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Before, During, and After Reading Strategies & Routines for Success S CAFFOLDING R EADING C OMPREHENSION O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS.

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Presentation on theme: "Before, During, and After Reading Strategies & Routines for Success S CAFFOLDING R EADING C OMPREHENSION O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Before, During, and After Reading Strategies & Routines for Success S CAFFOLDING R EADING C OMPREHENSION O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS

2 Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. It consists of three elements: The reader The text The activity or purpose for reading (Rand Reading Study Group, 2002) O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Before During After

3 O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING What should happen before, during and after reading?

4 S CAFFOLDING READING IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES The Scaffolding Reading in the Elementary Grades modules provide the instructional routines and strategies teachers need to help students extract and construct meaning. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

5 B EFORE READING Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words Teach or activate any necessary background knowledge Preview the story or the article O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Module Contents

6 D URING READING Utilize passage reading procedures that provide adequate reading practice Ask appropriate questions during passage reading Teach strategies that can be applied to passage reading Use graphic organizers to enhance comprehension O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Module Contents

7 A FTER READING Provide intentional fluency building practice Engage students in a discussion Have students answer written questions Provide engaging vocabulary practice Have students write summaries of what they have read O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Module Contents

8 O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING S NAPSHOTS OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES AND ROUTINES

9 B EFORE READING O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

10 B EFORE READING If students can read the words in a passage accurately and fluently, their reading comprehension will be enhanced. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

11 T EACH THE PRONUNCIATION OF DIFFICULT TO READ WORDS. Procedures for telling the word(s). This word is ____________________. What word _____________________? Spell and read the word. _________________ focus inspectorglimpse spectator O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING

12 A S TRATEGY M ODELED Decoding Instruction, 1 st Grade O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING

13 If students understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

14 T EACH THE MEANING OF CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Tier One: Basic words Chair, bed, happy, house Tier Two: Words in general use, but not common Concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity Tier Three: Rare words limited to a specific domain Tundra, igneous rocks, weathering O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

15 K EY CONCEPTS IN TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Select words that are unknown and critical to passage understanding. Select words students are likely to encounter in the future Tier 2 words Academic vocabulary Student-friendly explanations O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

16 E XAMPLE : TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Reading Level: 2 nd Series: Harcourt Trophies Passage: Lemonade for Sale announcedmembersneighborhood arrivedrebuildlemonade glumsquawkedclubhouse O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Select three words for robust explicit instruction.

17 S TUDENT - FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Dictionary Definition Relieved – (1) to free wholly from pain, stress, pressure. (2) to lessen or alleviate, as pain or pressure Student Friendly Explanation When something that is difficult is over or never happened at all, you feel relieved.

18 S TUDENT FRIENDLY DEFINITIONS Dictionary DefinitionStudent-Friendly Definition Disgusting – to cause to feel disgust; be sickening, repulsive, or very distasteful to Fragile – easily broken, damaged, or destroyed Gratitude – a feeling of thankful appreciation for favors or benefits received Loitering- to linger in an aimless way; spend time idly O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

19 A CTIVITY : CREATING STUDENT - FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS Gape - to open the mouth wide involuntarily, as the result of hunger, sleepiness, or absorbed attention Glimpse – 1) momentary or slight appearance, 2) a vague idea; inkling. Scrutinize - to examine in detail with careful or critical attention O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING

20 C OLLINS C OBUILD S TUDENT D ICTIONARY

21 A S TRATEGY Vocabulary Instruction, 2 nd Grade O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING

22 If students have the background knowledge required by a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

23 Strategy #3 Example Prior to passage reading, select and read aloud a book that provides necessary background knowledge Passage: Me and Uncle Romie Background knowledge needed: Life in a big city O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING T EACH OR ACTIVATE NECESSARY BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE.

24 A CTIVATING B ACKGROUND K NOWLEDGE O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING Activate background knowledge using a research validated strategy Ask students questions and engage in a discussion Activate knowledge using the KWL strategy Brainstorm the topics/questions that might be covered

25 BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, E XTENDED AND E ARLY L EARNING B-K-W-L-Q BackgroundKnowledgeWhat we want to know Language needed for writing Questions we can now answer Front load, front load, front load!! (Adapted from Ogales KWL by J. Allen)

26 If students preview a passage, their comprehension is enhanced. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

27 D URING READING O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

28 Asking students questions during passage reading has proven effectiveness in improving the comprehension of students. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

29 Q UESTIONING THE AUTHOR : A N APPROACH FOR ENHANCING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT WITH TEXT (B ECK, M C K EOWN, H AMILTON & K UCAN, 1997) Comprehension strategy to teach students to construct meaning during reading Queries, or discussion questions, encourage students to engage with ideas in text to build meaning Queries help teachers facilitate group discussion and student-to-student interaction O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

30 Q UERY EXAMPLES What is the author trying to say? Why do you think the author used the following phrase? Does this make sense to you? O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

31 Instruction in specific cognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension for all students and, most particularly, can assist struggling readers. (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

32 C OGNITIVE STRATEGIES Competent Readers Strategies Text Structure Strategies Fix-Up Strategies Reread Look back Read ahead Restate in your own words O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

33 The ability to identify and take advantage of text organization can contribute to students comprehension. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

34 T EXT ORGANIZATION Story Grammar Title, author, setting, main characters, conflict resolution, events, conclusion Patterns of Expository Text Each paragraph is a body of knowledge Determine topic of paragraph Determine critical supporting details O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

35 S TRATEGY E XAMPLE Paragraph Shrinking Name the who or what. Tell the most important thing about the who or what. Say the main idea in 10 words or less. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

36 The main effect of graphic organizers appears to be on the improvement of the readers memory for the content that has been read. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

37 G RAPHIC ORGANIZERS Narrative Text (Story Maps) Expository Text (Flow charts, compare/contrast) O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

38 A FTER READING O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

39 Fluency is related to reading comprehension. (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Maxwell, 1988) O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

40 FLUENCY Repeated Reading Cold-timing Accuracy Practice Fluency Building Hot-timing O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

41 Engaging students in a discussion can increase their depth of text processing and subsequent comprehension. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

42 DISCUSSION Teach discussion behavior. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Looks LikeSounds Like Facing peersUsing a pleasant voice Making eye contactSharing opinions and supporting facts ParticipatingSharing positive comments ListeningStaying on topic

43 Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

44 Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

45 Students must Read, And read, And read some more! O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

46 WVDE L ESSON PLAN TEMPLATE Reading Lesson Plan O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

47 C ONTACT I NFORMATION Phyllis Veith, Assistant Director, Office of Special Programs Linda Palenchar, Coordinator, Office of Special Programs O FFICE OF S PECIAL P ROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING


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