Presentation on theme: "BUILDING CAPACITY FOR PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1BUILDING CAPACITY FOR PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT New Jersey Department of EducationDivision of Student ServicesRegional and County Education Office VersionDeveloped by the Office of Title I Program Planning and Accountability, in collaboration with theregional offices, county offices, the Office of Program Planning and Review (Abbott) , the Office of Educational Programs and Assessments (NJPEP), Region III Comprehensive Center, Parent Organizations and ParentsIntroduction and GreetingsWelcome.Thank you for coming today and most of all…(point to the screen)…thank you for your anticipated attention!Let’s begin with introductions… I am (state your name and office) and my colleagues are (state their names).Let’s begin. . .The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), unlike any other act, has provided many options for parents to serve as advocates in the best interest of their children. NCLB promotes greater involvement and actions to ensure that all children can learn to succeed in the challenging Core Curriculum Content Standards and assessments set forth today. We will discuss parental involvement in the context of what you need to know. Some things may be familiar, but some things are also very new. It is very important to understand the role that we all must play in supporting parental involvement at the local school level. This presentation has been developed for districts, schools, and parents.Trainer Criteria: Level of Expertise for Presentation DeliveryThis presentation should be conducted by a person(s) who is knowledgeable about NCLB and familiar with parent involvement requirements according to Title I (i.e., parent, Title I director, parent coordinator, district or school liaison).Recommendation: The presentation should be reviewed fully prior to its delivery. The presentation may be adapted to the needs of the particular audience.Adaptation: This presentation has been adapted for administration by the state (regional offices and county education offices) to districts (New Jersey districts and schools).Process for Delivery:The state will turnkey the presentation to districts and schools (e.g., Title I directors, school administrators).Districts will turnkey the presentation to district and school parent coordinators.School parent coordinators will turnkey the presentation to parents.Handouts:USDE Sample Parental Involvement PolicyUSDE Sample School-Parent CompactUSDE School Notification ChecklistUSDE Parental Involvement Research ResourcesUSDE Parental Involvement DefinitionsUSDE Funding Title I Parental InvolvementNJDOE Sample School Report Card14 ActivitiesDistrict/School Parental Involvement ChecklistEpstein’s 6 Types of ParentingNational PTA National Standards Checklist
2A Clear-Cut Goal The bottom line is engaging parents in the learning of their children! Districts and schools need comprehensive informationabout the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) andparental involvement to betterserve the needs of students and parents.Presentation OverviewThe purpose of this training session is to provide you with comprehensive information about NCLB and parental involvement. The policies exist to support parents and encourage parent involvement to ultimately improve student achievement in Title I schools.This session will provide districts and schools with information to assist parents in understanding parental involvement in the following areas:NotificationsSchool report cardsParents’ Right-to-KnowResearch concerning parental involvementWritten parental involvement policiesSchool-parent compactsActivities to build capacity for parental involvementFamily literacyToolkits and resource informationThe presentation also includes a separate section with samples of a written parent involvement policy, school-parent compact, and other information.Training Goal and ObjectivesThe primary goal of this training is to provide districts, schools, and parents with an understanding of parental involvement requirements and the process of implementing effective programs to benefit parents in the academic development of their children. It addresses the objectives listed on the following slide to provide districts, schools, and parents with a comprehensive understanding of parental involvement requirements outlined under NCLB/Title I.
3ObjectivesTo increase parental involvement at the district and school level.To foster collaboration and communication between districts and schools around parental involvement.To provide information about the expanded rights of parents under NCLB/Title I.Training Goal and ObjectivesThe primary goal of this training is to provide districts and schools with an understanding of parental involvement requirements. This presentation will discuss the process of implementing effective programs to assist parents in helping their children learn. [Read slide.]The three objectives have been stated to provide districts and schools with a comprehensive understanding of parental involvement requirements outlined under NCLB/Title I.
