Presentation on theme: "Deconstructing 21st Century CSOs"— Presentation transcript:
1Deconstructing 21st Century CSOs What Do We Expect Students to Learn?Title I School Improvement CoordinatorsErin Sullivan & Gail VarneyWVDE Title I CoordinatorsLimited paper copies will be used for this conference. However, all of the presentations are now posted on the Title I website. If you want hard copies of the sessions, you may want to print the PPs or create a file on your desktop and add the presentations. That way you can take notes at the bottom of the slides using your computer. The presentation materials can be accessed atSeveral presentations are available under the “PRESENTATIONS” tab on TEACH Provide background of this presentation – how it has been used by our office. Four driving PLC questions.
2Session GoalsUnderstand the change in the rigor and relevance of the revised CSOs.Participate in a process of deconstructing the CSOs that ensures teachers understand the depth of knowledge and what reasoning and skills students will be expected to master.Understand that the deconstructed CSOs form the basis of designing assessments and selecting appropriate instructional strategies.WV has gone to a Standards based instructional format. CSOs have been revised to align with the NAEP standards. CSOs address 21st Century real-world knowledge and skills.
3Three Ways to Improve Student Learning Raise the level of rigor in the content standards and objectives.Increase the skill and knowledge of teachers in teaching the content.Engage students in active learning designed around the standards for content, learning skills and technology tools.The role of classroom teachers is to strive toward reaching these goals. By engaging students in active learning that is not text-book driven, rather is designed around the standards for content, learning skills and technology tools; teachers will increase the rigor of instruction in their classrooms.
4The Rigor/Relevance Framework DGTAXONMYCAssimilation654321DAdaptationEvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationAAcquisitionBApplicationUnderstandingThis visual captures our goal for 21st century curriculum in West Virginia schools. Our goal for the 21st century learner is to move both learning experiences and assessment into the D Quadrant of the Rigor and Relevance Framework. This Framework is a tool developed by the staff of the International Center for Leadership in Education to examine curriculum, instruction and assessment. The Rigor/Relevance Framework is based on two dimensions of higher standards and student achievement.First, there is the continuum of knowledge that describes the increasingly complex ways in which we think. The Knowledge Taxonomy is based on the 6 levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The low end of the continuum involves acquiring knowledge and being able to recall or locate that knowledge in a simple manner. The high end of the Knowledge Taxonomy labels more complex ways in which individuals use knowledge. At this level, knowledge is fully integrated into one’s mind. They can take several pieces of knowledge and combine them in both logical and creative ways. Assimilation of knowledge is a good way to describe this high level of the thinking continuum. Assimilation is often referred to as a higher-order thinking skill. At this level the student can solve multi-step problems and create unique work and solutions.The application Model, or the second continuum, is one of action. The five levels of this continuum describe putting knowledge to use. While the low end is knowledge acquired for its own sake, the high end signifies action-sue of that knowledge to solve complex real-world problems and to create projects, designs, and other works for real-world situations.AwarenessApplyacrossdisciplinesApply toreal worldpredictablesituationsApply to real-worldunpredictablesituationsKnowledgeApply indisciplineAPPLICATION MODEL
5RLA CSO Comparison – Grade 4 Previous PolicyRLA Summarize the author’s purpose (e.g., to persuade; to inform; to determine a specific viewpoint).Revised PolicyRLA.O Determine author’s purposes in literary and informational texts and use supporting material to justify author’s intent:To persuadeTo entertainTo informTo determine a specific viewpointNow, let’s take a brief look at how the COSs have changed – how complex they now are.Show the previous CSO (left) and ask if that could be “taught” in one period. Show the new CSO and ask the same thing.In the previous policy, “e.g.” were suggestions, not requirements. A teacher could have simply selected one and taught it in isolation. However, with the revised policy, the instruction must be developed over a period of time.
6Mathematics CSO Comparison - Grade 3 Previous PolicyMA.3.1.6Compare and order fractions with like and unlike denominators using concrete models.Revised PolicyM.O.3.1.6Create concrete modelsand pictorialrepresentations tocompare and order fractions with like and unlike denominators,add and subtract fractions with like denominators, and verify results.Show the previous CSO (left) and ask if that could be “taught” in one period. Show the new CSO and ask the same thing.Students actually have to create a product in the revised objective. Previously, the objective could have been “checked off” as being “covered” in a single lesson. However, this new objective must be “taught” over a series of lessons throughout the year.
