Presentation on theme: "New Jersey Clean Air Council Hearing April 13, 2011 Emissions and Exposure Reduction Through the Use of New Technology Diesel Engines Joe Suchecki Engine."— Presentation transcript:
New Jersey Clean Air Council Hearing April 13, 2011 Emissions and Exposure Reduction Through the Use of New Technology Diesel Engines Joe Suchecki Engine Manufacturers Association
Overview Provide Some Comments on Cumulative Impacts of Air Pollutants Discuss Issues Associated with Diesel Emissions Provide the Latest Information on the Significant Emissions Reductions from Diesels(Clean Air Council Issue 7)
Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Air Pollutants Researchers and regulators are just beginning to address cumulative impacts of pollutants EPA and the Health Effects Institute have new programs on multi-pollutant analysis Epidemiology studies of air pollution capture the effects of multipollutants in the ambient air –Health effects studies include exposure to mixtures –Researchers then try to apportion measured health effects from individual pollutants –Question is which pollutants may be responsible Difficult, expensive and necessary question to answer for New Jersey?
Diesel Emissions in a Multiple Pollutant World Diesel Emissions are a mixture of many air pollutants Diesel is a source, not a unique pollutant Diesel emissions cannot be distinguished in the atmosphere There is no unique maker for Diesel PM There will always be diesel exhaust, but the composition of the exhaust can be changed There is no evidence to indicate that diesel PM is any more or less harmful than PM from other sources Ambient diesel PM levels have decreased significantly over the last decade
Diesel Emissions and Multiple Pollutant Exposure Diesel emissions contribute to ambient air pollution Contribution varies widely and is dependent on source apportionment method used. Industry and regulatory approach is to reduce diesel source emissions. Result is near-zero emissions from New technology Diesel Engines.
NOx [g/BHP-hr] PM [g/BHP-hr] Evolution of US Heavy Duty Diesel On-Road Emission Standards 2007 (NTDE) 2010 (NTDE) ULSD 15 PPM (10/06) 500 PPM (10/93) FUELSULFUR Fuel Sulfur
Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE) Exhaust from engines utilizing old technologies : –Pre-1988 diesel engines sold and in use prior to the US EPA diesel particulate standards –Transitional diesel engines Progressive improvements in engine design, but Prior to the full-scale implementation of multi-component after-treatment systems
TDE Government Agency Hazard Assessments Based on the large toxicological database of TDE from pre-1988 engines All earlier epidemiology and most laboratory toxicology studies used TDE Concluded that high levels of DE are likely to increase cancer and non-cancer health effects In 1989, International Agency for Research on Cancer classified DE as a "probable" human carcinogen In 1998, particulate emissions from diesel-fueled engines listed as a "toxic air contaminant" (TAC) by California EPA In 2000, US EPA classified diesel exhaust as a "mobile source air toxic" In 2002, US EPA classified pre-1995 diesel exhaust as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans
New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) Exhaust from engines utilizing new technologies: –Meets EPA & CARB 2007 PM and NOx standards –Fully integrated electronic control systems –Ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (< 15 ppm) –Oxidation catalysts –Wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs) –Applies to both new and retrofitted engines
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) DOC+DPF+SCR NTDE Exhaust Treatment Systems Particle Removal and NOx Reductions NOx PMNOx
Key to Emissions Reductions in NTDE Wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter Trapped PM Cell Plugs Exhaust (PM, CO, HC) Enter Porous Ceramic Wall Exhaust (CO2, H2O) Out Adapted from MECA May 2000 Reductions: 95+% PM 80 to 100% HC, CO 80 to 99+% toxins
Emission Proportions Hesterberg et al., ES&T 42: , 2008, data from Table 1: transit bus. H2O estimated, see last slide
Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Comprehensive Joint Industry and Government Study of NTDE Directed and Managed by HEI and CRC Emissions Characterization and Health Effects Studies of 2007 NTDE Engines Emissions Characterization Complete in 2009 Short-term Animal Studies Under Analysis Ongoing Long-term Animal Bioassay
ACES Hyrdocarbon Testing Results 14
ACES PM Testing Results 15
NTDE: Lower Particulate Emissions CARB Study: Herner et al., EST 43: , 2009, data from Table 2. Transit Buses: UDDS Test Cycle TDE NTDE Percent of TDE
PM Composition and Mass Comparisons TDE, NTDE, CNG: Lanni et al., SAE , Transit Bus. Gasoline, Steady State: Schauer et al., Aerol Sci Tech 42:210-23, Gasoline vs. TDE PM: Ahlvik 2002.
