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Introduction to MIS1 Copyright © 1998-2002 by Jerry Post Introduction to MIS Chapter 12 Systems Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to MIS1 Copyright © 1998-2002 by Jerry Post Introduction to MIS Chapter 12 Systems Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to MIS1 Copyright © 1998-2002 by Jerry Post Introduction to MIS Chapter 12 Systems Development

2 Introduction to MIS2 Systems Development Operations Tactics Strategy Enterprise information system Decision support system Transaction processing Systems development life cycle End user development Prototyping

3 Introduction to MIS3 Outline Challenges in Building Information Systems Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Alternatives to SDLC Prototyping Teamwork Extreme Programming End-User Development Analyzing Systems Process Analysis Object-Oriented Design Cases: Government Agencies Appendix: Visual Basic

4 Introduction to MIS4 Project Evaluation (given a discount factor) Get list of cost items from the user (Description, value, time-incurred, probability-factor, category...) Examine each item in the list: Compute the present value of the cost: PV = Cost / ( (1 + rate) ^ time) Multiply by the probability factor: EV = probability * PV If item is in a special category, Then add or subtract correction: category = LandAdd 10% category = OverheadSubtract 5% category = LaborAdd 15% End If Accumulate the total value End of list Return the Total value Individual Development: Pseudocode

5 Introduction to MIS5 Management Functions Operations Databases Programs Functions Operations Databases Programs Top-downandBottom-up Identify Management Functions and Operations Entire Organization Design Systems Data Programs Standards! Integrate Write code Build DB Find a problem

6 Introduction to MIS6 $ 1998 2001 2002 Runaway Projects Technical measures 2 - 5 times over budget 2 - 5 times behind schedule Missing technical objectives Design problems Duplication of efforts Incompatibilities User/designer conflicts

7 Introduction to MIS7 Cafasso 1994 Success & Failure Reasons for Success User Involvement Executive management support Clear requirements Proper planning Realistic expectations Reasons for Failure Lack of user input Incomplete requirements Changing requirements and specifications Lack of executive support Lack of technical skills

8 Introduction to MIS8 Existing System Systems Maintenance: Incremental changes Feasibility & Planning Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Implementation Problems & Improvements New System Proposal Goals & plans Business requirements Technical Design problems revisions problems revisions Systems Development Life Cycle

9 Introduction to MIS9 Blue Print/Planning Development Controls Detailed work plan Performance targets Practices & procedures User input & control

10 Introduction to MIS10 Customer Order Entry Enter Salesperson Data Enter/Change Customer Data Enter Items Ordered Review and Print Forms Look up Item Numbers Check Inventory Status Special Orders Customer Order Copy Shipping List Back Order List Design Tools Visual Table of Contents

11 Introduction to MIS11 Purpose, Classification, Object Orientation, Decomposition Comparison of Diagrams Data Flow Diagram Show process and flow of data. Process No Increasingly detailed levels of process. Structure Chart or VTOC Show modules and usage flow. Module structure No By program structure or usage steps. Entity Relationship Diagram Describe Data structures. Yes By entities or object inheritance.

12 Introduction to MIS12 G. Davis and M. Olson, Management Information Systems 1985. SDLC Effort

13 Introduction to MIS13 Education and training Changing Business operations Systems Implementation Final testing Involve users Education and training Flexibility Recognize how the system will affect the business Encourage users to change Implementation plans

14 Introduction to MIS14 old new old new Direct cutover Parallel Pilot new Phased old dept or component 1 dept or component 2 dept or component 3 dept or component 4 store 1 store 2 store 3 store 4 Implementation Options

15 Introduction to MIS15 System Evaluation

16 Introduction to MIS16 SDLC Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages Control & targets Formality Financial controls User input Documentation Testing Ease of maintenance Disadvantages Increased costs Increased time Hard for DSS Requires definitions up front Rigid

17 Introduction to MIS17 Build Initial Prototype Use Prototype Modify Prototype Request changes New Version MIS Designer Initial Interview Process repeats until: 1) User is satisfied 2) User and designer give up 3) Formal system is built from prototype 4) Need for application is removed 5) Process never ends Prototyping User

18 Introduction to MIS18 Prototyping Evaluation Advantages Get a working system earlier User has more input Designed to be modified Problems Need 4GL trained MIS staff Too many users Too many analysts Never finish "Loss" of management control Best uses Single user Reports Input screens Self-contained applications

19 Introduction to MIS19 u Object Orientation l Properties l Methods l Inheritance l Polymorphism u Business Objects and Processes Object Orientation

20 Introduction to MIS20 Object Classes Customers Name Address Phone Change Address Add New Customer Delete Customer Commercial Contact Account Representative Assign Account Rep Frequent Contact Account Representative Year Started Assign Account Rep Individual Object Properties/ Attributes Methods/ Functions Object Example