7What is Depth of Knowledge? The degree of depth or complexity of knowledge reflected in the content standards and assessmentsHow deeply a student needs to understand the content for a given response/assessmentIt is essential all educators recognize the Depth of Knowledge in the revised CSOs. We need to understand the DOK of the CSOs to comprehend what we want kids to know, understand, and be able to do. If teachers don’t understand the DOK of the CSOs, they won’t be able to effectively instruct or assess. They won’t be able to prepare students for the DOK the WESTEST.
8Depth of Knowledge Levels Level 1: Recall Recall, recognition; skill, behavior or sequence of behaviors learned through practice and easily performed Level 2: Skill/Concept Engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling; the use of information or conceptual knowledge; requires making some decisions regarding how to approach a question or problem Level 3: Strategic Thinking More sophisticated reasoning and analysis; deep understanding; students are required to solve problems & draw conclusions Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires integration of knowledge from multiple sources and ability to represent knowledge in a variety of ways; usually requires work over an extended period of timeRefer to handout on DOK levels. The DOK has 4 levels. Depth of Knowledge, or DOK, is a way to think about content complexity, not content difficulty. That is the first thing with which people must come to understanding. Complexity is different from difficulty. For example, if students have not seen the word or content before, it might be difficult for them, but it is not complex.Dr. Norman Webb (University of Wisconsin) completed a depth of knowledge and alignment study of the content standards and objectives. As you see on this slide, there are 4 depth of knowledge levels and each objective is assigned a DOK level based upon the information on this slide. Dr. Webb is currently completing the official alignment study between the WV CSOs and the WESTEST 2 items. When he has completed his work, we will post the DOK levels to the Teach 21 site.Level 1 DOK is recall and recognition.Level 2 – is about using a skill or a concept, i.e. Paraphrase. Conceptual understanding generally refers to the integration and application of concepts and other ideas within a content area. Procedural understanding denotes knowledge about skills and sequence of steps, when and how these should be used appropriately, and their efficient and accurate applications.Level 3 DOK requires strategic thinking. Analysis and other examples are given here. Non-routine problem solving like in reading and determining author’s purpose is Level 3.Level 4 DOK requires extended thinking usually requires work over a period of time, including gathering information, analyzing findings, preparing reports, and presenting findings.The new rigor of the WESTEST means it contains more levels 2 & 3 items.
9Understanding Depth of Knowledge DOK is about intended outcome, not difficulty.DOK is a reference to the complexity of mental processing that must occur to answer a question, perform a task, or generate a product.We must understand that DOK is not about the difficulty of the objective, rather, it is about the intended outcome or the complexity of the mental processing that must occur in order to get to the intended outcome. Consider the example of adding This is easy. Students can do this by rote. It’s a DOK 1.Increasing the difficulty of the problem by asking a student to add 4, ,530 does not increase the complexity. To solve this problem requires a child to recall the sequence of steps. The level of cognitive difficulty is still a DOK 1. It’s still recall. Knowing the rules of adding larger numbers - increasing the difficulty of the addition problem - does not affect the intended outcome. We still want the student to be able to add, just larger numbers.
12Activity: Determining DOK Level DOK ? Describe three characteristics of metamorphic rocksDOK ? Describe the difference between metamorphic and igneous rocks.DOK ? Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships that exist within the rock cycle.Please refer to your handout on DOK levels:Verbs alone do not determine the DOK’s level. This is an example of the same verb being used for different objectives. Use chart to determine DOK.Same verb – three DOK levels Key= 1,2,31 = (simple recall)2 = (requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two rock types)3 =(requires deep understanding of rock cycle and a determination of how best to represent it)
13Practice Activity: Sample One Locate and interpret key information in illustrations, titles, chapter headings, glossaries and maps to answer questions.What is the DOK level? Answer is level two. What makes this a DOK 2 – not a DOK 1?(the word interpret) We can make it a level one by removing the word “interpret”.
14Practice Activity: Sample Two Solve one-step linear equations and inequalities with one variable, interpret the solution or solutions in the context from which they arose, and verify the reasonableness of the results.A one-step linear equation sample might be: 20 = 3X X= 6 is not a reasonable answer for this sample equation.This objective is an example of Level 3. The expectation expressed in this objective is that students will not only solve and verify the results. This will require students to do some reasoning in order to interpret the solution and could be fairly complex depending on the context. If students were only required to solve linear equations and verify solutions, then the expectation would be Level 2.
15Practice Activity: Sample Three Design a statistical experiment to study a problem and communicate the outcomes.This is a DOK 4 because to plan a statistical experiment, a student must define the problem and develop a procedure for solving it. This involves identifying the correct statistical model, applying the model to data and communicating the outcome of the selected model. The student must interpret finding and make reasonable and rationed inferences from obtained data. This represents a complex, multistep reasoning task.
