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PIANC-InCom-WG27 Considerations to Reduce Environmental Impacts to Vessels WG27 Report No. 99, 2008 Sandra Knight US Commissioner PIANC July 15, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "PIANC-InCom-WG27 Considerations to Reduce Environmental Impacts to Vessels WG27 Report No. 99, 2008 Sandra Knight US Commissioner PIANC July 15, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 PIANC-InCom-WG27 Considerations to Reduce Environmental Impacts to Vessels WG27 Report No. 99, 2008 Sandra Knight US Commissioner PIANC July 15, 2009

2 PIANC-InCom-WG27 PIANC WG27 Membership 2 naval engineers, 3 civil engineers, 3 ecologists, 2 representatives (INCOM ENVICOM), 6 Meetings from Feb. 2003 / Brussels - Feb. 2006 / London 2 editorial meetings, published 2008 Bernhard Söhngen (Chairman)German Waterways Eng. and Res. Center Jochen Koop (Vice Chairman)Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany Sandra Knight (InCom-RepresentativeNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Jorma Rythönen (EnviCom- Represent.)VTT Industrial Systems, Finland Paul Beckwith British Waterways, Head of Environment Nicola FerraviServici Technici, Italy Jose IribarrenSIPORT XXI, Spain Thomas KeevinU.S. Army Corps of Engineering, St. Louis Christian WolterInstitute for freshwater ecology and fisheries Stephen Maynord (corresponding)USACE ERDC Vicksburg

3 PIANC-InCom-WG27 WG27 - structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel River, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide Short portrait of WG 27 – report Top - down - approach Bottom - up - approach Basis: Impact Cascade

4 PIANC-InCom-WG27 Primary wave field: water level drawdown, return current Direct impact: displacement of fish larvae... Direct impact: stranding of fish larvae Indirect impact of quick drawdown: fluidisation of river bed Resuspension of bed sediments Fish Impacts Example of the Impact Cascade Correlations are described in more detail in fact files Mississippi push tow unit with 30 barges, about 400 m long. Drawdown time sailing upstream 5 min.! Large affected area!

5 PIANC-InCom-WG27 Short portrait of WG 27 – report WG27 – structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide Size and installed power of vessels are continuously increasing Changing system behaviour

6 PIANC-InCom-WG27 WG27 – structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide Many vessels drive at 80% of v crit Highlights of WG 27 – report Ship speed reduction is one of the best measures in case of predominant impacts from primary wave field!

7 PIANC-InCom-WG27 WG27 – structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide P D =800kW Short portrait of WG 27 – report Depending upon impact: ship speed reduction may be wrong measure Increased ship speed reduces impacts from props! Example: Distribution of engine power from 1 to 2 props reduces jet induced bed shear stress by 40 %! Chance for innovative ship design!

8 PIANC-InCom-WG27 WG27 – structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide Displacement ship Planing boat Nearly 1 in 20 US citizen owns recreation boats Small boats should sail far below or well above planing speed Short portrait of WG 27 – report

9 PIANC-InCom-WG27 WG27 – structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide Predominant bank-impact comes from secondary waves of passenger or recreational boats. Impact not totally avoidable, but because the water level is almost constant, there is chance for effective mitigation by alternative bank protections. Effective mitigation measures depend on the system Short portrait of WG 27 – report

10 PIANC-InCom-WG27 WG27 – structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide There is no generally valid threshold! But significant impacts start from return current velocities of about 0.3 m/s! This corresponds to a drawdown of about 0.1 m! Short portrait of WG 27 – report These numbers are not exact, but they help to decide, if there is a significant impact problem or not!

