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Jane Hill, Lead Consultant, MCREL Originally presented November 9, 2004 at Coaches Meeting Presented by Rebecca Derenge Title I Coordinator With special.

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Presentation on theme: "Jane Hill, Lead Consultant, MCREL Originally presented November 9, 2004 at Coaches Meeting Presented by Rebecca Derenge Title I Coordinator With special."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jane Hill, Lead Consultant, MCREL Originally presented November 9, 2004 at Coaches Meeting Presented by Rebecca Derenge Title I Coordinator With special thanks to Kimberly Mutterback, Mercer County for capturing this information for future coaches

2 Teachers struggle with What are the specific skills or knowledge that students need in order to read content material effectively? What learning environments promote effective reading and learning? What strategies can be used with student to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?

3 Students Struggle with Organizing ideas as they read. Making meaningful connections Tackling vocabulary Decoding symbols Reading at the text level Understanding text organization

4 Traditional Views New Definition ResearchBehaviorismCognitive sciences GoalsMaster of isolated facts and skills Constructing meaning and self-regulated learning Reading as a Process Mechanically decoding words: memorizing by rote As interaction among the reader, the tex, and on the content Learner Role and Metaphor Passive vessal receiving knowledge from external sources Active: Strategic reader, effective strategy user, cognitive apprentice

5 Components to think about purpose prior knowledge vocabulary metacognition cues and questions patterns graphic organizers reflection

6 For struggling readers, comprehension is a mystery. When students arent successful with comprehension, they really start to get frustrated and lose confidence. It leads to blaming the text and the teacher.

7 Reader Prior Knowledge Content Knowledge Personal Experiences Misconceptions Mental Disposition Motivation Confidence Interest Attitude Strategies that access prior knowledge Strategies that promote productive habits of mind

8 The three interactive elements of the reading process that influence comprehension: 1.What the reader brings to the situation. 2.The learning climate 3.The characteristics of the text

9 One way to assist students in text comprehension is through the use of an Anticipation Guide. An Anticipation Guide is a set of questions that the reader is given prior to reading the text that they must answer according to their belief. Then, after reading the text, they evaluate the statements once more and provide answers based on what the text states.

10 Five Premises About Reading

11 Schema We store what we know in knowledge frameworks called schemata. Learners refer to their schemata to Make inferences and predictions Organize Reflect on new information Elaborate on new information.

12 Read and fill in the blanks. In the early 1860s, A_____________ issued the Emancipation _______________. This order freed Millions of ______________. The C___________ had the authority to enforce this order. Emancipation alone did not give the former _____________ a new life. Decades of economic hardships and unequal rights continued. A___________________ plan was supported by many R___________________.

13 The Answers. In the early 1860s, Alexander II issued the Emancipation Edict. This order freed Millions of Serfs. The Czar had the authority to enforce this order. Emancipation alone did not give the former Serfs a new life. Decades of economic hardships and unequal rights continued. Alexanders plan was supported by many Russians.

14 Prior Knowledge The more a reader brings to the text in terms of knowledge and skills, the more he will learn and remember what he reads.

15 The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange items into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one never can tell. After the procedure is complete, you arrange the materials into different piles again. Then you can put them into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used again, and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is a part of life.

16 The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange items into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one never can tell. After the procedure is complete, you arrange the materials into different piles again. Then you can put them into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used again, and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is a part of life.

17 Metacognition A readers ability to think about and control thinking process before, during, and after reading. Students who have learned metacognitive skills can plan and monitor their comprehension, adapting and modifying their reading accordingly.

18 Learning increases in a collaborative setting. Discussing what they are learning, questioning their thinking around it, and seeking clarity allows students to interact in an environment that promotes learning.

19 Students want to feel: Accepted, competent, and valued A sense of safety and order

20 The role of Text Features ReaderClimate Text Features Vocabulary Text Style

21 Vocabulary Development High Conceptual Density Can include people, places, and ideas in addition to things Influenced by perceptions and prior knowledge Includes historical or geographical words uncommon in students daily lives Includes phrases Can be the organizing of ideas themselves

22 Text Density Number of new or difficult words in a section of text. High density text is one new word for every 10 words. Low density text is one new word for every 250 words.

23 What we know 1. Students need to be exposed to the word at least 6 times in context before they have enough experience with the word to ascertain and remember its meaning.

24 2.Even superficial instruction in new words enhances the probability that students will understand the words when they encounter them. Examples: cluster wall, incidental learning

25 Cluster Wall Effort 1. Brainstorm all of the words that come to mind with the main idea word. 2. Regroup the words into categories (clusters) to identify the main idea word. 4 main categories: people, events, actions, and effort/determinations

26 3. One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate a mental image or symbolic representation with it.

