Presentation on theme: "Distributed Leadership for Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Distributed Leadership for Learning West Virginia InstituteDistributed Leadership for LearningDonald G. HackmannUniversity of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign
2 West Virginia Institute “Organizations tend to maintain themselves. It’s only through leadership do they change.”
3 Challenges for the Principalship West Virginia InstituteChallenges for the PrincipalshipFederal, state, and local school accountability measures call for improved leadership, which place increasing demands on principals (Grubb & Flessa, 2006; Pounder & Merrill, 2001)Principal’s job has become increasingly complex (Institute for Educational Leadership, 2000)Frustrations with lack of time, lack of resources, and pressures of external requirements have grown considerably (Valentine, Clark, Hackmann, & Petzko, 2002)Principalship is characterized by high turnover and a shortage of applicants (Gilman & Lanman-Givens, 2001; Schutte & Hackmann, 2006)Myths about the superprincipal or hero-principal persist (Copland, 2001; Grubb & Flessa, 2006)
4 West Virginia’s Framework for 21st Century Schools West Virginia InstituteWest Virginia’s Framework for 21st Century SchoolsSystematic ContinuousImprovement ProcessCurriculum ManagementInstructional PracticesSchool EffectivenessStudent Support and Family/Community ConnectionsCulture of Common Beliefs and Values: Dedicated to21st Century Learning for All…Whatever it Takes
5 Foundation for Leadership: An Interactional View of Instruction West Virginia InstituteFoundation for Leadership: An Interactional View of InstructionStudentLearningStudent learning opportunitiesKnapp et al. (2003). Leading for learning sourcebook: Concepts and examples, p. 13.ProfessionalLearningProfessional learning opportunitiesSystemLearningSystem learning opportunities
6 Leading for Learning: Five Areas of Action West Virginia InstituteEstablishing a focus on learningBuilding professional communities that value learningEngaging external environments that matter for learningActing strategically and sharing leadershipCreating coherenceKnapp, M. S., Copland, M. A., Ford, B., Markholt, A., McLaughlin, M. W.,Milliken, M., & Talberg, J. E. (2003)
7 Distributed Leadership: Four Usages West Virginia InstituteDistributed Leadership: Four UsagesTheoretical Lens for Looking at the Activity of LeadershipDistributed Leadership for DemocracyDistributed Leadership for Efficiency and EffectivenessDistributed Leadership as Capacity BuildingMayrowetz, D. (2008). Making sense of distributed leadership: Exploring the multiple usages of the concept in the field. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44,
8 Distributed Leadership defined… West Virginia InstituteDistributed Leadership defined…“Distributed leadership, then, means multiple sources of guidance and direction, following the contours of expertise in an organization, made coherent through a common culture. It is the ‘glue’ of a common task or goal—improvement of instruction—and a common frame of values for how to approach that task—culture—that keeps distributed leadership from becoming another version of loose coupling…..Distributed leadership does not mean that no one is responsible for the overall performance of the organization. It means, rather, that the job of administrative leaders is primarily about enhancing the skills and knowledge of people in the organization, creating a common culture of expectations around the use of those skills and knowledge, holding the various pieces of the organization together in a productive relationship with each other, and holding individuals accountable for their contributions to the collective result” (Elmore, 2000, p. 15).
9 West Virginia Institute Distributed leadership is about creating leadership density, building and sustaining leadership capacity throughout the organization. People in many different roles can lead and affect the performance of their schools in different ways.
10 West Virginia Institute “Leadership activity at the level of the school, rather than at the level of an individual leader or small group of leaders, is the appropriate unit of analysis in studying leadership practice”(Spillane, Halverson, & Diamond, 2004, p. 28).
