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FLUENCY In The Middle Years

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Presentation on theme: "FLUENCY In The Middle Years"— Presentation transcript:

1 FLUENCY In The Middle Years
Rebecca Derenge Title I Reading Coordinator

2 The Fluent Reader Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension by Timothy V. Rasinski

3 Fluency Defined Oral reading fluency . . . . . . . . . .
is the ability to read with accuracy, expression, comprehension and at an appropriate rate. The National Reading Panel (2000, p3-1) fluency is reading text “with speed, accuracy and proper expression.”

4 Why is Fluency Important?
Students who are fluent readers are better able to devote their attention to comprehending the text. Students who lack fluency have difficulty in reading. To help those struggling readers, attention in the instructional program should be devoted to fluency. (NRP, 2002; Shanahan 2000; Heilman, Blair, and Rupley 2002) A student only has so much time to attention to focus on comprehension. As more and more of that attention is devoted to recognizing words, the result is likely to be limited reading fluency and comprehension. Fluency, then, generally results in increased comprehension.

5 Silent Reading vs. Oral Reading
The key is to know when to use oral reading to its full potential.

6 Oral Reading in the Twenty-First Century
Listen to an adult read Oral reading can build confidence Oral reading creates community Connects spoken and written language Strengthens decoding skills Oral reading fosters fluency

7 The Benefits of the Read Aloud
Improves comprehension and vocabulary Increases fluency Builds motivation

8 Responding After Read Aloud
Oral response Discussion - Think, Pair, Share, Visual response Creating/drawing pictures - Sketch Written response Writing to a prompt – Open-ended writing – Journal writing – Poetry writing Physical response Pantomime – Dance and movement

9 5 Ways to Build Reading Fluency
Model good oral reading Provide oral support for readers Choral reading Paired reading Using recorded materials Offer plenty of practice opportunities Encourage fluency through phrasing Sustained silent reading

10 Fluency: Four Components
SPEED (Faster is not always better.) ACCURACY APPROPRIATE EXPRESSION COMPREHENSION “CASE” for fluency by Jerry Johns Although fluency pertains to both oral and silent reading, fluency is often associated with oral reading. Why? Because many teachers can observe accuracy by recording the number of miscues the student makes while reading and can also note the student’s rate, phrasing, and expression. Speed refers to rate of reading, usually determined in words per minute (WPM) or words correct per minute (WCPM). Accuracy means that the student recognizes most words automatically with little or no effort. It should be expected that some students will make mistakes or miscues. If the student misses more than 10% of the words in a passage (0ne word in ten) the text is or material is too difficult to use for instruction. Expression means that the student uses phrasing, tone, and pitch so that the oral reading sound conversational. Prosody is the common term for these elements. Comprehension refers to understanding. Fluency is related to reading comprehension, so helping students read quickly, accurately, and smoothly helps improve comprehension. WHY??? (because teachers can observe accuracy by recording the number of miscues the student makes while reading and can also note the students phrasing, rate and expression) Generally, it is assumed that oral reading is similar, but not identical , to students’ silent reading. Speed and comprehension can be evaluated in both oral and silent reading. You might think it useful to think of fluency as having four components…

11 Round Robin Reading It focuses on oral reading performance, rather than understanding It rarely engages students It has little connection to reading in real life It reduces the time that could be better spent on quality instructional practices It teaches students very little It is embarrassing to poorer readers Rarely are there any positive experiences shared on round robin reading.

12 How is Rate of Reading Determined?
Count or estimate the words in the selection. Multiply by 60. (WPM) This numeral becomes the dividend. Time the student’s reading in seconds. This numeral becomes the divisor. Do the division. The quotient is the words per minute (WPM). 300 estimate 300 x 60 = 18000 18000 dividend (e.g., 90 seconds) Divide = 200 WPM You can make a comparison to the chart in your packet.

13 What Oral Reading Rates are Appropriate for Middle Years?
There is no consensus in literature on the appropriate reading rates. Also, classrooms and schools differ in many variables that impact so-called average oral reading rates. Norms for grades 3-5 are based on over 3,500 students reading passages developed for general outcome measurement. (Howe and Smith, 2001) You may use the norms presented to help track and monitor student progress when compared to established standards. Look at Table 3 in your packet. There are also some ways to record the assessment in your packet: Setting up a record for the class…one reading in Sept, Jan. and May Also a blank assessment record for you to use in your classroom.

14 “read, read, read” Educators took a rather simplistic approach to developing fluency. If students read more, they would achieve fluency. Our perception is that until recently some, though certainly not all …….

15 Anticipation Guide Read the statements below and write the numbers down of those in which you agree. 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning stages of reading. 2. Fluency is independent of comprehension. 3. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading. 4. Fluency strategies are primarily for students experiencing difficulty in reading. 5. Students should adjust reading rate according to their purposes for reading. 6. Round robin reading is an effective fluency activity. This is so you can react to some statements about fluency before you read and work to find the answers.