27 4. Direct vocabulary instruction works. Teaching new vocabulary directly increases student comprehension of new material.

28 5. Direct instruction on words that are critical to new content produces the most powerful learning.

29 Planning Vocabulary Instruction Identify goals Develop vocabulary lists Determine the level of understanding of terms Select appropriate vocabulary strategies.

30 Present students with a brief explanation or description of the new word. Present students with a nonlinguistic representation of the new word. Ask students to generate their own explanation or description of the word. Ask students to create their own nonlinguistic representation of the word. Periodically ask students to review the accuracy of their explanations and representations. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

31 Vocabulary Development Freyers Model Concept Definition Mapping Semantic Mapping Student VOC Strategy Verbal and Visual Word Association Word Sorts Zooming In and Zooming Out

32 Text Organization Text Presentation

33 Has a direct impact on reading comprehension Includes the way a text is organized and the way it is presented. In Social Studies most text organization is informational, however, Social Studies is the content area (outside of language arts) in which narrative text is often found.

34 Writing in which a story is told, the details of which may be fictional or based on fact. It is written sequentially depicts numerous episodes of action causal chain of events setting, character, plot, conflict, and theme

35 Venn Diagram Venn Again Creative Metaphors Decision Making Historical Investigation

36 What I know I know: What I think I know: What I think Ill learn: What I know I learned:

37 Informational Text Strategies 1.DR/TA 2.Pairs Reading 3.Propositional/Support Outline 4.Reciprocal Teaching 5.SQ3R 6.Think Alouds 7.Structured Note Taking

38 StageWhat it meansNotes Survey what you are about to read Think about the title: What do I know about this subject? What do I want to know? Glance over headings and/or skim the first sentences of paragraphs Look at illustrations and graphic aids. Read the first paragraph Read the last paragraph or summary. Question Turn the title into a question. This becomes the major purpose to your reading. Write down any questions that come to mind during the survey. Turn headings into questions Turn subheadings, graphics, and illustrations to questions. Write down unfamiliar vocabulary and determine the meaning. Read Actively Read to search for answers to questions. Respond to questions and use the context clues for unfamiliar words. React to unclear passages, confusing terms, and questionable statements by generating questions. Recite Look away from the answers and the book to recall what was read. Recite answers to questions aloud or in writing. Reread text for unanswered questions. Review Answer the major purpose question. Look over answers and all parts of the chapter to organize info. Summarize the info learned by creating a graphic organizer that depicts the main ideas by drawing a flow chart, by writing a summary, by participating in group discussion, or by writing an explanation of how this info has changed your perception.

39 More Informational Text Strategies Graphic Organizers Group Summarizing Predict, Locate, Add, Note (PLAN) Problematic Situation Proposition/Support Outline Sensory Imagery

40 Alexander The Great DescriptionChildhood AccomplishmentsInteresting Facts

41 1.Brainstorm and predict the topic, graphing the information 2.Locate the information within the article, and check off the things on the graph that were present in the text 3.Add things to the graph that you had not previously predicted

42 Problematic Situation Problem: Group Discussion: Possible Solutions:

43 Rapidly increasing global population will lead to environmental destruction, and a lowering of the quality of life for many people. 1. Facts 2. Statistics 3. Examples 4. Expert Authority 5. Logic and Reasoning Topic Proposition Support Global Population Growth

44 Two things I learned:Two things I will use tomorrow: Two things I will change:Two things I still need:

45 Reflection Strategy Focus on strategic processing skills through Questioning Writing Discussion

46 In the Text Think and Search: Put it together In Your Head Author and You On Your Own Right There The answer is in the text The answer is usually easy to find The words used to make up questions and the words used to answer are right there in the same sentence The answer is in the text You need to put together different story parts to find it Words for the questions and answers are not the same and not in the same sentence You need to think and search different words, phrases, setences and paragraphs for the answers. The answer IS NOT in the story You need to think about what you already know; your own prior knowledge You need to think about what the author has told you in the text. Form your answer using II and III The answer is not in the text. You could even answer the question without reading the selection You need to use your own experience and your prior knowledge Reading the text should add to your knowledge and help you answer the question QAR

47 R ole A udience F ormat T opic RoleAudienceFormatTopic constituentgovernorletterState taxes parentBoard of Education complaintNo Child Left Behind 21 st Century American James Madison Thank-you noteThe Constitution

48 For any questions, comments, or suggestions regarding this presentation Please me, Kimberly Mutterback, at Mercer County Academic Coach


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