3Why teach reading in the content areas? What benefits would studentsgain being able to read aboutthe content with greaterunderstanding?
4Reading is the key tosuccess in all contentareas!
5What about kids who can’t read? Students who struggle with reading KNOW they struggle with reading: they know they lack the single most important tool for success in school… and they know that not having that skill opens them to ridicule from peers and from teachers.They do anything they can to distance themselves from the place and the people who will remind them that they can’t read.
6Kids who can’t read….Non-readers would prefer to get into trouble for not doing their work rather than be embarrassed in front of their peers for doing it wrong.They KNOW they can’t read; they’ve known it for years.Not all struggling readers sit at the back of the room, head down, bored look…give the gifted student the right text and s/he can stumble over ideas, worry over words, get lost, and be confused about meaning.
7What strategies do you use when you encounter text you don’t understand? What strategies do your STUDENTSuse when they encounter text theydon’t understand?
8Marzano’s 9 Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement 1. Identifying similarities and differences2. Summarizing and note taking3. Reinforcing effort and providingrecognitionHomework and practiceNonlinguistic representations6. Cooperative learning7. Setting objectives and providing feedback8. Generating and testing hypotheses9. Questions, cues, and advance organizers
9Independent Strategic Readers Know how to make text make senseHave strategies to useKnow how to struggle with textDevelop the patience and stamina to stick with a textKnow what is separating them from success with the textKnow what they should do to fix the problem
103 Types of Reading Problems Lack of cognitive abilities…comprehension, vocabulary, word recognition, fluency, automaticityNegative attitudes toward reading…Don’t know how to read different kinds of text… they read social studies like science, lack the ability to stick with difficult text, lack stamina to find or complete a text
11“We need to discover how a student’s unique brain is wired for reading and writing and then use a range of approaches that matches his or her “literacy style.”- Thomas Armstrong
12The KEY PREDICTOR ofreading success is thestudent’s backgroundknowledge.
13Factors Affecting Student Performance on the Reading Task ABILITYCULTUREGENDERSESINTERESTREADINGTASKPRIOR KNOWLEDGEENVIRONMENTLEARNING STYLE
14Students often know how to read, they just don’t use (orknow how to use) effectivestrategies to get the fullmeaning from the text theyread.
153 Phases of Reading:Pre-ReadingDuring-ReadingPost-Reading
16LEARNING/READING AND RETENTION CONSTRUCT MEANINGPRE-READINGORGANIZEDURING-READINGTime SpentSTOREAFTER-READING
173 Main Barriers to Content Area Reading Content-specific vocabularyPrior knowledge about the content area subjectUnderstanding of text features and organization of the text
18Strategies to use when encountering new words What readers can do:Use clues to help define the wordTry to connect the unknown word to words/ideas/concepts they knowUse available resources (e.g. glossary, thesaurus, dictionary)Know they must use the new word about 7 times in the next few daysCreate a definition in their own words
19Strategies to use when encountering new words (continued) What readers can do:Create a mental or visual image of the wordIdentify key characteristics of the wordIdentify examples and non-examplesPeriodically review the understanding of the word
20Strategies to use when encountering new words What teachers can do:Provide a consistent structure of attacking the new wordMake connections with students’ prior knowledge by telling stories or creating descriptions that explain the definitionIdentify key characteristics of the word“Front load” the vocabulary by sharing the words at the beginning of the new unit
21Strategies to use when encountering new words What teachers can do:Insist the students learn the meanings of prefixes, suffixes, and roots that are used often in their content areaTalk about how this strategy can help the students become independent strategic readers
22Connect new knowledge to make meaning. Readers construct meaning from the information the author provides in the text and the information they bring to the text.“Internal Text”“External Text”TextMeaning(Author)(Reader)
23Tools to use when encountering new words (vocabulary) What it is and What it’s NotVocabulary WheelsRandom ConnectionsMy Personal VocabularyWord Sorts *Concept-Definition MappingVisual-Verbal Word AssociationRoot Woods, Affixes
24The KEY PREDICTOR of successful comprehension BACKGROUNDKNOWLEDGEHow do you help your students prepare for the reading task?
25Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal meaning. What readers can do:Be aware that their prior knowledge is important to understand the text.Seek new ways to connect new knowledge to what they already knowRead widely from multiple sourcesConstantly increase background knowledge experienceTake a few second before reading to review what is already known
26Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal meaning (continued) What readers can do:Demonstrate interest in multiple topicsRead and discuss often to deepen their understandingShare ideas with another person about what is known about the topic prior to reading
27Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal meaning. What teachers can do:Provide multiple opportunities for students to readEncourage students to share their experiencesUse graphic organizers to help students make connectionsUse brainstorming to identify prior knowledge and interests or experiences“Plant seeds” in early units to create prior knowledge
28Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge to make personal meaning (continued) What teachers can do:Share content specific vocabulary at the beginning of the unitGive students opportunities to identify similarities and differencesEncourage students to reread when they don’t understand, stopping to think about how the reading relates to their own life and experiencesProvide reflective journals with prompts or questions to help students connect their learning with their prior knowledge
29Tools to use to connect new knowledge to prior knowledge How sure are you?Ready-Set-Go-WhoaConnections, Points, and QuestionsKWLDR/TA *ABC BrainstormingSemantic Mapping
30PREDICT WHAT MIGHT BE COMING NEXT What readers can do:Summarize often what happened and predict what might come nextUse clues in the reading as well as the structure of the text to help make predictionsMake use of cues like pictures, graphs, and charts to help identify “what’s next” in their reading
31PREDICT WHAT MIGHT BE COMING NEXT (continued) What readers can do:Turn subheadings into questions to predict what will be comingDo a 60 – to 90-second scan of the reading material before reading to determine the “big ideas” that will be includedThink about how their own biases and ideas might affect how they read the text
32PREDICT WHAT MIGHT BE COMING NEXT What teachers might do:Use reading tools at the beginning of the unit to help focus new learningCreate a purpose for their readingHelp students create questions about the topicAsk questions after students read a section in order to shape their thinking for the remainder of the reading.