21 Introduction to MIS21 SDLC v. Object Oriented

22 Introduction to MIS22 EventsMethodsObjects Sale Record Sale Update Inventory Notify Customer Service Transaction Log Accounts & Ledgers Inventory Customers Employees (commissions) Inventory Order/JIT Notify Suppliers Schedule Payment Accounts & Ledgers Suppliers Shipping/Receiving Installation & Maintenance Objects & Events

23 Introduction to MIS23 Developing systems is generally a team effort among MIS developers and business users. Groupware, CASE, and development tools are often used to facilitate communication and coordination. Developing Systems with Teams

24 Introduction to MIS24 Coordination Technology Control Information Sharing Change Monitoring Access Control Data Sharing Consistency Enforcement Concurrency Control ProductUser Teamwork Development

25 Introduction to MIS25 End-user Development Advantages Faster Cheaper Get what you want Disadvantages/Problems Lack of documentation Individual/personal differences Pre-packaged software limitations Takes User time

26 Introduction to MIS26 End-user Development When to Call for Help Many people use the system PC versus central computer Need documentation Individual user differences Need to train users Commercial software limits User time is expensive Mission critical application Additional testing Many modifications Need security & control Need to integrate Use corporate data Tie to existing software Connect to network Database Integrity Avoid duplicate data Changes to corporate data

27 Introduction to MIS27 Who Should Develop Systems? MIS Size: Many users Complexity: Different departments Long development time SDLC large project controls Cost of user time Critical Information Major changes to central data base Formal testing Expensive hardware Formal feasibility Compatibility Specialized knowledge End User One-time code Can purchase pre-packaged solutions Highly trained users How Can MIS Help? Easy access to data/database Advice and help Testing & quality control Training & tutorials Support/Help Center

28 Introduction to MIS28 SDLCRADObjectsJADPrototypingEnd User ControlformalMISstandardsjointuseruser Time framelongshortanymediumshortshort Usersmanyfewvariesfewone or twoone MIS staffmanyfewsplitfewone or twonone Trans./DSSTrans.bothbothDSSDSSDSS InterfaceminimalminimalWindowscrucialcrucialcrucial Document. & Trainingvitallimitedin objectslimitedweaknone Integrity & Securityvitalvitalin objectslimitedweakweak Re-usabilitylimitedsomevitallimitedweaknone Choosing Methodologies

29 Introduction to MIS29 Basic Systems Input Process Output A Systems Approach to Process Analysis Systems Input, Process, Output Divide and Conquer Goals and Objectives Control and Feedback Diagramming Systems Common Systems Problems

30 Introduction to MIS30 System boundary: The Zoo Members Donors Visitors Other Zoos Education Visitor Counts Educational Materials Baby Animals Registration Papers Health Data The Zoo Money Suppliers Requests & Comments Animal Feed Invoices

31 Introduction to MIS31 Subsystems: The Zoo Animal Care Donor & Public Relations Manage Facilities Produce Management Reports Manage Human Resources

32 Introduction to MIS32 Goals and Feedback Feedback Control Analyze Process Input Output Goal

33 Introduction to MIS33 Data Flow Diagram Objects External Entity Data Flow Feedback and Control Data External Entity Process Data Store (file) Data Flow Feedback and Control Data

34 Introduction to MIS34 The Zoo: Level 0 public/ zoo visitors donors zoo booster members 1 donor and public relations 2 produce mgt. reports 3 manage human resources 4 animal care 5 manage facilities other zoos & breeders certification agencies management money & requests PR data receipts etc. public requests needs & budgets animal requests health research maintenance schedule maint. & building request specialist request employee schedule specialist request emp. schedule emp. reports employees animal status hours, benefits, etc. pay data, requests receipts Usage reports Management reports

35 Introduction to MIS35 The Zoo: Level 1 public/ zoo visitors donors zoo booster members 1.2 handle donor requests 1.1 produce PR & outreach programs 1.3 org. booster services & meetings 1.4 track needs and donor programs 1.5 produce accounting & reports adopt an animal files receipts money & comments PR data receipts etc. money & requests newsletter notices, etc. money & suggestions booster requests needs & plans public requests needs & budgets needs & plans donor requests donor lists expenses & budget money, data, visitor statistics accounting reports public requests animal needs

36 Introduction to MIS36 Systems: Data Dictionary Processes Animal CareDescription Donor & Public Relations... Employee Relations... Entities Certification Agencies... Donors... Data Accounting Reports... Certification Reports...