412 Critical QuestionsWhy is it important for districts and schools to understand NCLB?How does NCLB support parental involvement?What level of funding has been set aside for parental involvement at the district and school level?Presentation QuestionsThis presentation has been structured around twelve critical questions related to requirements for parental involvement according to NCLB legislation, information on how to understand the parental involvement requirements, how to build capacity for parental involvement, and what resources are available to assist districts and schools as they design parental involvement programs.The presentation attempts to answer the questions that districts and schools have about their role in supporting parents.[Read slide.]
512 Critical Questions4. Why should states, districts, and schools collaborate with parents?5. How does NCLB define parental involvement?6. Is there supporting research that says parental involvement really makes a difference?Presentation Questions[Read slide.]
612 Critical Questions7. What barriers must be acknowledged for districts and schools to implement effective parental involvement practices?What is Parents’ Right-to-Know?9. What are the nuts and bolts for building capacity for parental involvement?Presentation Questions[Read slide.]
712 Critical Questions10. How can districts and schools incorporate effective practices, models, and family literacy services into their program?How are parental involvement practices monitored?What resources are available to assist districts and schools in understanding parental involvement?Presentation Questions[Read slide.]
8Parental Involvement Needs Assessment Districts and Schools should conduct a parental involvement needs assessment to determine:How to implement parental involvement requirements, programs, and effective practices at the district and school level.Identify the types of assistance parents need to further the academic learning of their children.Parental Involvement SurveyThe New Jersey Department of Education recommends that districts and schools conduct a needs assessment for the purpose of determining how to implement and design parental involvement programs based on best practices and most current research on the subject.It is important to conduct a survey or a needs assessment to determine the needs of the parents in your district and schools. This can be conducted at the beginning of the year to determine some of the needs that parents have relative to student achievement.We have provided a list of sample surveys to assist you in this. If you have other surveys please use them.Sample AssessmentsMid-Atlantic Equity Center Parent Survey:General Survey Form - by Leah Davies, M.Ed:
9Historical Background #1. Why is it important for districts and schools to understand NCLB?Historical BackgroundThe next series of slides discusses the historical background of the NCLB. It is important to understand the provisions that the reauthorized legislation has introduced for parents and what NCLB accomplished in expanding options for parents.Source:NCLB:Historical Background
10NCLB HistoryPresident Bush’s comprehensive education program expanded options for parents under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).The Act has been significant in supporting educational reforms that seek to close achievement gaps among students.HistoryThe following scripted information will help you address certain historical questions about NCLB.In 1965 President Lyndon Johnson declared a War on Poverty. This war was significant in targeting the nation’s poorest schools, children, and communities and led to the passage of legislation, called the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), to assist economically and educationally disadvantaged children. In 1994 the legislation was reauthorized through the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) and required states to adopt challenging core content standards in subject areas and aligned assessments. New Jersey adopted the Core Curriculum Content Standards in State assessments are provided in grades 3 through 11.The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was reauthorized on January 8, 2002, through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of NCLB brought sweeping reforms for educational systems in the United States. Specifically, Title I, the largest program under NCLB, provides federal funding for educationally and economically disadvantaged youth and children in America. NCLB includes significant changes in areas related to accountability, focuses on new options for parents through school choice and supplemental educational services, and requires higher qualifications for instruction and professional development resources.Over the past 30 years, this multibillon dollar legislation has provided federal assistance to economically and educationally disadvantaged youth and children throughout this nation.Sources:NCLB Act of 2001Planning for Title I Programs, Guidelines for Parents, Advocates and Educators, Center for Law and Education, Margot Rogers, 1995
