2Essential QuestionsWhat is the process for developing common formative assessments?How do we develop high quality common assessments items?How do we increase student involvement in assessment?Here are the three questions that will be addressed during this presentation.The rationale for doing common formative assessments is that they will improve student learning.We will go into greater depth about the how of developing common formative assessmentsWe will look at ways to increase student motivation through self-assessment
3Essential Question #1What is the process for developing common assessments?
4Process for Common Assessment Instruction and ongoing assessmentAssess again – monitoring for resultsRepeat intervention loop as neededCreate a plan for appropriate interventionTally and review common assessment resultsRevise instructional strategies and assessments as neededIdentify the target of the assessmentDesign formative and summative assessmentsInstruction and ongoing assessmentMonitor for learning of individual and collective resultsInterventionAssessmentYou’ve seen this graphic earlier. The part of this we are going to focus on is the designing of the common assessments.Erkens, 2008
5PLC Role in Assessment Process Working as a team, PLCs typically:Develop common assessments.Develop common rubrics.Examine student work.Analyze assessment data.Strategize common interventions.Provide objective feedback to one another.Use student results to revise assessment instruments.The PLC has a distinct role in the assessment process. They work together to complete each of these tasks – beginning with designing the common assessments and the rubrics, examining student work and data, deciding on interventions, providing feeback to each other and revising assessment instruments based upon the results.
6Examples of Common Assessments Short quizzesUnit testsMid-termsFinalsFocus area assessmentsReadingWritingMath ConceptsCommercially designed assessmentsIt could be one or some of these things but not all of these things. The main point here is that the common assessments are developed in lieu of some of the other assessments that you are already doing not as an add-on!
7How Often Should Common Assessments be Given? ACT MeetingHow Often Should Common Assessments be Given?Common assessments are designed to give teachers feedback about how students are doing.Giving common assessments two or three times per year is helpful, but doesn’t provide teachers enough feedback.Once per instructional unit?Begin small (1-2) and add new each year.This is a question the answer to which will be determined by your team. Common assessments are most typically formative – used to change instruction.
8Developing an Assessment Plan Determine the objectives for the unit you will be teaching.Deconstruct the objectives as needed.Write the learning targets into the plan.Determine which assessment method will be used to assess the targets.Decide on the percent importance of each target.Develop assessment based on plan.Stiggins, 2006
9Test Plan Sample Learning Targets Type of Target Assessment Method Percent ImportanceAcquire vocabulary associated with the physics of sound.KnowledgeSelected Response25%Learn that sound originates from a source that is vibrating and is detected, etc.5%Use knowledge of physics of sound to solve simple sound changes.ReasoningExtended Written Response20%Understand the relationship between the pitch of a sound, etc.10%Use scientific processes to conduct investigations and build explanations: observing, comparing, etc.Performance SkillPerformance Assessment40%Define relative importance – 3 circle audit -Stiggins, 2006
10You don’t need to reinvent the wheel, but you do need to kick the tires. Just as you don’t need to add-on assessments you can certainly reuse items from tests that you are given. Once you determine the percentage to which each target will be represented on the assessment – then as a group you can look at the assessments that you give and pick and choose items.
11Use your professional filters Questions for common assessments may be taken from textbooks, black-line masters, sample test banks, or previously administered classroom tests.The questions on the common assessments can come from many sources, but, first and foremost, a common assessment should be developed by teams of teachers and reflect the essential curriculum as agreed to by faculty and staff.
12Developing Assessment Plan Practice As a team, pick a CSO for which you would develop a common assessment.The CSO may be something you are planning to teach or you can use one of the deconstructed CSOs for the targets.Discuss the relative importance that each item might take in the assessment. Fill in the test plan for the CSO.In your handouts there is a blank test plan. Normally you might have already have the unit developed and use that. But since we have the deconstructed CSOs we will use those.
