Presentation on theme: "Teaching Reading in Social Studies Jane Hill, Lead Consultant, MCREL"— Presentation transcript:
1Teaching Reading in Social Studies Jane Hill, Lead Consultant, MCREL Originally presented November 9, 2004 at Coaches MeetingPresented by Rebecca DerengeTitle I CoordinatorWith special thanks toKimberly Mutterback, Mercer County for capturing this information for future coaches
2Teachers struggle with What are the specific skills or knowledge that students need in order to read content material effectively?What learning environments promote effective reading and learning?What strategies can be used with student to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?
3Students Struggle with Organizing ideas as they read.Making meaningful connectionsTackling vocabularyDecoding symbolsReading at the text levelUnderstanding text organization
4Traditional ViewsNew DefinitionResearchBehaviorismCognitive sciencesGoalsMaster of isolated facts and skillsConstructing meaning and self-regulated learningReading as a ProcessMechanically decoding words: memorizing by roteAs interaction among the reader, the tex, and on the contentLearner Role and MetaphorPassive vessal receiving knowledge from external sourcesActive: Strategic reader, effective strategy user, cognitive apprentice
5Components to think about purposeprior knowledgevocabularymetacognitioncues and questionspatternsgraphic organizersreflection
6For struggling readers, comprehension is a mystery. When students aren’t successful with comprehension, they really start to get frustrated and lose confidence. It leads to blaming the text and the teacher.
7Reader Mental Disposition Prior Knowledge Motivation Confidence InterestAttitudePrior KnowledgeContent KnowledgePersonal ExperiencesMisconceptionsStrategies that access prior knowledgeStrategies that promote productive habits of mind
8What the reader brings to the situation. The learning climate The three interactive elements of the reading process that influence comprehension:What the reader brings to the situation.The learning climateThe characteristics of the text
9One way to assist students in text comprehension is through the use of an Anticipation Guide. An Anticipation Guide is a set of questions that the reader is given prior to reading the text that they must answer according to their belief. Then, after reading the text, they evaluate the statements once more and provide answers based on what the text states.
10Five Premises About Reading Schema TheoryPrior KnowledgeMetacognitionReading and Writing RelationshipsCollaborative
11We store what we know in knowledge frameworks called schemata. Learners refer to their schemata toMake inferences and predictionsOrganizeReflect on new informationElaborate on new information.
12How is YOUR prior knowledge? Read and fill in the blanks.In the early 1860’s, A_____________ issued theEmancipation _______________. This order freedMillions of ______________. The C___________ hadthe authority to enforce this order. Emancipationalone did not give the former _____________ a newlife. Decades of economic hardships and unequalrights continued. A___________________ plan wassupported by many R___________________.How is YOUR prior knowledge?
13Schema helps students organize The Answers.In the early 1860’s, Alexander II issued theEmancipation Edict. This order freedMillions of Serfs. The Czar hadthe authority to enforce this order. Emancipationalone did not give the former Serfs a newlife. Decades of economic hardships and unequalrights continued. Alexander’s plan wassupported by many Russian’s.Schema helps students organizewhat they have read.
14Prior KnowledgeThe more a reader brings to the text in terms of knowledge and skills, the more he will learn and remember what he reads.
15What is this article talking about? The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange items into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one never can tell.After the procedure is complete, you arrange the materials into different piles again. Then you can put them into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used again, and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is a part of life.Wait... let me active prior knowledge.
16How do you feel about doing laundry? Think about the question and now read the passageThe procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange items into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one never can tell.After the procedure is complete, you arrange the materials into different piles again. Then you can put them into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used again, and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is a part of life.Isn't Prior Knowledge Important?
17MetacognitionA reader’s ability to think about and control thinking process before, during, and after reading.Students who have learned metacognitive skills can plan and monitor their comprehension, adapting and modifying their reading accordingly.
18Learning increases in a collaborative setting. Discussing what they are learning, questioning their thinking around it, and seeking clarity allows students to interact in an environment that promotes learning.
19Climate Students want to feel: Accepted, competent, and valued A sense of safety and order
20The role of Text Features ReaderClimateText FeaturesVocabularyText Style
21Vocabulary Development High Conceptual DensityCan include people, places, and ideas in addition to “things”Influenced by perceptions and prior knowledgeIncludes historical or geographical words uncommon in student’s daily livesIncludes phrasesCan be the organizing of ideas themselves
22Text Density Number of new or difficult words in a section of text. High density text is one new word for every 10 words.Low density text is one new word for every 250 words.
23What we know1. Students need to be exposed to the word at least 6 times in context before they have enough experience with the word to ascertain and remember its meaning.
