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Systemic functional grammar (SFG) and discourse

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1 Systemic functional grammar (SFG) and discourse
by Riyadi Santosa

2 4 competence tests: mood and theme, transitivity, clause complex, verbal group and nominal group, the whole analysis (all of them are ‘take-home tests” Halliday, 1985, 1994 Martin, et al 1997 Thompson, 2004 Hewings and Hewings , 2004 ILC materials

3 Why SFG? To understand language as it is
SFG sees society explains language, as opposed to formal linguistics which seeks the explanation from neurological context. The relation between social context and language is not cause and effect but rather ‘realization/ representation / symbolization’. Thus, society is resources of meaning and language is the meaning maker.

4 Stratum, rank and meta-function

5 Meta-functional solidarity across planes

6 Stratification: Levels of abstraction in language

7 Strata cross-classified by meta-function

8 Meta-function, reality, and work done

9 Constituents

10 Constituency (continued)

11 Clause as exchange To construe social reality and realize interpersonal meaning To explore clause resources for participating in exchanges. Exchanges: to give and to demand information and goods or services MOOD system is system of clauses as interpersonal resources.

12 MOOD system

13 Exchange

14 Mood structure Mood structure is a structure where the meaning of proposal or proposition of a clause can be found. Mood structure consists of 2 constituents: mood and residue. Mood is built from the relation between subject and finite, whereas residue is the rest. Subject is grammatical doer; finite consists of tense, modality, and polarity; complement is potential subject in passive; adjunct can’t be subject; predicator is verbal group excluding finite; continuative and conjunction connect the previous clause; vocative is used to summon.

15 Example of mood structure

16 Example of mood structure (continued)

17 Example of mood structure (continued)

18 Example of mood structure (continued)

19 CLAUSE AS MESSAGE To explore clauses as semiotic resources to express message. Principles: - language including clause is linear - so message is structured linearly - linearity means it is like a line which has a start and an end This principles implies that message is structured from beginning to an end. There are two points of views in looking at clause as message: reader’s and listener’s point of view and speaker’s and writer’s point of view.

20 Message from reader’s and listener’s point of view
Message is expected to be structured from ‘known’ to ‘unknown’. Or message is structured from old information and moves to new information. For example: My uncle visited me last week Old New He stayed in my house for 2 days

21 Patterns of old-new information in different genres

22 Patterns of old-new information in different genres (continued)

23 Message from speaker’s and writer’s point of view
The beginning is a stepping stone to develop a message Message is structured from theme (topic) and moves to rheme (tail). It is used as strategy to develop the message based on the theme or topic they think it is important For example: My uncle visited me last week Theme Rheme Last week my uncle visited me. Theme Rheme Luckily, we got the right bus. Theme Rheme

24 Types of theme There are three types of themes in English: topical, textual, and interpersonal. Topical theme is the theme that develop the topic of discourse. Textual theme is used to connect the previous clause. Interpersonal theme is used to interact and transact socially.

25 Topical theme There are two types of topical theme: unmarked and marked. The unmarked topical theme is the typical theme in English clauses that are usually started with subject. The marked topical theme is non-typical theme that is characterized by other than subject such as: complement, adjunct, or predicator For example: My uncle visited me last week Theme Rheme Unmarked Last week my uncle visited me Theme Rheme Marked

26 Textual theme To connect logically the first and second clause
Mostly in the forms of conjunction such: and, then, after, although etc., and continuative such as: Errr…, Emm…, Well… For example: But he doesn’t understand Theme Rheme Text Top Err… he did it Theme Rheme

27 Interpersonal theme To realize the interpersonal meaning of the theme.
Interactional interpersonal theme is realized in vocative Transactional interpersonal (giving and demanding information and goods and services) theme is realized in finite and wh. For example: John, will you be the chairman? Theme Rheme Int Int top

28 Example of combination analysis of mood and theme of English clauses

29 Example of combination analysis of mood and theme of English clauses

30 Night watch with Catriona Thornton:

31 Clause as representation: transitivity
Clause also represents experience (ideational meaning: experiential) Basically experience consists of three constituents: - process or the event / happening, realized in verbal groups. - participants, realized in nominal groups, and - circumstance, realized in nominal groups or prepositional phrase. In English, there are 6 types of processes: material, mental, verbal, behavioral, relational, and existential processes.

32 Material process A process of doing, physical action.
There are two types of material process: happening and doing. Happening material process is characterized by the absence of goal, while doing material process is characterized with the presence of goal. Participants in material process involves: actor (the doer), goal (affected participant), beneficiary (client and recipient), and range.

33 Material process (continued)

34 Material process (continued)

35 Material process (continued)

36 Mental Process A process of sensing: perception, cognition, and affection. Perception: perceive, see, notice, obserbe, feel, smell, taste, hear, etc. Cognition: assume, believe, conclude, consider, discover, doubt, etc. Affection: enjoy, relish, regret, like, fear, dread. Favor, love, prefer, etc. Participants: senser and phenomenon Three types of phenomena: micro (thing), macro (thing with embedded process), meta (an idea)

37 Mental process (continued)

38 Verbal process A process of saying
Participants: sayer, verbiage, receiver

39 Behavioral process Process of behaving
2 types: verbal behavior and mental behavior Verbal behavior: talk, chat, converse, speak, call, discuss, abuse, flatter, etc. The participants: behaver, receiver, verbiage. Mental behavior: look at, watch, listen to, experience, survey, smile, laugh, cry, memorize, concentrate, mediate, etc. The participants include behaver, and phenomenon.

40 For example:

41 To test behavioral from mental

42 Relational process Two types: attributive and identifying
Attributive relational process: - a process of giving attribute to a thing - participants: carrier and attribute - types of attributives: - appearance: be, seem, appear, sound, look, taste, smell, feel, etc. - phase: become, remain, turn, grow, run, come, keep, stay, etc. - measure: weight, cost, measure, number

43 For example:

44 For example (continued)

45 Identifying relational process
A process of giving a value to athing Participants: token and value Types: - Be: is, am, are, was, were, been - Equality: equal, add up to, make, come out as/at, amount to, translate, render, paraphrase, reformulate, transliterate - Signification: signify, expound, code, encode, express, realize, spell, write, transcribe, read, mean, denote, connote, define, call, name

46 Identifying relational process (continued)
- Representation: symbolize, represent, stand for, refer to, imply, index, express, reflect, personify - Indication: indicate, suggest, betoken, connote, smack of, evoke, reveal - Role: play/act as, function, portray, typify, personify For example:

47 Identifying relational process (continued)

48 Existential process A process of projecting that something exists
Participant: existent For example:

49 Circumstance There are 8 types of circumstances: angle, extent, location, manner, cause, accompaniment, matter, and role. Angle: - verbal source - who says? - for example:

50 Circumstances (continued)

51 Circumstances (continued)

52 Circumstances (continued)

53 Circumstances (continued)

54 Circumstances (continued)

55 Extra causer

56 Extra causer: example


58 Procedure of analysis Cut the clause complex into simplexes.
If the clause contains only two clauses, then identify the interdependence: paratactic or hypotactic and provide the symbol. After that, identify the logico-semantic or the meaning of the relation: projection or expansion. If the clause contains more than two clauses, then find the main logico-semantics: projection or expansion. Then analyze the interdependence and the logico-semantic relation. After that, analyze the rest of the clauses by doing the same analysis.

59 Example of analysis

60 Possibility of English nominal group

61 For example:

62 For example

63 For example

64 English verbal group

65 For example

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