14You have a plan - now what? The next step is to obviously develop the actual assessment and as I mentioned before you will likely pull the information from other sources but may as a team decide that you need to do something different in which case you will work together to develop new items or maybe parcel out the task with each member contributing different pieces. Then getting back together to review the items once they’ve been developed. Whatever works for the team – will be good for the students.
15Essential Question #2How do we develop high quality common assessments items?
16Best Test/Worst Test Find someone from another table. Talk about the best test you have ever taken.Then talk about the worst test you have ever taken.What was it about the assessment that made it best or worst?Give them two minutes to talk to someone else from another table – before they sit down have them report a few of the best and a few of the worst. As we go through the next section think about what needs to happen for assessments to be quality and what needs to be avoided.
17Developing Quality Items Target-Type MatchWriting Good QuestionsSamplingAvoiding BiasSelected ResponseExtended Written ResponsePerformance AssessmentRemember that there are four categories of assessments that we discussed earlier. We are not going to review “Personal Communication” since that is a category of assessment that you would be developing as a common assessment.The are packets at each table with blank grids. The label says Writing Good Questions. I made each sheet larger to make it easier to do this in a group. Each big piece of paper represents one of the rows. The cards are the information that goes under each column. So for selected response you will have a target type match, writing good questions, sampling and avoiding bias card.
18Judge how the time is going Judge how the time is going. If they need more time –give it to them but chance are this won’t take too long to complete.Now that the time has run out let’s review your answers. As we go through these I am going to add additional information into each section. Please feel free to comment or ask questions as we go along.
19Writing Good Questions Selected ResponseTarget Type MatchWriting Good QuestionsSamplingAvoiding BiasKnowledgeandReasoningKeep wording simple and focused.Ask a full question in the stem.Eliminate clues to the correct answer within the question or across questions in a test.Answers should not be obvious.Highlight critical words.4 to 7 items per targetAvoid items designed to mislead or deceive studentsinto answering incorrectly.Keep vocabulary consistent with students’ level of understanding.Keep reading level appropriate.Any questions about these? The 4 to 7 is a general recommendation – the idea being to have enough items to truly assess knowledge without overdoing it. I think the rest is self-explanatory.
20Test Item Quality Checklist Take a couple of minutes to read through the checklist.As you read through the checklist, mark all the items that you do as you develop assessments.Now give yourselves a pat on the back if most or all of the items were checked off.The test item quality checklist is in your packet. Read it and decide which of these strategies that you do.
21Even when you have the perfect question – things don’t always go right!
22Extended Written Response Target Type MatchWriting Good QuestionsSamplingAvoiding BiasKnowledge,Reasoningand ProductSet the context.Specify the reasoning.Point the way.1 task per target.Don’t give student choices.Design good rubrics.Set clear criteria.Reflect target you are assessing.Keep reading level as low as possible.Devise clear instructions.Example of writing a good question that addresses all three is on the next slide.Any questions regarding this slide.Sampling – single, complete and novel taskGood Rubrics
23Sample Extended Written Response Question During the term, we have discussed both the evolution of Spanish literature and the changing political climate in Spain during the 21st century. (Context)Analyze these two dimensions of life in Spain, citing instances where literature and politics may have influenced each other: Describe those influences in specific terms. (Reasoning)In planning your response, think about what we learned about prominent novelists, political satirists, and prominent political figures of Spain. (5 points per instances, total = 15 points). (Point the Way)Set the context in the exercise by specifying the knowledge that needs to be brought to bear.During the term, we have discussed both the evolution of Spanish literature and the changing political climate in Spain during the 21st century.Specify the reasoningAnalyze these two dimensions of life in Spain, citing instances where literature and politics may have influenced each other: Describe those influences in specific terms.Point the way – remind students of the criteria that will be appliedIn planning your response, think about what we learned about prominent novelists, political satirists, and prominent political figures of Spain. (5 points per instances, total = 15 points).
