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ABC Braille Study (Alphabetic-Braille and Contracted- Braille Study)

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Presentation on theme: "ABC Braille Study (Alphabetic-Braille and Contracted- Braille Study)"— Presentation transcript:

1 ABC Braille Study (Alphabetic-Braille and Contracted- Braille Study)

2 Researchers are from 8 universities, a special school, public schools, APH Ralph Bartley Anne Corn (Project Team Leader) Jane Erin Cay Holbrook Sharon Sacks Rob Wall (statistician) Diane Wormsley Liz Barclay Frances Mary DAndrea Christopher Craig Stephanie Herlich Julia Ituarte Alan Koenig Eleanor Pester Debbie Sitar

3 Background In the first half of the 20 th century children learned to read using alphabetic or uncontracted braille, also called Grade 1 braille. They then learned Grade 1½ (a few contractions). Finally they learned contracted or Grade 2 braille (all contractions).

4 Background The American Printing House for the Blind and other producers of braille began to produce books only in contracted braille the 1930s. Teachers began to teach contracted braille to children who were learning to read.

5 Some teachers now wonder whether early use of uncontracted braille might promote better reading skills. Most students are in public schools classrooms, and a professional who knows contractions is not always available. Early reading speed might be increased by practice with fewer symbols. Other students and the classroom teacher can use uncontracted braille.

6 The ABC Braille Study Five-year longitudinal – 2002 through 2007 Quantitative and qualitative research Children in special schools and local schools Teachers and parents choose contracted or uncontracted braille for initial reading instruction

7 Children Enrolled Criteria Totally blind or with light perception only At least 4 years of age Attending pre-k or kindergarten Potential to be a braille reader English is primary language for instruction All adults and child give consent

8 Children Enrolled 44 students are enrolled or in process. Approximately equal groups of students began in contracted and uncontracted braille.

9 Children Enrolled Placements 7 are in special schools. 37 are in public schools and agencies. Locations 12 U.S. states, 1 Canadian province. 39 U.S. children, 5 Canadian children (4 locations in 1 province).

10 Project support Primary Funding is from the American Printing House for the Blind. Additional funding has been provided by American Foundation for the Blind Canadian Braille Literacy Foundation Special Educational Technology, British Columbia

11 Quantitative Currently 216 variables being recorded, with possible additional variables. 21 students from 2002 continued through this year, beginning the longitudinal investigation. 40 students in Year 2 have been continued through Years 3-5.

12 Research Questions 1.Are there differences in reading rates and comprehension, vocabulary, fluency, word recognition, and reading achievement levels of children who are initially taught contracted braille as compared to those who are taught uncontracted braille? (Quantitative)

13 Research Questions (continued) 2.Are there differences in writing, vocabulary, and spelling abilities of children who are initially taught contracted braille as compared to those who are initially taught uncontracted braille? (Quantitative)

14 Quantitative Measures Texas Primary Reading Inventory Johns Basic Reading Inventory Extended oral reading sample Writing sample (discussed later) Brigance Reading Vocabulary Comprehension Subtest Brigance Spelling Subtest

15 Data Analysis Big picture is viewed with descriptive statistics Details through log-linear analysis, hierarchical linear modeling, multiple linear regression Longitudinal structure with analyses of covariance and effects with trend analysis Large scale differences (i.e., group) will be checked with t-tests and chi squares

16 Research Questions (continued) 3. Are there differences in attitudes towards reading and writing in children who are initially taught contracted braille as compared to those who are initially taught uncontracted braille?

17 Research Questions 4. Are there differences in the quantity and quality of literacy and interactive experiences in general education classrooms, the home environment, and in the community of children who are initially taught contracted braille as compared to those who are initially taught uncontracted braille?

18 Qualitative Data Observations of classroom Coded for literacy activity, peer involvement, availability of braille, professional in charge Interviews with professionals, family, student Identify environmental differences that might affect literacy acquisition

19 Literacy Experiences Demographic information form Curriculum materials checklist Braille instructional materials form Family survey of reading and writing Observations – time diaries Interviews

20 Observations Time sampling of events in educational environments for contracted and uncontracted groups With general education teacher with paraprofessional In classroom activities with peers Braille instruction with TVI Braille instruction with paraprofessional

21 Interviews Initial family interview when child enters study Family Survey of Reading and Writing Experiences Annual interviews with TVI Classroom teacher Paraprofessionals Participating students

22 Literacy Experiences Family Survey of Reading and Writing Experiences If adults and children in the home know braille If other read to child with braille and/or prinbooks If child has brailled childrens books at home Common items used at home that are in braille

23 Methods Direct assessments of reading and writing skills conducted each spring Assessments administered in uncontracted or contracted braille, depending on group Compilation and data analysis organized and performed by Rob Wall (Western Michigan University)

24 Protocol for reading sample Videotaping children while reading for five minutes - analyzing only the last four minutes Reading passages with which child is familiar - has read at least once previously Videotaping shows childs hands and reading material Analysis of hand movements and inefficient characteristics Question for teachers about teaching HM

25 Types of Hand Movements One-handed reading left hand - right hand Two handed reading left used as marker left and right together left and right together until near end of line, and then separate both hands used independently - scissors fashion

26 Inefficient Characteristics Scrubbing Single Regressions Multiple Regressions Pauses Searching Motions Erratic Movements

27 Writing Analysis Prompt: Write a story about… Kindergarten: your favorite thing to do at home First grade: your favorite thing to do at recess Second grade: your favorite thing to do with your friends Third grade: your favorite thing to do on the weekend

28 Assessment of written passages Lines of braille in passage Sentences in written passage Sentences in passage read aloud (on videotape) Words in passage % of recognizable words in passages Likert scale ratings of topic relevance, spelling, punctuation, coherence

29 #2: I like to roll my ball on the bench. I like to bounce my ball on the bench. #4 Sometimes I like to play bus at recess. I like to perform for my friends. I sometimes like to just walk around. I also like to go down the slide. Do you like to go down the slide?

30 Future Plans Continue data collection through the academic year Prepare proposals to continue the longitudinal study, address new questions that arise, e.g., children with dual reading media

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