11PurposePurpose ThenTo help economically disadvantaged children and families through compensatory education programs.Purpose NowTo help economically disadvantaged children and families through compensatory education programs.PurposeThe following scripted information will help you address certain historical questions about NCLB.Title I represents the largest federal elementary and secondary education program. It provides supplemental funds to schools to meet the needs of economically and educationally disadvantaged students and directs funds to those students who are at the highest risk for school failure. Ninety percent of districts across the United States receive Title I funds. All states are required to provide Title I funds to districts through a statutory formula based on the following:The number of children ages 5 through 17 in poverty who were counted in the most recent census data approved by the United States Department of Education (USDE).The law says:“The local educational agency shall use the same measure of poverty, which measure shall be the number of children ages 5 through 17 in poverty counted in the most recent census data approved by the Secretary, the number of children eligible for free and reduced-price lunches under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, the number of children in families receiving assistance under the State program funded under Part A of Title IV of the Social Security Act, or the number of children eligible to receive medical assistance under the Medicaid program, or a composite of such indicators, with respect to all school attendance areas in the local educational agency —(A) to identify eligible school attendance areas;(B) to determine the ranking of each area; and(C) to determine allocations under subsection (c).”NCLB, Section 1113Sources:NCLB Act of 2001Eligible School Attendance Area:
12The Achievement Gap What Do We Know The gap shrunk during the 1970’s and 1980’s as African-American and Hispanic students made substantial gains in achievement, while the achievement of white students changed little.These gains occurred when Head Start, Title I, and other federal programs sought to improve educational opportunities and reduce poverty.These policy interventions appear to have made a difference.Achievement GapLet’s take a look at what we know about the achievement gap.Federal programs such as Head Start and Title I have made a difference in closing the gap.Standards-based reform initiatives have highlighted the fact that many students are performing below expectations, and that a disproportionate number are African- American and Hispanic students.Racial/ethnic differences in family income and parent education can explain some, but not all, of the differences in the achievement gaps.Studies have shown that a racial/ethnic achievement gap exists among students from families with high levels of income and parent education. There are numerous other racial/ethnic background differences from cumulative family wealth to grandparents’ education that may influence learning.Sources:It Takes More Than Testing: Closing the Achievement Gap, A Report of the Center on Education Policy, prepared by Nancy Kober August 2001NAEP 1999
13African-American and Latino 17-Year-Olds Read at Same Levels as White 13-Year-Olds NAEP Chart[Please review the NAEP chart provided.]This chart illustrates the achievement gap in the area of reading for minority students. The 1999 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) revealed that the average reading score of black students at age 17 was the same as that of white students at age of 13. It also revealed that on average, African-American and Latino 17-year-olds read at the same levels as white 13-year-olds. The average science scores of black and Hispanic students at age 13 were lower than white students at age 9.Sources:It Takes More Than Testing: Closing the Achievement Gap, A Report of the Center on Education Policy, prepared by Nancy Kober, August 2001NAEP 1999Ed TrustSource: Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)
14African-American and Latino 17-Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels as White 13-Year-Olds NAEP Chart[Please review the NAEP chart provided.]The chart illustrates the achievement gap in the area of mathematics for minority students. The average math score for black students at the age of 13 was more than 30 points below white 13-year-old students. The average science score for Hispanic students at age 9 was equivalent to more than three grade levels behind that of whites at age 9.Sources:It Takes More Than Testing: Closing the Achievement Gap, A Report of the Center on Education Policy, prepared by Nancy Kober, August 2001NAEP 1999Ed Trust 2003Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)
15Purpose NCLB requires all Title I Schoolwide Programs (SWP) and Targeted AssistancePrograms (TAPs) to employ strategies toincrease parental involvement.PURPOSEThe purpose of Title I is to provide services through schoolwide programs and targeted assistance programs to improve the academic achievement of disadvantaged students.The NCLB law enables schoolwide programs to use funds from Title I, Part A and other federal education program funds and resources to upgrade the entire educational program of the school in order to raise the academic achievement for all the students.This contrasts with a Title I targeted assistance program through which Title I, Part A funds are used to provide supplementary services only for eligible children, those who are failing or at risk of failing to meet state standards.The new poverty threshold for schoolwide programs is 40 percent. Both schoolwide and targeted assistance programs under NCLB section 1114(b)(1) and section 1115 (c) must employ strategies such as family literacy services to increase parental involvement.Source:and sec1115