11 PIANC-InCom-WG27 WG27 – structure of the report 1 Introduction 2 Technical Fact Files (impact cascade, ship types, propulsion systems, primary wave field, secondary waves, propeller jet and scouring, order of magnitude of relevant impacts) 3 Ecological Fact Files ( systems - lakes, rivers, pools, canals; species - plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals, birds, amphibians) 4 Relevant Impacts (impact ranking according to systems & taxa, thresholds) 5 Decision Making ( incl. ecological relevance check, recommended mitigations) 6 Mitigation Measures ( adapted vessel design, adapted fairway design, rules to navigation, modified revetments, alternative bank protections, island creation) 7 Conclusions 8 Glossary 9 Cited Literature Appendix I: Case Studies ( tolerable wave height for Lower Havel river, Upper Mississippi navigation studies, Montgomery Canal) Appendix II: Waterway Management Guide Process recommendations instead of detailed guidelines from case to case! Basis of the recommendations is the ecological relevance check! Short portrait of WG 27 – report

12 PIANC-InCom-WG27 Ecological relevance check Looking on relevant impacts and channel areas in tabular form present stateimportance vicinity to thresholds duration frequency mitigation possible? neighbours area affected WG 27 report is a guide to support decision making processes on a regular basis! It has to be adapted to the special impact problem considered!

13 PIANC-InCom-WG27 Licensing measures: Overall dimensions of permitted vessels Control of draught and engine power Operational restrictions as permitted bank distance or ship speed Discussion Engineering measures: Adapted inland cargo vessels (drive systems, steering, lightweight construction, overall dimensions) Shelter of ecologically sensitive areas ( fairway adaption, wave breakers, erosion control) Alternative bank protections, especially those using plants

14 PIANC-InCom-WG27 Fairway adaption Relative additional width during cornering Example concerning extremely narrow bends in the German Neckar River for 135 m long motor vessel: Necessary b F 11,4 + 0,26 x 135 47 m Optimal used bow thruster (c F 2/3): Necessary b F 11,4 + 0,12 x 135 28 m Reduction 19 m (is sufficient to use the existing fairway)

15 PIANC-InCom-WG27 Package of measures for Waterways connected to Elbe River River - adapted vessels, fairway, ship speed Removal of protections Allowance of erosion Wave breakers Dead wood supply Sediment supply Bank development Support shallow water areas Reeds development Development of shoulders Improved pasture waters Increases roughness 1) Morph. und biol. Entwicklungspotenziale... im Elbegebiet gemäß Wasserrahmenrichtlinie, Umweltbüro Essen New INCOM Working Group Alternative bank protections New DWA AG WW1.5/2.5 Alternativer Uferschutz WG 27 – report Offers design aids for different lining materials from grey literature

16 PIANC-InCom-WG27 10% reduced v S cuts wave heights in half Limitation of ship speed Speed limitation and control is an effective and politico-economical measure to reduce impacts! It concerns about 3% of all vessels. 10 % reduction reduces the average speed only by 0,3 %! Negligible losses but highly economical benefits, e. g. by reduced maintenance costs and also ecological benefits! For many mitigation measures: economical and ecological benefits walk hand in hand!

17 PIANC-InCom-WG27 DRIVERS: Climate Change, Energy Demands, Economy IMPACTS: Arctic Shipping Changes in migratory patterns of TES More severe and frequent storms/droughts Changing circulation patterns and new challenges for dredging Air emissions Infrastructure Capacity Greening the MTS Others? Are we ready for the Next generation of Environmental Challenges?

18 PIANC-InCom-WG27 CMTS R&D Integrated Action Team Subcommittee of the Committee for Marine Transportation Systems Approved by Coordinating Board in April, 2009 Goal 1: Develop a Research and Development Strategic Plan to support the MTS strategy Goal 2: Re-establish bi-annual forum for interagency R&D in the MTS

19 PIANC-InCom-WG27 CMTS R&D Integrated Action Team Subcommittee of the Committee for Marine Transportation Systems Approved by Coordinating Board in April, 2009 Goal 1: Develop a Research and Development Strategic Plan to support the MTS strategy Goal 2: Re-establish bi-annual forum for interagency R&D in the MTS

20 PIANC-InCom-WG27 CMTS R&D Integrated Action Team Call for Input What external trends will shape our long- term future? What will be the challenges to the MTS as a result of those trends? What will we need to know and do to prepare?

21 PIANC-InCom-WG27 QUESTIONS? Contact Information: Sandra Knight, PHD, PE, D.WRE Sandra.knight@noaa.gov


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