Most of the Toxic Air Contaminants in TDE are Not Found in NTDE Aniline Antimony compounds Arsenic Beryllium compounds Cadmium Chlorine (chloride) Chlorobenzene and derivatives Chromium compounds Cobalt compounds Ethylbenzene Inorganic lead Manganese Mercury 4-Nitrobiphenyl Nickel Selenium Styrene Xylene isomers and mixtures o-Xylenes p-Xylenes m-Xylenes Ullman et al, SAE , 2003
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Hesterberg et al., ES&T 42: , VOCs and Aldehydes NTDE: Lower for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
NTDE Reduces Emissions Across a Broad Spectrum of Compounds CategoryReduction Relative to TDE Single Ring Aromatics82% PAH79% Alkanes85% Hopanes/Steranes99% Alcohols & Organic Acids81% Nitro-PAHs81% Carbonyls98% Inorganic Ions71% Metals & Elements98% Organic Carbon96% Elemental Carbon99% Dioxins/Furans99% Khalek et al. 2010, Table 6
NTDE: Lower for Most Regulated Emissions Also Similar or Better than CNG or Gasoline Hesterberg et al., ES&T 42: , Data from Tables 1 &4. US EPA Standards. TDE (2010 Std)
NTDE Particulate Mass Emissions Similar to CNG and Gasoline Vehicles Hesterberg et al., EST 42 (17), 6437–6445, 2008, data from Table 1. Transit Buses Compared to CNG Vehicles Ahlvik, Vägverket, Publikation 2002: , data from Figure 12. Passenger cars Compared to Gasoline Vehicles
EC/TC Ratio for NTDE PM Similar to CNG and Gasoline Fueled Vehicles CARB Study: Holmen and Ayala, EST. 2002, 36, 5041–5050, diesel and CNG transit buses. Schauer et al. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, Gasoline passenger cars.
NTDE: No Acute Toxicity in Animals McDonald et al., Env Health Perspectives 112: , 2004, developed from Figures 2-4.
Clinical Toxicity Differences: TDE and NTDE TDE at high inhalation exposures in human volunteers resulted in –Abnormal thrombus formation and –Abnormal vasodilation Similar dilutions of NTDE did not produce those effects in human volunteers Barath et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009, 179, A1634. Lundback et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009, 179, A1633
Testing Results Demonstrate Fundamentally Changed Composition of NTDE PM levels in NTDE are more than 100-fold lower than in TDE NTDE is chemically very different from TDE NTDE emissions are similar to or lower than CNG or gasoline emissions Biological effects of TDE in human and animal studies are not observed with NTDE
NTDE Requires Paradigm Shift in Views On Diesels and Air Pollution NTDE provides near-zero emissions of pollutants of concern and are comparable or better than gasoline and natural gas emissions Greater than 99% reduction in PM mass and numbers NTDE PM Composition –Almost No Black Carbon or Elemental Carbon –Almost No Solid Particles –Primarily Composed of Sulfates –Near Zero Levels of other HAPs Clean Diesel is a Reality Today
Implications for New Jersey Air Quality Introduction of NTDE Will Reduce Ambient Levels of PM and HAPS and Lessen Multipollutant Exposure State Regulators and NGOs Need to Recognize the Significant Differences Between NTDE and TDE in the States Clean Air Programs and Initiatives Little Value in Additional Studies of TDE – NTDE is Available and Being Introduced Today State Programs that Accelerate the Transition to NTDE can be useful in reducing ambient pollutant levels and improving Air Quality throughout the State.