11 Empirical Research on Distributed Leadership West Virginia InstituteEmpirical Research on Distributed LeadershipThere is a thin (but growing) body of empirical evidence about the effects of distributed leadership (Harris, Leithwood, Day, Sammons, & Hopkins, 2007; Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006)There is little evidence of a direct causal relationship between distributed leadership and school achievement (Hartley, 2007)Research has investigated teacher leadership (Firestone & Martinez, 2007), role of district leaders (Leithwood et al., 2007), practices in elementary schools (Spillane, Cambrun, & Pareja, 2007)
12 Moving away from Traditional Organizational Structures West Virginia InstituteMoving away from Traditional Organizational StructuresDistributing leadership, in a practical sense, means a shift away from the traditional, hierarchical, “top-down” model of leadership to a form of leadership that is collaborative and shared. It means a departure from the view that leadership resides in one person to a more complex notion of leadership where developing broad based leadership capacity is central to organizational change and development.
13 Distributed Leadership: Three Essential Elements West Virginia InstituteDistributed Leadership: Three Essential ElementsLeadership practice is the central and anchoring concernLeadership practice is generated in the interactions of leaders, followers, and their situation; each element is essential for leadership practiceThe situation both defines leadership practice and is defined through leadership practiceSpillane, J. P. (2006). Distributed leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
14 Promoting Distributed Leadership: Six Key Functions (Murphy, 2005) West Virginia InstitutePromoting Distributed Leadership: Six Key Functions (Murphy, 2005)Crafting a vision, delineating expectations for teacher leadership in the schoolIdentifying and selecting teacher leaders, linking them to leadership opportunitiesLegitimizing the work of teacher leadersProviding direct supportDeveloping leadership skill setsManaging the teacher leadership process
15 West Virginia Institute Model of Distributed Leadership Focused on Large Scale Improvement (Elmore, 2000)West Virginia InstituteThe purpose of leadership is the improvement of instructional practice and performance, regardless of roleInstructional improvement requires continuous learningLearning requires modelingThe roles and activities of leadership flow from the expertise required for learning and improvement, not from the formal dictates of the institutionThe exercise of authority requires reciprocity of accountability and capacity
16 Distributing Leadership within the School West Virginia InstituteBuilding Leadership Team, School Improvement TeamData Analysis TeamResponse to Intervention TeamGoal Teams (to assist with implementing each building goal)Grade Level Lead Teachers, Middle Level Team Leaders, Department HeadsProfessional Development TeamPeer coachingMentors for novice teachers, instructional coachesDistributed leadership includes not only teachers but alsoother professional staff, support staff, parents,stakeholders, and students.
17 Taxonomy of Distribution (MacBeath, 2005) West Virginia InstituteDistribution as cultural: practicing leadership as a reflection of the school’s culture, ethos, and traditionsDistribution as opportunistic: capable teachers willingly extending their roles to school-wide leadership because they are pre-disposed to taking initiative to leadDistribution as incremental: devolving greater responsibility as people demonstrate their capacity to leadDistribution as strategic: based on planned appointment of individuals to contribute positively to the development of leadership throughout the schoolDistribution as pragmatic: through necessity; often ad hoc delegation of workloadDistribution formally: through designated roles/job descriptionHighestLowest
18 Distributing Leadership: A Developmental Process (MacBeath, 2005) West Virginia InstitutePhase I: Treading cautiouslyPrincipal strategically identifies leadership needs of school, identifies people who have the requisite capacities, and assigns responsibilities to them.Phase II: Widening the scope of leadershipCreation of a culture that offers teachers an opportunity to learn from one another’s practice. Principal works to create an enabling environment, which encourages innovative ideas from all members of the school (teachers, pupils, staff, parents).Phase III: “Standing back”Maintaining the dynamic by supporting others; culture is characterized by mutual trust and self-confidence.
19 Distributed Leadership in your School West Virginia InstituteDistributed Leadership in your SchoolDevelop a list of activities/functions/roles in which leadership currently is being distributed within your building.Using MacBeath’s three developmental phases, identify your building’s current phase (I, II, III).
20 Barriers to Distributed Leadership West Virginia InstituteIdentify barriers that exist within your building and district, which currently may restrict your effectiveness in developing a school culture that embraces distributed leadership.In small groups, discuss your lists. Are these barriers consistent or different across schools, based upon your unique organizational contexts? How can these barriers be eliminated?