33PREDICT WHAT MIGHT BE COMING NEXT (continued) What teachers might do:Help students generate a hypothesis about the topic so they can test it as they readAsk students to construct support for their predictionsPoint out text features that will help students predict what they might be reading
343. Tools to use for prediction Anticipation guide *Thinking through the reading assignmentWriting a response to the titleMy own perspective
35Continually evaluate their understanding of what they’ve read What readers can do:Connect what they just read with their prior knowledgeSupport their point of view as well as the points of othersFind and describe errors in their own thinking as well as in the information they read“Stop and think” often in order to test their own understanding
36Continually evaluate their understanding of what they’ve read (continued) What readers can do:Recognize when the text does not make sense and use the various strategies to increase their understandingQuestion their understanding of the material on a frequent basisUse tools to help them remember to reflect frequently on how well they understand the text
37Continually evaluate their understanding of what they’ve read What teachers can do:Give students multiple opportunities to clarify and categorize new information, justifying their reasonsProvide opportunities for student to summarize key conceptsEncourage students to re-read if they are having trouble understanding textProvide alternative note-taking, including the creation of visuals
38Continually evaluate their understanding of what they’ve read (continued) What teachers can do:Question students often throughout the reading, prompting them to evaluate their own understanding and support it with details and informationAllow students to talk and to write about their learningHelp students develop the ability to create good questions about the information in the text
39Tools to use to check for understanding (comprehension) Think-aloudsInsert note-takingPause and reflectStop and thinkCoding expository text *
40Create images of what is being read What readers can do:Know that a picture is truly worth a thousand wordsCreate pictures to summarize their learningSelect appropriate graphic organizers to summarize the details and information in their readingUse visual organizers to connect their new learning to their background knowledge
41Create images of what is being read What teachers can do:Become familiar with various graphic organizers in order to offer the appropriate one(s) to help students achieve the intended learningProvide models of graphic organizers and guided practice in how to use themModel the use of visuals and graphic organizers
42Create images of what is being read (continued) What teachers can do:Provide various graphic organizers thatallow for,but also assist, the students inorganizing the new learningUse models and charts in the classroomUse clips from videos that emphasize or demonstrate key conceptsShare students’ work by displaying it
43Tools to use to create images of what is being read Note taking using both sides *Picture itMaking physical modelsCreating graphic representationsDrawing pictures and pictographsEngaging in kinesthetic activity
44Students often read vastly different kinds of texts thesame way and ignore thetextual cues that wouldhelp them develop a clearerunderstanding.
45Periodically summarize what is being read What teachers can do:Model how to summarizeModel how to paraphraseEncourage students to write about what they readHave students journal about what they’ve read
46Tools to use to summarize what is being read Retell what is read orally or in written formHave students make connections to the real world from what they’ve read *Imitate what they’ve read with their own interpretation
47Use textual cues, visuals, and text organizers What readers can do:Look for clues to the text to help their understanding, including headings, subheadings, bold-faced, and italicized wordsIdentify the organizational pattern and predict how it is tied to the intended learningLook for key words that predict the organizational patternRecognize that pictures in the text are there to help provide clues to the reading
48Use textual cues, visuals, and text organizers (continued) What readers can do:Turn the headings and subheadings into questions to focus their readingBecome familiar with the text cues provided by the author
49Use textual cues, visuals, and text organizers What teachers can do:Introduce students to the text for the class by providing a “talk aloud” that includes the structure and clues provided by text featuresIntroduce activities to become more familiar with the various parts of the bookLook carefully at graphs and charts to identify key informationAssist students in turning headings and subheadings into questions that can focus their reading
50Use textual cues, visuals, and text organizers (continued) What teachers can do:Practice using text features, such as the glossary and indexUse organizers at the beginning of the unit to focus students on the big pictureConsider the use of highlighting text to indicate main ideas
51Tools using cues, visuals, and text organizers Using text cuesUsing pictures in the bookProviding graphic organizersCreating graphic organizersWhat’s interesting/what’s important *
52Have a plan for how to approach the task Do students know WHAT to read?Do students know WHY they’re reading (purpose)?Are students prepared? WHAT do they BRING TO the reading?
53To increase studentunderstanding of the contentarea, help them become betterreaders of content area text.
54Materials were compiled for this presentation from presentations from the ASCD October Conference and include: Robert Marzano, Sue Beers, and Bea McGarvey