24Performance Assessment Target Type MatchWriting Good QuestionsSamplingAvoiding BiasKnowledge, Reasoning and SkillsNovel and engaging tasksProvide information that will help studentsMultiple samples may be needed to get an accurate picture of performance.Performance criteria provide a clear and accurate picture of quality.Performance assessments are based on observation and judgment – performance skill or product. Challenge is to make it more objective than subjective. A task is any activity that we use in context to observe a skill or product-naturally occurring event or separate event.Performance criteria, rubrics, assessment lists and scoring guides are all used interchangeably.Sampling –Could be a culminating activity or single project but in many cases you will need more than one sample. so many extraneous factors can contribute to a student’s performance on a given task (Olympic athlete). Examples are:Solving math problems – multiple problems over a range of contextsReading fluency – several passages from materials with different context and purposes (narrative, expository or persausive)Writing – Gao (Work Keys Assessment) found that six prompts and two raters were necessary to get an accurate picture of writing ability.
25Evaluating Your Performance Assessment Did your assessment tool take into account whether learners were engaged in a real-world task or application?Did your assessment allow students an equal opportunity to perform?Did your assessment allow students to use higher-level thinking and problem-solving skills?Did your assessment allow students to achieve one criteria while advancing to another?Did you create a rubric to evaluate the students' progress throughout the task?Did you allow the students to help develop goals and criteria for the evaluation of the task?These are all the items you would ask yourselves as a team.
26Developing Quality Rubrics Metaguide to Developing RubricsOne of the questions for evaluating the performance assessment was did you create a rubric. It is not enough simply to create a rubric but you want to be sure that the one you create is quality. The metaguide is in your folder. From Stiggins.
27Technical Quality/Fairness ContentDoes it cover everything of importance?Does it leave out unimportant things?ClarityAre terms defined?Are various levels of quality defined?Are there samples of work to illustrate levels of quality?PracticalityWill students understand what is meant?Can students use it to self-assess and set specific goals?Is the information provided useful for planning instruction?Is the rubric manageable?Technical Quality/FairnessIs it reliable? Will raters give it the same score?Is it valid? Do the ratings actually represent what the students can do?Is it fair? Does it avoid bias?Guide to quality rubricsStiggins, 2006, p. 203
28Common Problem with Rubrics Counting items when quality is what really countsLeaving out things that are importantIncluding things that are trivialUsing unclear language or termsi.e. employed “creative thinking”
29Evaluating Rubrics Exercise At your table, distribute the rubrics at your table (either individually or in pairs).Compare the rubric to the Metaguide to Developing Rubrics.Decide what you like about the rubric and what would need to be improved based on the Metaguide.Be prepared to discuss your ideas in the larger group.
30Rubric Resources/assess.htmlmThere are lots more websites but here are a few that you might already be familiar with.
31Common Assessment in a PLC Developing common assessments will become easier the more you do.Begin small and work up to a minimum of one common assessment per unit of instruction. Working within the PLC concept will also make life easier since the work can be split among you, you have an instant source of feed
32“Creating common assessments that honor the content and nature of our discipline while keenly and clearly assessing what students know and can do is complex, important, and challenging work.By working collaboratively with your colleagues and starting always with Steven Covey's "end in mind," we're likely to produce assessments that are meaningful to both students and their teachers.”Ellen Moir, Director of the New Teacher Center, UC Santa Cruz
33Where do we go from here?Teachers in this school have worked together to clarify and focus on the essential outcomes for each course, each grade level, and each unit of instructionThese common essential outcomes reflect the teacher’s efforts to build shared knowledge regarding best practiceTeachers in the school have worked together to clarify the criteria they use in judging the quality of student work and they apply the criteria consistentlyTeachers in the school have worked together to monitor student learning through frequent formative assessments that are aligned to state and local standardsThis is from Professional Learning Communities book.
34Common Assessments Brainstorm *07/16/96Common Assessments BrainstormBrainstorm the necessary steps for your school to implement common assessments.Identify the challenges involved in implementing the steps you outlined.Brainstorm actions your school will need to undertake to address the challenges.Choose a recorder to document your school’s responses on chart paper and hang on wall for sharing with others.
