal change that would move the leadership style from transactional to transformational? Whole group discussion/share-out…

14 Scenario B Principal: I. M. Visual (male) Principal Visual really wants to improve the schools mathematics achievement scores on the state test. He calls a special faculty meeting in September to discuss his vision for the math program. Principal Visual shares with the faculty a PPT presentation describing in detail the school math achievement data and explaining why the math program must change. When he asks for teacher volunteers from all content (or grade levels) to serve on a task-force to design a plan to reach the vision, no teachers volunteer. Principal Visual decides on the spot that the only way to move forward is to assign the task-force members, so he indicates that he will make those assignments next Monday if he does not have six volunteers between today and Monday. Principal Visual concludes the meeting by saying that he believes those who step up and serve will truly become key leaders in the school over the next two or three years because of the impact they will make on the schools achievement scores.

15 Small Group Tasks Pairs: Is the leadership in the scenario transactional or transformational? Pairs: Why (what evidence) do you see that supports your conclusion? Quartet: If you decided it was transactional, what aspects of leadership could the principal change that would move the leadership style from transactional to transformational? Whole group discussion/share-out…

16 Bernard Bass: Transformational Leadership (1980s/1990s) Proposed a four-factor definition of TL: –Idealized Influence (serves as a role model) –Inspirational Motivation (provides meaning and challenge to followers; vision/goals) –Intellectual Stimulation (solicits and encourages ideas, challenges assumptions) –Individualized Consideration (coach and mentor followers; personnel growth and development)

17 Leithwoods 1996 Six Factor Model of Transformational Leadership Provides Vision Models Behavior Fosters Commitment Provides Individual Support Provides Intellectual Stimulation Holds High Performance Expectations

18 Leithwoods 2006 Model of Leadership Four Primary functions of Leadership –Setting Direction –Developing People –Redesigning the Organization –Managing the Instructional (Teaching/Learning) Program

19 Setting Direction The transformational leaders critical practices: –Building a shared vision (Provides Vision) –Fostering the acceptance of group goals (Fosters Commitment) –Conveying high performance expectations (Holds High Expectations) (Leithwood et al., 2006) (Original 6 factors in yellow)

20 Developing People The transformational leaders critical practices: –Providing individualized support/consideration (Provides Individualized Support) –Providing intellectual stimulation (Provides Intellectual Stimulation) –Providing an appropriate model (Models Behavior) (Leithwood et al., 2006) (Original 6 factors in yellow)

21 Redesigning the Organization The transformational leaders critical practices: –Building collaborative cultures –Restructuring the schools management structures –Building productive relationships with families and communities –Connecting the school to its wider environment. (Leithwood et al., 2006)

22 Managing the Instructional (Teaching and Learning) Programs The transformational leaders critical practices: –Staffing the programs –Providing instructional (teaching and learning) support –Managing school activity –Buffering staff from distractions to their work (Leithwood et al., 2006)

23 The following slides provide examples of principal behavior from the Principal Leadership Questionnaire developed by Jantzi and Leithwood, 1996.

24 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Visioning –Excites faculty with visions of what we may be able to accomplish if we work together as a team. –Makes faculty members feel and act like leaders. –Gives the faculty a sense of overall purpose for its leadership role.

25 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Models Behavior Leads by doing rather than simply by telling. Exemplifies success and accomplishment within the profession of education.

26 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Fosters Commitment –Provides for participation in the process of developing school goals. –Encourages faculty members to work toward the same goals. –Uses problem solving with the faculty to generate school goals. –Works toward whole faculty consensus in establishing priorities for school goals. –Regularly encourages faculty members to evaluate progress toward achievement of school goals.

27 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Provides Individualized Support –Provides for extended training to develop teachers knowledge and skills relevant to being a member of the school faculty. –Provides the necessary resources to support implementation of the schools program. –Treats me as an individual with unique needs and expertise. –Takes my opinion into consideration when initiating actions that affect my work. –Behaves in a manner thoughtful of my personal needs.

28 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Provides Intellectual Stimulation –Challenged me to reexamine some basic assumptions I have about my work in the school. –Stimulates me to think about what I am doing for the schools students. –Provides information that helps me think of ways to implement the schools program.

29 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Holds High Expectations –Insists on only the best performance from the schools faculty. –Shows us that there are high expectations for the schools faculty as professionals. –Does not settle for second best in the performance of our work as the schools faculty.

30 Movies and Leadership Name a movie where the main character is a leader who must accomplish certain goals. What were the leadership characteristics of that leader…transactional or transformational?

31 Synthesis: The Big Picture What are the key concepts we should take with us from our discussion of Transformational Leadership? and What are basic leadership competencies or behaviors exhibited by a transformational leader?

32 Use the following Scenario if time…

33 Scenario C Principal: I. Care (female) Principal Care recently learned about the importance of school culture at the states leadership institute and led a discussion with her faculty about what a caring, collaborative culture looks like in a highly successful school and provided a reading and encouraged her teachers to read and discuss the reading in the professional groups. She obtained permission to use a culture instrument and asked teachers to complete the 36-item survey and return their responses to the school secretary by the end of the week. 32 of the 56 teachers returned completed surveys by Friday afternoon. Over the weekend, Principal Care sent an to all teachers. She indicated that she did not know who had or had not responded since the survey was anonymous, but reiterated the importance of the facultys upcoming analysis of the schools culture and encouraged those who might not have responded to take time to respond before next Wednesdays faculty meeting discussion. By the Tuesday afternoon, 52 of 56 teachers had responded. She computed the results Tuesday night. Principal Care opened the faculty discussion on Wednesday by thanking those who took time to respond and expressing understanding for those who did not because she knew everyone on the staff was busy and feeling overworked. She divided the faculty into small groups of 5-6 teachers, distributed the survey results, and asked the faculty to discuss what they learned from the data that informed their school improvement plan for next year. As the small groups shared their discussions, she typed their thoughts on the projector and facilitated the discussion.

34 Small Group Tasks Pairs: Is the leadership in the scenario transactional or transformational? Pairs: Why (what evidence) do you see that supports your conclusion? Quartet: If you decided it was transactional, what aspects of leadership could the principal change that would move the leadership style from transactional to transformational? Whole group discussion/share-out…


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