Presentation on theme: "Systemic functional grammar (SFG) and discourse"— Presentation transcript:
1 Systemic functional grammar (SFG) and discourse by Riyadi Santosa
2 4 competence tests: mood and theme, transitivity, clause complex, verbal group and nominal group, the whole analysis (all of them are ‘take-home tests”Halliday, 1985, 1994Martin, et al 1997Thompson, 2004Hewings and Hewings , 2004ILC materials
3 Why SFG? To understand language as it is SFG sees society explains language, as opposed to formal linguistics which seeks the explanation from neurological context.The relation between social context and language is not cause and effect but rather ‘realization/ representation / symbolization’.Thus, society is resources of meaning and language is the meaning maker.
11 Clause as exchangeTo construe social reality and realize interpersonal meaningTo explore clause resources for participating in exchanges.Exchanges: to give and to demand information and goods or servicesMOOD system is system of clauses as interpersonal resources.
14 Mood structureMood structure is a structure where the meaning of proposal or proposition of a clause can be found.Mood structure consists of 2 constituents: mood and residue.Mood is built from the relation between subject and finite, whereas residue is the rest.Subject is grammatical doer; finite consists of tense, modality, and polarity; complement is potential subject in passive; adjunct can’t be subject; predicator is verbal group excluding finite; continuative and conjunction connect the previous clause; vocative is used to summon.
19 CLAUSE AS MESSAGETo explore clauses as semiotic resources to express message.Principles:- language including clause is linear- so message is structured linearly- linearity means it is like a line which has astart and an endThis principles implies that message is structured from beginning to an end.There are two points of views in looking at clause as message: reader’s and listener’s point of view and speaker’s and writer’s point of view.
20 Message from reader’s and listener’s point of view Message is expected to be structured from ‘known’ to ‘unknown’.Or message is structured from old information and moves to new information.For example:My uncle visited me last weekOld NewHe stayed in my house for 2 days
21 Patterns of old-new information in different genres
22 Patterns of old-new information in different genres (continued)
23 Message from speaker’s and writer’s point of view The beginning is a stepping stone to develop a messageMessage is structured from theme (topic) and moves to rheme (tail).It is used as strategy to develop the message based on the theme or topic they think it is importantFor example:My uncle visited me last weekTheme RhemeLast week my uncle visited me.Theme RhemeLuckily, we got the right bus.Theme Rheme
24 Types of themeThere are three types of themes in English: topical, textual, and interpersonal.Topical theme is the theme that develop the topic of discourse.Textual theme is used to connect the previous clause.Interpersonal theme is used to interact and transact socially.
25 Topical themeThere are two types of topical theme: unmarked and marked.The unmarked topical theme is the typical theme in English clauses that are usually started with subject.The marked topical theme is non-typical theme that is characterized by other than subject such as: complement, adjunct, or predicatorFor example:My uncle visited me last weekTheme RhemeUnmarkedLast week my uncle visited meTheme RhemeMarked
26 Textual theme To connect logically the first and second clause Mostly in the forms of conjunction such: and, then, after, although etc., and continuative such as: Errr…, Emm…, Well…For example:But he doesn’t understandTheme RhemeText TopErr… he did itTheme Rheme
27 Interpersonal theme To realize the interpersonal meaning of the theme. Interactional interpersonal theme is realized in vocativeTransactional interpersonal (giving and demanding information and goods and services) theme is realized in finite and wh.For example:John, will you be the chairman?Theme RhemeInt Int top
28 Example of combination analysis of mood and theme of English clauses
29 Example of combination analysis of mood and theme of English clauses
31 Clause as representation: transitivity Clause also represents experience (ideational meaning: experiential)Basically experience consists of three constituents:- process or the event / happening, realized inverbal groups.- participants, realized in nominal groups, and- circumstance, realized in nominal groups orprepositional phrase.In English, there are 6 types of processes: material, mental, verbal, behavioral, relational, and existential processes.
32 Material process A process of doing, physical action. There are two types of material process: happening and doing. Happening material process is characterized by the absence of goal, while doing material process is characterized with the presence of goal.Participants in material process involves: actor (the doer), goal (affected participant), beneficiary (client and recipient), and range.
38 Verbal process A process of saying Participants: sayer, verbiage, receiver
39 Behavioral process Process of behaving 2 types: verbal behavior and mental behaviorVerbal behavior: talk, chat, converse, speak, call, discuss, abuse, flatter, etc. The participants: behaver, receiver, verbiage.Mental behavior: look at, watch, listen to, experience, survey, smile, laugh, cry, memorize, concentrate, mediate, etc. The participants include behaver, and phenomenon.
42 Relational process Two types: attributive and identifying Attributive relational process:- a process of giving attribute to a thing- participants: carrier and attribute- types of attributives:- appearance: be, seem, appear, sound,look, taste, smell, feel, etc.- phase: become, remain, turn, grow, run,come, keep, stay, etc.- measure: weight, cost, measure, number
45 Identifying relational process A process of giving a value to athingParticipants: token and valueTypes:- Be: is, am, are, was, were, been- Equality: equal, add up to, make, come outas/at, amount to, translate, render,paraphrase, reformulate, transliterate- Signification: signify, expound, code, encode,express, realize, spell, write, transcribe, read, mean,denote, connote, define, call, name
46 Identifying relational process (continued) - Representation: symbolize, represent, stand for, refer to, imply, index, express,reflect, personify- Indication: indicate, suggest, betoken,connote, smack of, evoke, reveal- Role: play/act as, function, portray,typify, personifyFor example:
58 Procedure of analysis Cut the clause complex into simplexes. If the clause contains only two clauses, then identify the interdependence: paratactic or hypotactic and provide the symbol. After that, identify the logico-semantic or the meaning of the relation: projection or expansion.If the clause contains more than two clauses, then find the main logico-semantics: projection or expansion. Then analyze the interdependence and the logico-semantic relation. After that, analyze the rest of the clauses by doing the same analysis.