16Parental Involvement Policies #2. How does the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)support parental involvement?Parental Involvement PoliciesThe next slide addresses the sections of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that refer to the parental involvement policies, guidance, and legislation.Source:NCLB:Parental Involvement Policies
17NCLB Policies Supporting Parental Involvement Provides policies for parent involvement specifically at the state level and for school improvement.Provides policies for the development of local plans to inform parents of student achievement.Provides parental involvement requirements for schoolwide programs.Provides parental involvement requirements for targeted assistance programs.Section 1111:Section 1112:Parental Involvement PoliciesThis slide outlines the key sections of NCLB that encourage parental involvement and informs us that parents are extremely important under NCLB. The law requires districts and schools to include parents in the process of building capacity for parental involvement programs. Schools must notify parents concerning school improvement status in an understandable and practical format. Please familiarize yourself with the sections of the law listed on the slide and how they contribute to parental involvement.Section 1111: State PlansDescribes how states are required to develop a plan that will support the districts and schools with effective parental involvement practices, accountability, annual school report cards, Parents’ Right-to-Know, school improvement notification, and language education programs.Section 1112: Local PlansDescribes how districts are to determine the success of children served under NCLB in meeting the state student academic achievement standards, and to provide information to teachers, parents, and students on the progress being made toward meeting the state student academic achievement standards described in section 1111(b)(1)(D)(ii).Section 1114: Schoolwide ProgramsDescribes parental involvement requirements for schoolwide programs and how parental involvement should be integrated into such programs. Visit the USDE Web site to gain more information on school wide programs at: Also access New Jersey’s Title I Web site atSection 1115: Targeted Assistance ProgramsDescribes requirements to provide strategies such as family literacy services to increase parental involvement in accordance with NCLB, Section 1118, and coordinate and integrate federal, state, and local services and programs, including programs supported under NCLB, violence prevention programs, nutrition programs, housing programs, Head Start, adult education, vocational and technical education, and job training.Source:NCLB: (also sec 1112, sec 1114, sec 1116, sec 1118, and sec 1120)Section 1114:Section 1115:
18NCLB Policies Supporting Parental Involvement Provides parental involvement requirements regarding notification for school improvement, school choice, and supplemental educational services.Provides parental involvement requirements for districts and schools regarding written parent involvement polices and school-parent compacts.Provides information related to children enrolled in private schools.Section 1116:Section 1118:Parental Involvement Policies (cont.)Section 1116: NotificationDescribes the notification process and how the district is required to promptly provide to parents, in an understandable and uniform format and in a language that parents can understand, notification of the progress of each student enrolled in an elementary school or secondary school identified for school improvement or restructuring. Parents must also be notified about their right to information about teachers’ and paraprofessionals’ qualifications, the availability of supplemental educational services, and the school choice option.Section 1118: District and School ResponsibilitiesDescribes parental involvement requirements for districts and schools and how the district and school are required to establish a written parent involvement policy, school-parent compacts, and build capacity for parental involvement.Section 1120: Private SchoolsConcerns parent involvement related to children enrolled in private schools and Title I services that should be provided for such children.Source:NCLB: (also sec 1112, sec 1114, sec 1116, sec 1118, and sec 1120)Section 1120:
19Title I Allocations for Parental Involvement #3. What level of funding has been set aside for parental involvement at the district and school level?Title I Allocation for Parental InvolvementThe next slide addresses the allocations for parental involvement and importance of obtaining parental input concerning the utilization of funds. The New Jersey Department of Education has posted information on Title I allocations to each district on the Title I Web site at:Title I Allocations for Parental Involvement