35Save this template as a presentation (.ppt file) on your computer. Using this PowerPoint break timerThis PowerPoint slide uses images, custom animation, and timing to provide a countdown timer that you can use in any presentation. When you open the template, you’ll notice that the timer is set at 00:00. However, when you start the slide show, the timer will start at the correct time and count down by 1-minute intervals until it gets to 1 minute. At that point, it will count down in two 30-seconds intervals to 00:00.To insert this slide into your presentationSave this template as a presentation (.ppt file) on your computer.Open the presentation that will contain the timer.On the Slides tab, place your insertion point after the slide that will precede the timer. (Make sure you don't select a slide. Your insertion point should be between the slides.)On the Insert menu, click Slides from Files.In the Slide Finder dialog box, click the Find Presentation tab.Click Browse, locate and select the timer presentation, and then click Open.In the Slides from Files dialog box, select the timer slide.Select the Keep source formatting check box. If you do not select this check box, the copied slide will inherit the design of the slide that precedes it in the presentation.Click Insert.Click Close.
36Gallery Walk In your groups, take a marker and do a gallery walk. Read the group responses and add ideas/comments/suggestions regarding the challenges they face.We’ll take 1 minute to read the responses and add comments. I’ll give you a signal when it is time to switch.
37Essential Question #3How do we increase student involvement in assessment?
38Student Involvement“When students are required to think about their own learning, articulate what they understand, and what they still need to learn, achievement improves.”Black and Wiliam, 1998; Sternberg, 1996; Young 2000
39Student Involvement: Guiding Questions Where am I going?Where am I now?How can I close the gap?Royce Sadler
40Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning Where Am I Going?Strategy 1: Provide a clear and understandable vision of the learning target.Strategy 2: Use examples and models of strong and weak work.Where Am I Now?Strategy 3: Offer regular descriptive feedbackStrategy 4: Teach students to self-assess and set goals.How Can I Close the Gap?Strategy 5: Design lessons to focus on one aspect of quality at a time.Strategy 6: Teach students focused revision.Strategy 7: Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track of and share their learning
41Where Am I Going?Provide a Clear and Understandable Vision of the Learning Target“I Can” statementsScoring Guides and RubricsUse Examples and Models of Strong and Weak WorkCommon problemsAnalyze samplesJustify judgmentsStiggins Strategy 1: Provide a Clear and Understandable Vision of the Learning TargetShare with your students the learning target(s), objective(s), or goal(s) in advance of teaching thelesson, giving the assignment, or doing the activity. Use language students understand, and check tomake sure they understand. As, “Why are we doing this activity? What are we learning?” Convertlearning targets into student-friendly language by defining key words in terms students understand.Ask students what they think constitutes quality in a product or performance learning target, thenshow how their thoughts match with the scoring guide or rubric you will use to define quality. Providestudents with scoring guides written so they can understand them. Develop scoring criteria withthem.Stiggins Strategy 2: Use Examples and Models of Strong and Weak WorkUse models of strong and weak work—anonymous student work, work from life beyond school, and yourown work. Begin with work that demonstrates strengths and weaknesses related to problems studentscommonly experience, especially the problems that most concern you personally. Ask students toanalyze these samples for quality and then to justify their judgments. Use only anonymous work. Ifyou have been engaging students in analyzing examples or models., they will be developing a vision ofwhat the product or performance looks like when it’s done well.Model creating a product or performance yourself. Show students the true beginnings, the problemsyou run into, and how you think through decisions along the way. Don’t hide the development andrevision part, or students will think they are doing it wrong when it is messy for them at the beginning,and they won’t know how to work through the rough patches.
