2 Forest tree seed research Research Organisations specialising in above tend to be …IndependentIsolatedfrom seed research more widely&Timber Industry/Forest Environment focused
3 DIFFICULTIES WITH TREE SEED RESEARCH Poor viabilityConsiderable dormancyFull germination can take a long timeNon-homogeneous seed lotsLimited seed supplyVariable supply (Inter-Annual Variation)
4 Woody seed coatMassive in relation to embryoGermination requires 3 years1 cm
5 95% of seeds of Ficus carica in this lot from Brazil were without an embryo
6 60% seeds of Ficus lundellii from this lot from Mexico were empty
7 SEED STORAGE SURVIVALThree distinct categories of seed storage behaviourOrthodoxIntermediateRecalcitrantEconomy of Nature and the Search for PatternsIf all 250,000 spp of flowering plants were unique in terms of post-collection physiology – then agriculture, horticulture and forestry would probably never have developed!
8 ORTHODOXNot just desiccation tolerance to very low moisture contents, but ….Longevity increases in a predictable way with reduction in seed storage temperature and/or moisture content(Roberts, E.H. 1973, Seed Sci. & Tech. 1, )
9 Acer platanoidesa. Relation between seed moisture content (%, w.b.) and viability of Acer platanoides harvested at maturity (31 Oct. 1991) (Hong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H Seed Science Research, 2, )b. Negative logarithmic relation between moisture content (%, w.b) and longevity (, d) in hermetic storage of Acer platanoides seeds at 52°C (Dickie, J.B., May, B., Morris, S.V.A., Titley, S.E Seed Science Research 1: ).
10 Pedro Leon-Lobos, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Reading, 2001
11 Pedro Leon-Lobos, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Reading, 2001 Negative logarithmic relation between seed longevity and moisture content
12 RECALCITRANT Acer pseudoplatanus 1. Hong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H., New Phytologist, 116,
13 Desiccation sensitivity Pedro Leon-Lobos, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Reading, 2001
14 INTERMEDIATE SEED STORAGE BEHAVIOUR Seed storage longevity benefits to a considerable extent from desiccation and/or reduction in temperature, but longevity is decreased by further reduction in temperature below about 10°C and/or by further reduction in moisture content below apparent optimum values in equilibrium with about 40-50% relative humidity.Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H Journal of Experimental Botany, 41,
15 Coffea arabicaEllis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H Journal of Experimental Botany, 41,
16 Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D., Roberts, E.H. and Soetisna, U Seed Science Research, 1,
17 Royal palm (Oreodoxa regia) Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D., Roberts, E.H. and Soetisna, U Seed Science Research, 1,
18 (a)Fagus sylvatica Temperate tree species with intermediate seed storage behaviourLeón-Lobos, P. and Ellis, R.H. 2002Seed Sci. Res. 12:(b)observed viability after 730 days of hermetic storageestimated viability after 730 days from a model fitted to observations throughout the 730-day storage period
19 Tree Seed Science Research Project with Vietnam (Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species) Among 33 tree species endemic to Vietnam investigated,16 showed orthodox seed storage behaviour9 showed recalcitrant seed storage behaviour8 showed intermediate seed storage behaviourUAF: Ms Truong Mai Hong, Mr Nguyen Duc Xuan Chuong, Dr Le Quang HungForest Seed Enterprise: Ms Banh Ngoc Tam, Ms Vo Le TamThe University of Reading: Dr Tran Dang Hong, Professor Richard Ellis
20 Species with orthodox seeds Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species
21 Species with orthodox seeds Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz.) Craib. (Leguminosae)Adenanthera pavonina L. (Leguminosae)Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae)Cassia javanica L. (Leguminosae)Dalbergia bariaensis Pierre (Leguminosae)Peltophorum pterocarpum (Leguminosae)Sindora siamensis Teysm. Ex Miq. (Leguminosae)Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae)