16No longer will teachers be able to “check off” CSOs as being “covered” in one class period. Depth of knowledge in the CSOs requires extended learning experiences in order to master them. The next slide is a picture that represents a teacher trying to teach a 21st Century CSO in one class period.
18Where do we begin?In order to provide instruction at the appropriate DOK, you must deconstruct the CSOs into smaller pieces (learning targets). Ask yourself, what does the CSO really ask my students to do? How will I know they have mastered the CSO?
19Deconstructing the Standards is… …a systematic process to identify embedded learning targets in standards and objectives so that nothing essential is missed during instruction.
20Learning TargetsWhat students should know, understand and be able to do to master the standards/objectives
22Types of Learning Targets Knowledgeknowing and understanding facts and conceptslearned outright or via referenceReasoningmental processes we want students to engage inUSING knowledge to solve problemsPerformance Skillsprocess is most importantProductsusing knowledge, reasoning, and skills to create a productRemember, step one was choosing a CSO that needs to be deconstructed because it’s unclear due to complexity.
23Performance Skill Objective Product ObjectiveProductPerformance SkillReasoningKnowledgeLearning TargetHierarchyPerformance Skill ObjectivePerformance SkillReasoningKnowledgeReasoning ObjectiveReasoningKnowledgeThere is a hierarchy to learning targets. Knowledge targets have no reasoning, performance, or product underpinnings. Reasoning targets require knowledge but no performance or products. Performance requires underlying knowledge and reasoning but not products. Product targets might be underpinned by all four types of learning targets. The exception is that a product might not have a performance underpinning.Many of WV’s standards/objectives contain more than a single type of learning target. When this happens, each part needs to be deconstructed separately.Knowledge ObjectiveKnowledge
24Examples: Knowledge Targets Identify sight wordsIdentify similes and metaphorsKnow defining characteristics of various literary genresCount and group concrete manipulatives by ones, tens, and hundreds to 1,000
25Examples: Reasoning Targets Make a prediction based on evidenceDistinguish between fact and opinionEvaluate information from a variety of resourcesClassify and compare triangles by sides and angles
26Examples: Performance/Skill Targets Read aloud with fluency and expressionUse self-correction strategiesUse inductive reasoning to find and justify the laws of exponents with numeric basesModel, identify and describe square, prime and composite numbers
27Examples: Product Targets Produce a grammatically correct sentenceDevelop a proper paragraph form in a written compositionCompose a written composition using the five-step writing processCreate a design with more than one line of symmetry
28Deconstruction StepsChoose a standard/objective for which the embedded learning might not be consistently identified.Identify its ultimate type: knowledge, reasoning, performance skill, or product.Ask four questions:What knowledge do students need ?What reasoning proficiencies (if any) do students need?What performance skills (if any) do students need?What products (if any) do students need to practice?The four questions are all asking what students need to MASTER the standard or objective.
29Performance Skill Targets Step OneStandard/Objective:Step TwoType: Knowledge Reasoning Performance Skill ProductLearning TargetsWhat are the knowledge, reasoning, skill or product targets underpinning this objective?Knowledge TargetsReasoning TargetsPerformance Skill TargetsProduct TargetsWhat must students know to master this standard?How are students using knowledge to solve a problem, make a decision, form a plan, etc.?What must students be able to do ? How are they using knowledge and reasoning to perform a task?What are students asked to produce or create?Step ThreeThis is a worksheet designed to help teachers in the deconstruction process. Go through a review of the steps, showing them what questions they need to ask as they do steps two and three. Emphasize again the underpinning/scaffolding concept so they know if they determine a CSO includes performance skill, it will also have reasoning and knowledge underpinnings.
30Activity: Learning Target Verb Sort Categorize verbs under correct learning target headings:KnowledgeReasoningPerformance SkillProductAsk teachers to sort according to what they think the verb is asking students to know, understand, or do. (Activity packets of verbs and Learning Target headings)
31Explain Predict Observe Design Understand Infer Perform Produce KnowledgeReasoningPerformanceProductExplainPredictObserveDesignUnderstandInferPerformProduceDescribeClassifyDoMakeIdentifyCompareConductWriteDefineSummarizeSpeakDrawRecallAnalyzeOperateRepresentRecognizeEvaluateInvestigateDisplaySelectGeneralizeCollectModel
32Tips for Deconstructing the CSOs Analyze the wording of the standard/objective to determine key concepts and key skillsRead through indicatorsCircle verbs to identify key skillsUnderline nouns and noun phrases to identify key conceptsExample M.O :Create grade-appropriate real-world problems involving any of the four operations using multiple strategies, explain the reasoning used, and justify the procedures selected when presenting solutions.When presenting this slide, open it up for discussion as to different words they would circle and underline. Good opportunity to point out how complex the CSOs are and the many learning targets embedded in some of them.