42Where Am I Now? Offer Descriptive Feedback What the student is doing correctlyWhat needs workBe selective in feedbackTeach Student s to Self Assess and Set GoalsIdentify own strengths and weaknessesWrite in a response logSelect work samples for portfoliosOffer descriptive feedback to classmatesStiggins Strategy 3: Offer Regular Descriptive FeedbackOffer descriptive feedback instead of grades on work that is for practice. Descriptive feedbackshould reflect student strengths and weaknesses with respect to the specific learning target(s) theyare trying to hit in a given assignment. Feedback is most effective when it identifies what thestudents are doing right, as well as when they need to work on next. One way to think of this is “starsand stairs”—What did the learner accomplish? What are the next steps? All learners, especially struggling ones, need to know that they did something right, and our jobs, as teachers, is to find it andlabel it for them, before launching into what they need to improve.Remember that learners don’t need to know everything that needs correcting, all at once. Narrowyour comments to the specific knowledge and skills emphasized in the current assignment and payattention to how much feedback learners can act on at one time. Don’t worry that students will beharmed if you don’t point out all of their problems. Identify as many issues as students cansuccessfully act on at one time, independently, and then figure out what to teach next based on theother problems in their work.Providing students with descriptive feedback is a crucial part of the increasing achievement. Feedbackhelps students answer the question, “Where am I now?” with respect to “Where do I need to be?”You are also modeling the kind of thinking you want students to engage in when they self-assess.Stiggins Strategy 4: Teach Students to Self-Assess and Set GoalsTeaching students to self-assess and set goals for learning is the second helap of helping studentsanswer the question, “Where am I now?” Self-assessment is a necessary part of learning, not an addonthat we do if we have the time or the “right” students. Struggling student are the right students,as much as any others. The research described previously tells us it is they who gain the most. Selfassessmentincludes having students do the following:•Identify their own strengths and areas for improvement. You can ask them to do this beforethey show their work to you for feedback, giving them prior thoughts of their own to “hang” iton—your feedback will be more meaningful and will make more sense.•Write it in a response log at the end of class, recording key points they have learned andquestions they still have.•Using established criteria, select a work sample for their portfolio that proves a certain level ofproficiency, explaining why the piece qualifies.•Offer descriptive feedback to classmates.Use you feedback, feedback from other students, or their own self-assessment to identify whatthey need to work on and set goals or future learning.
43How Can I Close the Gap?Design Lessons to Focus on One Aspect of Quality at a TimeTeach Students Focused RevisionEngage Students in Self-Reflection and Let Them Keep Track of and Share Their LearningStiggins Strategy 5: Design Lessons to Focus on One Aspect of Quality at a TimeIf you are working on a learning target having more than one aspect of quality, we recommend that youbuild competence one block at a time. For example, mathematics problem solving requires choosing theright strategy as one component. A science experiment lab report requires a statement of thehypothesis as one component. Writing requires an introduction as one component. Look at thecomponents of quality and then teach them one part at a time, making sure that student understandthat all of the parts ultimately must come together. You can then offer feedback focused on thecomponent you just taught, which narrows the volume of feedback students need to act on at a giventime and raises their chances of success in doing so, again, especially for struggling learners.. This is atime saver for you and more instructionally powerful for students.Stiggins Strategy 6: Teach Students Focused RevisionShow students how you would revise an answer, product, or performance, and then let them revise asimilar example. Begin by choosing work that needs revision on a single aspect of quality. Askstudents to brainstorm advice for the (anonymous) author on how to improve the work. Then askstudents, in pairs, to revise the work using their own advice. Or ask student to write a letter to thecreator of the sample, suggesting how to make it stronger for the aspect of quality discussed. Askstudents to analyze you own work for quality and make suggestions for improvement. Revise your workusing their advice. Ask them to again review it for quality. These exercises will prepare students towork on a current product or performance of their own, revising for the aspect of quality beingstudied. You can then give feedback on just that aspect.Stiggins Strategy 7: Engage Students in Self-Reflection and Let Them Keep Track of andShare Their LearningEngage student in tracking, reflecting on, and communicating about their progress. Any activity thatrequires student to reflect on what they are learning and to share their progress both reinforces thelearning and helps them develop insights into themselves as learners. These kinds of activities givestudent the opportunity to notice their own strengths, to see how far they have come, and to feel incontrol of the conditions of their success. By reflecting on their learning they deepen theirunderstanding, and will remember it longer. In addition, it is the learner, not the teacher, who doingthe work.Here are some things you can have students do:•Write a process paper, detailing how they solved a problem or created a product or performance.This analysis encourages them to think like professionals in your discipline.•Write a letter to their parents about a piece of work, explaining where they are now with it and whatthey are trying to do next.•Reflect on their own growth. “I have become a better reader this year. I used to….but now I…”•Help plan and participate in conferences with parents and/or teachers to share their learning.