22 Diospyros mollis Griff. (Ebenaceae) Melaleuca cajuputi (Myrtaceae)Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss. (Meliaceae)Pinus khasya Royle (Pinaceae)Pinus massoniana Lambert (Pinaceae)Pinus merkusii Jungh. & de Vriese (Pinaceae)Dracontomelon Duperreanum Pierre (Anacardiaceae)Sterculia foetida L. (Sterculiaceae)
23 Species with intermediate seeds Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species
24 Species with intermediate seeds Carissa carandas L. (Apocynaceae)Hydnocarpus anthelmintica (Flacourtiaceae)Mimusops elengii L. (Sapotaceae)Aphanamixis polystachya J.N. Parker (Meliaceae)Averrhoa carambola (Oxalydaceae)Citrofortunella microcarpa (Rutaceae)Citrus grandis (Rutaceae)Anisoptera cochinchinensis (Dipterocarpaceae)
25 Species with recalcitrant seeds Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species
27 Effect of duration of storage at 3 0C on viability (▲) and ability to germinate at 10 0C of Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr. Untreated seeds () were prechilled for 14 weeks and then tested for ability to germinate (), redried and samples tested for ability to germinate (●) during subsequent air-dry storage. Results for sub-samples prechilled for a second 14-week period after 121 weeks of air-dry storage (, ) are also shownJones, S.K., Gosling, P.G., and Ellis, R.H Seed Sci Res. 8:Picea sitchensis
28 Picea sitchensisFrom: Jones, S.K., Ellis, R.H., and Gosling, P.GSeed Sci. Res. 7:Change in ability of seeds of Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr. to germinate at 10 0C after moist pre-treatment at a constant temperature of 20 0C in two separate experiments (●, ■). Solid line shows a multiplicative model for changes in ability to germinate with period of moist pre-treatment at 20 0C comprising four submodels: loss in viability; loss in conditional dormancy; re-imposition of conditional dormancy; and finally loss of this re-imposed conditional dormancy.
29 Dormancy cycling is not unique to this species See:Totterdell, S., and Roberts, E.HEffects of low temperatures on the loss of innate dormancy and the development of induced dormancy in seeds of Rumex obtusifolius L. and Rumex crispus L.Pl. Cell & Env. 2:but has not been widely investigated.
30 DEVELOPMENT OF DESICCATION TOLERANCE IN ORTHODOX SEEDS Acer platanoides1. Hong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H Seed Science Research, 2,
31 Hermetic storage at 40°C with 15.0 (0.2)% mc Survival curves of kapok (sumauma, Ceiba pentandra [L.] Gaertn.) harvested at different datesHermetic storage at 40°C with 15.0 (0.2)% mcLima, M. de J.V.Jr., Ellis, R.H. and Ferraz, I.D.K Seed Sci. & Tech., 28,
32 EFFECT OF DRYING RATE ON DESICCATION TOLERANCE OF IMMATURE SEEDS Acer platanoidesHarvested at mass maturity, about 40 d before natural sheddingHong, T.D. and Ellis, R.H Seed Science Research, 2,
33 Effect of post-harvest treatments on survival of immature seeds of Cedrela odorata Lima, M.de J.V. Jr., Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Ferraz, I.D.K Seed Sci. & Tech. 26,
34 Lower-moisture-content limit for crops Ellis, R. H. , Hong, T. D Lower-moisture-content limit for crops Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H Annals of Botany, 63,OnionSugar beetBarleyWheat
35 Lower-moisture-content limit in two tree species Pedro Leon-Lobos, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Reading, 2001
36 Lower-moisture-content limit for fungal spores Hong, T.D., Jenkins, N.E., Ellis, R.H. and Moore, D Annals of Botany, 81,
37 Lower-moisture-content limit for pollen Hong, T.D., Ellis, R.H., Buitink, J., Walters, C., Hoekstra, F.A. and Crane, J Annals of Botany, 83,
38 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IUFRO Symposium organisers Darwin Initiative for the Survival of SpeciesTruong Mai Hong, Mr Nguyen Duc Xuan Chuong, Dr Le Quang Hung,Ms Banh Ngoc Tam, Ms Vo Le TamDr Pedro Leon, Dr Manuel Lima, Dr Steve Jonesand particularly Dr Tran Dang Hong
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.