33How Many Types of Learning Targets? EXAMPLE 1: 8th Grade Reading/L.A., RLA.O.8.1.5Use pre-reading and comprehension strategies (e.g. generating questions and previewing, activating and evaluating prior knowledge and scanning or skimming texts) to critically analyze and evaluate the comparison of literary and informational texts forMaking judgmentsHypothesizingMaking complex or abstract summariesHave teachers refer to their hard copy of this CSO. Ask them to circle the key verbs and nouns/noun phrases. Have them use this process to determine the TYPES of learning targets are in this one.This one has at least three types of targets. Be sure that all targets are included on the chart.Knowledgeknow what strategies are considered to be pre-reading strategiesUnderstand the types of comprehension skills and (example) how to locate a main idea and detailsUnderstand the process for inferring, drawing generalizations etc.Understand the difference in skimming and scanning processesReasoninggenerating questionsactivating and evaluating prior knowledgecritically analyze and evaluatemaking judgmentshypothesizingmaking complex or abstract summariesPerformancescanning or skimmingpreviewing
34How Many Types of Learning Targets? EXAMPLE 2: Grade 3 Mathematics, M.O.3.5.1Collect and organize grade-appropriate real-world data from observation, surveys, and experiments, and identify and construct appropriate ways to display data.Have teachers refer to their hard copy of this CSO. Ask them to circle the key verbs and nouns/noun phrases. Have them use this process to determine the TYPES of learning targets are in this one.This one has 4 types of targets:KnowledgeWhat is data?Define a survey and identify its usefulness.What type of data must be collected for a survey, observation and experiments?ReasoningIdentify appropriate ways to display data.Performance SkillCollect data.ProductConstruct appropriate ways to display data.
35Activity Let’s deconstruct one together! Provide teachers with handout worksheets of the RLA CSO on the following slide and have them work at their tables to deconstruct. Provide copies of the Title I Office’s deconstruction of this one.
36Standard/Objective: RLA. O. 4. 1 Standard/Objective: RLA.O Determine the author's purpose in literary and informational text and use supporting material to justify the author’s intent to persuade, entertain, inform and determine a specific viewpoint.Type: Knowledge ReasoningPerformance Skill ProductLearning TargetsWhat are the knowledge, reasoning, skill or product targets underpinning this objective?Knowledge TargetsWhat must students know?Reasoning TargetsHow are students using knowledge to solve a problem, make a decision, etc.?Performance Skill TargetsWhat must students be able to do? How are they using knowledge and reasoning to perform a task?Product TargetsWhat are students asked to produce or create?Allow groups time to do the handout worksheets of this slide at their tables, then discuss in whole group, comparing their work.
37Performance Skill Targets Standard/Objective: RLA.O Determine the author's purpose in literary and informational text and use supporting material to justify the author’s intent to persuade, entertain, inform and determine a specific viewpoint.Type: Knowledge ReasoningX Performance Skill ProductLearning TargetsWhat are the knowledge, reasoning, skill or product targets underpinning this objective?Knowledge TargetReasoning TargetsPerformance Skill TargetsProduct TargetsIdentify main ideaIdentify supporting details.Understand the meaning of persuade, entertain, & inform.Identify the 2 types of writing (informational & narrative)Understand why authors write.Understand the concept of compare/contrast.Understand summarization techniques.Compare and contrast two types of reading genresDraw a conclusion about author’s purpose by identifying words in text to justify the intent.Draw a conclusion about author’s pt. of view based on key words in text.Use supporting materials to justify the author’s purpose.Allow groups time to do the handout worksheets of this slide at their tables, then discuss in whole group, comparing their work.
38Your Turn to Deconstruct Divide into teams.Choose one standard/objective that everyone in the group will tackle.Each group deconstructs the chosen standard/objective.Groups compare learning targets and come to consensus.Ask groups to work together to deconstruct one of their own CSOs.
39Choose a CSO to Practice Deconstructing Estimate, measure, compare, order and draw lengths of real objects in parts of an inch up to 1/8 of an inch and millimeters. (M.O.5.4.1)write to persuade using order of importance, classifying differences and similarities, classifying advantages and disadvantages. (RLA.O.4.2.6)use examples, and details in practical texts to make inferences and logical predictions about outcomes of procedures in such texts. (RLA.O )