21 West Virginia Institute Potential Barriers…West Virginia InstituteCommunity (and possibly the district office’s) expectation that the principal is in charge of every leadership activityChanging a school’s culture, when teachers are accustomed to being followersTime: For developing leadership skills, releasing teachers to engage in leadership activitiesUnion resistance to teachers performing duties perceived to administrative (such as involvement in teacher supervision or evaluation)Administrators’ willingness to “let go” when we ultimately are accountableCan create “winners” and “losers;” teachers who traditionally have been in leadership roles may perceive a loss of powerTeachers with leadership skills may be pulled from the classroom by district administrators, to train others throughout the district. They may be recruited by other schools/districts for employment opportunities
22 Implementing Distributed Leadership West Virginia InstituteImplementing Distributed LeadershipWorking in groups:Identify additional activities in which you can involve your faculty and staff members in leadership activities in your school. For each activity, identify one or two staff members who has the knowledge, skills, and capacity to lead the initiative.
23 West Virginia Institute ReferencesCopland, M. (2001). The myth of the superprincipal. Phi Delta Kappan, 82,Elmore, R. F. (2000). Building a new structure for leadership. Washington, DC: The Albert Shanker Institute.Firestone, W. A. (1996). Leadership roles or functions? In K. Leithwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson, P. Hallinger, & A. Hart (Eds.), International handbook of educational leadership and administration (Vol. 2, pp ). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Firestone, W. A., & Martinez, M. C. (2007). Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1), 3-35.Gilman, D. A., & Lanman-Givens, B. (2001). Where have all the principals gone? Educational Leadership, 58(8),Grubb, W. N., & Flessa, J. J. (2006). A job too big for one: Multiple principals and other nontraditional approaches to school leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42,Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Day, C., Sammons, P., & Hopkins, D. (2007). Distributed leadership and organizational change: Reviewing the evidence. Journal of Educational Change, 8,Hartley, D. (2007). The emergence of distributed leadership in education: Why now? British Journal of Educational Studies, 55,
24 West Virginia Institute Institute for Educational Leadership. (2000). Leadership for student learning: Restructuring school district leadership. School leadership for the 21st century initiative: A report of the task force on the principalship. Washington, DC: Author.Knapp, M. S., Copland, M. A., Ford, B., Markholt, A., McLaughlin, M. W., Milliken, M., & Talberg, J. E. (2003, February). Leadership for learning sourcebook: Concepts and examples. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington.Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2006). Transformational school leadership for large-scale reform: Effects on students, teachers, and their classroom practices. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 17,Leithwood, K., Mascall, B., Strauss, T., Sachs, R., Memon, N., & Yashkina, A. (2007). Distributing leadership to make schools smarter: Taking the ego out of the system. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1),Leithwood, K., & Riehl, C. (2003, April). What do we already know about successful school leadership? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.MacBeath, J. (2005). Leadership as distributed: A matter of practice. School Leadership and Management, 25,Mayrowetz, D. (2008). Making sense of distributed leadership: Exploring the multiple usages of the concept in the field. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44,
25 West Virginia Institute Murphy, J. (2005). Connecting teacher leadership and school improvement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Pounder, D., & Merrill, R. (2001). Job desirability of the high school principalship: A job choice theory perspective. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37,Schutte, T. J., & Hackmann, D. G. (2006). Licensed, but not leading: Issues influencing individuals’ pursuit of the secondary principalship. Journal of School Leadership, 16,Spillane, J. (2006). Distributed leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Spillane, J. P., Camburn, E. M., & Pareja, A. S. (2007). Taking a distributed perspective to the school principal’s workday. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1),Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R., & Diamond, J. B. (2001). Investigating school leadership practice: A distributed perspective. Educational Researcher, 30(3),Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R., & Diamond, J. B. (2004). Towards a theory of leadership practice: A distributed perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36, 3-34.Valentine, J. W., Clark, D. C., Hackmann, D. G., & Petzko, V. N. (2002). A national study of leadership in middle level schools. Volume I: A national study of middle level leaders and school programs. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.