37 Introduction to MIS37 Data Dictionary

38 Introduction to MIS38 System Problems Do not include data flows between external entities. Drop the line or make one of the entities internal. A process cannot invent data. It must have a data flow coming in to it. A process cannot be a black hole--data must flow out of the process. Maybe it should be a file instead. ManufacturerCustomer Sell Products Invoicessales receipt orders purchase orders warranty registration Modify Reports weekly report daily sales Save Reports Store reports Inventory list

39 Introduction to MIS39 Boundaries Distribute Educational Materials Create Educational Materials Visitors Problem Boundary Problem: Shortages of Educational Materials Zoo system boundary

40 Introduction to MIS40 Common Systems Problems Defective subsystems Wrong Data Errors in Data Missing feedback and control Not responding to environment Receive Orders Check Customer Credit Check Orders for Errors

41 Introduction to MIS41 Identifying Cause & Effect donors zoo booster members money & requests public requests needs & budgets adopt an animal files money & suggestions newsletter, notices, etc. donor lists donor requests needs & plans needs & plans booster requests expenses & budget donor list & animal needs & plans Problems Some animal budgets have excess $ Some animal budgets have no money 1.2 Handle donor requests 1.3 Booster services & meetings PR data receipts etc. 1.4 Track needs & donor programs

42 Introduction to MIS42 Object name: Object attributes/properties: Object functions/methods: Interest Rate Monthly Fees Pay Interest Compute Charges Print Quarterly Statement NumberBeginning Balance NameEnding Balance ClientCurrent Balance ManagerInterest Rate Date Opened Open AcctAccept Deposits Close AcctWithdrawal Pay Interest Lowest Balance in Month Bad Check Charges Authorized Signature Print Monthly Statement Send Bad Check Notice Pay Interest Budget Saver Savings Account Checking Money Market Senior CitizenCD Fixed Fee Student Volume Object-Oriented Design Encapsulation Object Hierarchies Inheritance Polymorphism

43 Introduction to MIS43 Rolling Thunder Order Entry Process Bicycle BikeParts BikeTubes Components Order Entry Clerk Customer Retail Store Retail data Customer Choices BikeSizes Est. sizes Pricing Select New order

44 Introduction to MIS44 Rolling Thunder Manufacturing Process Bicycle BikeParts BikeTubes Components TubeMaterial QOH Frame Assembler Painter Installer Install Build Paint Install QOH Customer Transaction Ship

45 Introduction to MIS45 Rolling Thunder Purchasing Process Purchase Order Purchase Items Purchase Order Employee Receive Components QOH Dock employeeManufacturer Transaction Payable

46 Introduction to MIS46 Some Classes for Rolling Thunder Customer CustomerID Phone FirstName LastName Address ZIPCode CityID BalanceDue CustomerBicycle SerialNumber CustomerID ModelType PaintID FrameSize OrderDate StartDate ShipDate ShipEmployee FrameAssembler Painter Construction WaterBottle… CustomName LetterStyleID StoreID EmployeeID … CustomerBikeTubes SerialNumber TubeName TubeID Length BikeParts SerialNumber ComponentID SubstituteID Location Quantity … Manufacturer ManufacturerID ManufacturerName ContactName Phone … Components ComponentID ManufacturerID ProductNumber Road Category Length Height Width Weight Description ListPrice EstimatedCost QuantityOnHand 1 ** 1 * *1 1 1 *

47 Introduction to MIS47 Rolling Thunder Bicycle Class Diagram

48 Introduction to MIS48 Cases: Government Agencies

49 Introduction to MIS49 Cases: Federal Aviation Administration Internal Revenue Service What is the companys current status? What is the Internet strategy? How does the company use information technology? What are the prospects for the industry?

50 Introduction to MIS50 Appendix: Visual Basic Programming Logic Computations Variables Internal functions Conditions Loops Input Output Math functions AbsAbsolute value AtnArc Tangent CosCosine ExpExponential FixReturns integer portion IntConverts to integer LogLogarithm RndRandom number SgnSignum (-1, 0, 1) SinSine SqrSquare root TanTangent String functions StrCompCompare two strings LCase, UCaseConvert to lowercase or uppercase LenFind length of a string FormatFormat a string InStr, Left, LTrim Mid, Right, RTrim, TrimManipulate strings.

51 Introduction to MIS51 VB: Conditions If (condition) Then statements if true Else statements if false End If If (Sales > 1000) Then Bonus = 100 Else Bonus = 0 End If Select Case Customer Case Customer = Corporate Discount = 0.05 Case Customer = Government Discount = 0.10 Case Else Discount = 0.01 End Select

52 Introduction to MIS52 VB: Loops total = 0 For month = 1 To 12 total = total + SalesForMonth(month) Next month month = 1 sales = 0 Do Until (sales > 100000) sales = sales + SalesForMonth(month) month = month + 1 Loop

53 Introduction to MIS53 VB: Input and Output Could use: InputBox, MsgBox, and Printer object. Generally just use data in the application. In this example, the form collects the data and displays the result.

54 Introduction to MIS54 VBA: Excel Example Sub Macro1() ' Keyboard Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+U For Each c In Selection c.Value = PCase(c.Value) Next c End Sub Function PCase(txt) ' Convert a text value to proper case Dim i As Integer txt = LCase(txt) Mid(txt, 1, 1) = UCase(Mid(txt, 1, 1)) i = 2 Do While (i > 0) And (i < Len(txt)) i = InStr(i, txt, " ") If (i > 0) And (i < Len(txt)) Then Mid(txt, i + 1, 1) = UCase(Mid(txt, i + 1, 1)) i = i + 1 End If Loop PCase = txt End Function

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