44Our Goal: Students Who Are… Informed about their learningAnalytical regarding their learningActively involved in their learningPersonally invested in their learningThe reason to involved students in the assessment process…. See goals above
45You Be George Student Involvement in Assessment for Learning – Self-Reflection and Goal Setting.
46What The Teacher Does (Elementary Version) You Be GeorgeWhat The Teacher Does (Elementary Version)Identify what learning target each test item represents.Fill out the first two columns of the form “Identifying Your Strengths and Focusing Further Study.”Explain what the teacher does to set this student-involvement activity up.
47Clear Targets and Student Goal Setting You Be GeorgeClear Targets and Student Goal SettingProblemLearning TargetRight?Wrong?Simple mistake?Don’t get itWrite numerals in expanded…321This is the visual that goes along with the explanation on the previous slide.
48You Be GeorgeWhat The Student DoesStep One: Looks over the corrected test and marks on the form “Identifying Strengths and Areas for Improvement” whether each problem is right or wrong.Step Two: Reviews the wrong problems and decides if the error was due to a simple mistake or to not knowing how to do the problem.Then explain what the student does.
49Clear Targets and Student Goal Setting You Be GeorgeClear Targets and Student Goal SettingProblemLearning TargetRight?Wrong?Simple mistake?Don’t get itWrite numerals in expanded…321xxxThis is the visual that goes along with the explanation on the previous slide.
50You Be GeorgeYou Be GeorgeGeorge, a third-grader, filled out the form on page Please imagine you are George.Using the information from page 32 , do a little self-analysis and goal setting by completing the form on page 33.You will have to make some stuff up.Have the participants work with a partner to imagine they are George (hence “You Be George”) and do a little self-reflection and goal setting on the basis of test results.Debrief by asking one or more of the following questions:How many questions did George get wrong? If I were to put a grade on this test, what would it be? What is he likely to conclude from that grade if he doesn’t look at his underlying strengths and weaknesses? How often do students like George get the opportunity to look at a low score from this perspective?
51Student Involvement Examples Students name their learning targets.Students manage their materials and their data, tracking their own progress on achievement.Students set goals and learning plans or activities for themselves as learners.Students self-assess, self-evaluate, and peer-evaluate their work.Students reflect on what they have learned.Students generate possible test items.Students participate in rubric development.Students engage in meaningful dialogue.Students support each other in addressing gaps.These are examples of student involvement strategies: Review them at your table and consider the following:How do you or your colleagues currently involve students?How might this type of involvement add to the common assessment process?What is important for your team or colleagues back in your own context to think about or consider in regards to student involvement?51
52Final ThoughtStudents may not hit the target today…the important thing is that they remain willing to shoot at it again tomorrow.
54ResourcesChappuis, S. & Stiggins, R. Finding balance: assessment in the middle school classroom, middle ground, October 2008, 12 (2), Retrieved from:ticles/October2008/Article1/tabid/1755/Default.as pxStiggins, R.J., Arter, J.A., Chappuis, J. & Chappuis, S. (2006). Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right-Using it Well. Portland, OR: ETS.Jakicic, C. , Presentation Handouts, Solution Tree