24Examples: cluster wall, incidental learning Even superficial instruction in new words enhances the probability that students will understand the words when they encounter them.Examples: cluster wall, incidental learning
254 main categories: people, events, actions, and effort/determinations Cluster WallPresident BushpaycheckdeterminationenergyEffortsuccessconcentrationpracticeteamworkhard work1. Brainstorm all of the words that come to mind with the main idea word.2. Regroup the words into categories (clusters) to identify the main idea word.4 main categories: people, events, actions, and effort/determinations
263. One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate a mental image or symbolic representation with it.
274. Direct vocabulary instruction works 4. Direct vocabulary instruction works. Teaching new vocabulary directly increases student comprehension of new material.
285. Direct instruction on words that are critical to new content produces the most powerful learning.
29Planning Vocabulary Instruction Identify goalsDevelop vocabulary listsDetermine the level of understanding of termsSelect appropriate vocabulary strategies.
30Present students with a nonlinguistic representation of the new word. Present students with a brief explanation or description of the new word.Present students with a nonlinguistic representation of the new word.Ask students to generate their own explanation or description of the word.Ask students to create their own nonlinguistic representation of the word.Periodically ask students to review the accuracy of their explanations and representations.Step 1Step 2Step 3Step 4Step 5
31Vocabulary Development Freyer’s ModelConcept Definition MappingSemantic MappingStudent VOC StrategyVerbal and Visual Word AssociationWord SortsZooming In and Zooming Out
33Text Structure Has a direct impact on reading comprehension Includes the way a text is organized and the way it is presented.In Social Studies most text organization is informational, however, Social Studies is the content area (outside of language arts) in which narrative text is often found.
34Writing in which a story is told, the details of which may be fictional or based on fact. It iswritten sequentiallydepicts numerous episodes of actioncausal chain of eventssetting, character, plot, conflict, andthemeTextNarrative
35Strategies for Narrative Text Venn Diagram Venn Again Creative MetaphorsDecision MakingHistorical Investigation
36DR/TA What I know I know: What I think I know: What I think I’ll learn:What I know I learned:DR/TA
37Informational Text Strategies DR/TAPairs ReadingPropositional/Support OutlineReciprocal TeachingSQ3RThink AloudsStructured Note Taking
38SQ3R Question Read Actively Recite Review StageWhat it meansNotesSurvey what you are about to readThink about the title: What do I know about this subject? What do I want to know?Glance over headings and/or skim the first sentences of paragraphsLook at illustrations and graphic aids.Read the first paragraphRead the last paragraph or summary.Question•Turn the title into a question. This becomes the major purpose to your reading.•Write down any questions that come to mind during the survey.•Turn headings into questions•Turn subheadings, graphics, and illustrations to questions.•Write down unfamiliar vocabulary and determine the meaning.Read Actively• Read to search for answers to questions.•Respond to questions and use the context clues for unfamiliar words.•React to unclear passages, confusing terms, and questionable statements by generating questions.Recite•Look away from the answers and the book to recall what was read.•Recite answers to questions aloud or in writing.•Reread text for unanswered questions.Review•Answer the major purpose question.•Look over answers and all parts of the chapter to organize info.•Summarize the info learned by creating a graphic organizer that depicts the main ideas by drawing a flow chart, by writing a summary, by participating in group discussion, or by writing an explanation of how this info has changed your perception.SQ3R
40Group Summarizing Alexander The Great Description Childhood AccomplishmentsInteresting Facts
41PLAN Brainstorm and predict the topic, graphing the information Locate the information within the article, and check off the things on the graph that were present in the textAdd things to the graph that you had not previously predicted
42Problematic Situation Group Discussion:Possible Solutions:
43Proposition/Support Outline TopicGlobal Population GrowthRapidly increasing global population will lead to environmental destruction, and a lowering of the quality of life for many people.Proposition1. Facts2. Statistics3. Examples4. Expert Authority5. Logic and ReasoningSupport
44Take Two Two things I learned: Two things I will use tomorrow: Two things I will change:Two things I still need:
46QAR In the Text In Your Head Right There Author and You The answer is in the textThe answer is usually easy to findThe words used to make up questions and the words used to answer are right there in the same sentenceAuthor and YouThe answer IS NOT in the storyYou need to think about what you already know; your own prior knowledgeYou need to think about what the author has told you in the text.Form your answer using II and IIIThink and Search: Put it togetherOn Your OwnThe answer is in the textYou need to put together different story parts to find itWords for the questions and answers are not the same and not in the same sentenceYou need to think and search different words, phrases, setences and paragraphs for the answers.The answer is not in the text.You could even answer the question without reading the selectionYou need to use your own experience and your prior knowledgeReading the text should add to your knowledge and help you answer the question
47RAFT Role Audience Format Topic Role Audience Format Topic constituent governorletterStatetaxesparentBoard of EducationcomplaintNo Child Left Behind21st Century AmericanJames MadisonThank-younoteThe Constitution
48Mercer County Academic Coach For any questions, comments, or suggestions regarding this presentationPlease me,Kimberly Mutterback,atMercer County Academic Coach