16 Reading Flow Vocabulary…leads to… Fluency…leads to…
Words Sense…leads to… Vocabulary…leads to… Fluency…leads to… Comprehension…leads to Writing…. Writing… leads to…Critical Speaking, etc.

17 Fluency provides a bridge between
word recognition and comprehension.

18 Fluency serves as a bridge…because fluent readers are able to identify words accurately and automatically, they can focus most of their attention on comprehension. They can make connections among the ideas in the text and between the text and their background knowledge. In other words, fluent readers can recognize words and comprehend at the same time.

19 The Evidence Can practice specifically targeted on word reading improve fluency and comprehension? A study by Fleisher, Jenkins and Pany (1979) is often cited as showing that direct practice to increase efficiency of word identification does not improve fluency or comprehension. However, Levy, Abello, and Lysnchuk (1997) reported a carefully controlled study with 4th grade poor readers in which context free practice to increase speed of word identification did positively affect both fluency and comprehension. First study: practiced word lists in isolation Second Study: Different in that more intensive fluency practice, longer stories, and stories at appropriate level of difficulty

20 Does Fluency Apply to Silent Reading?
Fluency in silent reading is also important if students are to become efficient and effective readers. Silent reading becomes more important as students move through the grades. Because silent reading is used so commonly, the rate at which students comprehend is an important consideration. How many of you use silent reading in your classes compared to oral reading?

21 Students in the Middle Grades Who Understand the Material
Grade WPM Grade WPM Grade WPM (average reading rates of students in a particular grade who can understand material at grade level) (note that rate is considered in tandem with comprehension) Carver (1989) Jerry Johns has since updated this information. Remember these figures are the average reading rates of students in a particular grade who can understand material at that grade level. When you learn how to figure WPM you can use this chart as an indication of how an average student in that grade level reads with understanding.

22 Reading Program and Fluency
As students move beyond second grade, they should continue to exhibit attention to punctuation, good intonation, appropriate phrasing, good voice quality and dialogue. Johns and Bergland,2002 **older students who read at a late 2nd grade level or lower would benefit from fluency instruction In the primary literacy strands, fluency is a standard in K, 1st, and 2nd grade. As an intermediate teacher, you should pay attention to the what is on the slide. Because more and more of their reading is silent, these particular behaviors can be observed in contexts when oral reading is appropriate.

23 Instructional principles, strategies, activities and resources to help students become fluent readers Match students reading level and the material used for instruction and practice. (The instructional level is when the student misses no more than one word in twenty (95% accuracy) and satisfactorily understand what was read. The implication of this principle is that teachers will use a variety of materials at different levels in the instructional program. Students need to read with success. Give me some ideas how this can be done???? How do you match reading levels with texts? Example: Matching books to Readers – Fountas & Pinnell Accelerated Reader

24 Continued… Model Oral Reading
Provide Guided Oral Reading Opportunities Offer Daily Opportunities for Students to Read Easy Materials Independently -What does modeling oral reading do for your students?? stimulates vocabulary development stimulates students to react to what is read encourages active listening demonstrates that print is meaningful -SSR-research reviewed by the NRP DID NOT clearly and convincingly establish that impact of independent reading on overall reading achievement, the Panel concluded that independent reading might be beneficial. “There is an extensive amount of correlation data linking the amount of reading and reading achievement”….therefore Jerry Johns and others in their professional judgment say voluntary reading is worthwhile! Provide Guided Oral Reading radio reading, paired reading these are reading techniques where the teacher is actively involved as the techniques are introduced and modeled. The NRP concluded that such teaching, modeling, and feedback results in student learning. guided reading techniques have a consistent and positive impact on word recognition, fluency and comprehension for a wide range of readers over a wide range of levels.

25 Grammar and Meaning help us identify and recall words
Which string is easiest to process? 1. Furry wildcats fight furious battles. 2. Furry jewelers create distressed stains. 3. Furry fight furious wildcat battles. 4. Furry crate distressed jewelers stains. We can start to draw implications. Next are some suggestions for improving fluency. Easiest has grammar and meaning Grammar only Meaning only Has neither grammar nor meaning

26 Goals for Fluent Readers
Read more and often Read more during each stop-use chunks of meaning-rather than individual words Key in on words that carry the meaning Eliminate bad habits-moving lips Don’t use a pencil or a card to “underline” each line you read. Now have students make individual goals!

27 Questions that trap fluent readers!
Two men played chess. They played give games, and each man won three. How do you explain this? If you have only one match and you entered a room to start a kerosene lamp, and oil lamp, and a wood burning stove, which would you light first? Why? The two men didn’t play the games with each other. Long-term memory supplies a word (with) and an assumption: if two men played chess, they must be each others opponents You’d light the match first-long term memory automatically fills in the missing informatin that the match is lit.


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