20Title I Allocation Reservation Districts are required to reserve not less than 1 percent of Title I allocation for parent involvement programs, including promoting family literacy and parenting skills.*PARENTAL input is required for funds allotted for parental involvement activities.*Exception: If the district’s Title I allocation is $5000 or less, this reservation does not apply.Title I Allocation ReservationParents should be aware of and participate in making decisions concerning how Title I parental involvement allocations are used.The federal law requires that each district that receives more than $500,000 in Title I funds must reserve not less than 1 percent of its Title I allocation for parental involvement activities.Parental Input: Parents of children receiving Title I services shall be involved in the decisions regarding how the reserved funds are allotted for parental involvement activities.Distribution of Funds: Not less than 95 percent of the reserved funds shall be distributed to Title I schools.Source:
21EXAMPLE: Calculation of LEA’s Distribution of Funds to Schools for Parental Involvement Activities LEA’s total Title I allocation: $6,000,000Parental involvement reserve (1%): (.01 x $6,000,000) = $ 60,0005% of eligible students are private school children required equitable share for parents: (.05 x $60,000) = $3,000Amount remaining: ($60,000 - $3,000) = $57,00095% required minimum distribution to district’s public school distribution ($57,000 x .95) = $54,150Balance available for LEA-level parentalinvolvement activities ($57,000 - $54,150) = $2,850Calculation of District’s Parental Involvement FundsThe following example has been taken from the USDE guidance on parental involvement. Any district (LEA) with an allocation in excess of $500,000 first must determine the percentage of its Title I allocation that it wishes to reserve for parental involvement activities under Section That percentage must be at least one percent of the district’s Title I allocation, and may be more.The district is required to set aside an amount for parental involvement of parents of private school children, based on the proportion of private school children from low-income families residing in Title I attendance areas, as explained in the USDE guidance under item C-15 and the example following C-15. The district then must distribute to its public schools at least 95 percent of the remainder, leaving the balance of the reserved funds for parental involvement activities at the district level. (See C-17 of the USDE guidance for a discussion of how the district may allocate the funds among its public schools.) [Section 1118(a)(3)(C), ESEA.]Source:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004
22State/District/School Collaboration #4. Why should states, districts, and schools collaborate with parents?State/District/School CollaborationThe next series of slides address collaboration between states, districts, and schools with regard to parental involvement.State/District/School Collaboration
23State RequirementThe state is required to support the collection and dissemination of effective parental involvement practices to districts and schools that meet the following criteria:1. Based on current research that meets the highest professional and technical standards2. Geared toward reducing barriers to parental participationNCLB, Section 1111State Responsibility: Section Parental InvolvementThe important question is: What is the role of the state regarding parental involvement?Districts and schools are required to understand the collaborative role that the state plays in supporting parental involvement. The districts and schools must serve as the extension to build capacity for parental involvement. Section 1118 of NCLB discusses this in further detail. More information is provided in this presentation in section eight.The following is the actual citation under Section 1111 of NCLB regarding parental involvement.“Each State plan shall describe how the state educational agency will support the collection and dissemination to local educational agencies and schools of effective parental involvement practices. Such practices shall—(1) Be based on the most current research that meets the highest professional and technical standards, on effective parental involvement that fosters achievement to high standards for all children; andBe geared toward lowering barriers to greater participation by parents in school planning, review, and improvement experienced.”Source:
24State-District-School Collaboration This diagram illustrates the collaboration between the state, district, and school. It shows how the state, district, and school must play proactive roles in encouraging and increasing parental involvement. The state and district are required under Title I to collaborate and coordinate services with schools to encourage parental involvement.The state serves to provide policy, guidance, and fiscal resources to local districts and schools.The district serves to filter fiscal resources and technical support to Title I schools.The local school serves to provide direct services to parents and students in Title I schools.(*This diagram illustrates that parental involvement is necessary to foster higher student achievement.)
25Districts and Schools Are Required to Connect with Parents The Written Parent Involvement Policy – Section 1118This puzzle emphasizes the importance of planning and coordinating programs with parents to improve student achievement. Coordination must occur on all levels Districts, schools, and states are required to connect services with parents regarding policy development, written notifications, school-parent compacts, and more.[Please describe according to your perspective of collaboration. The puzzle illustrates the importance of collaboration.]
26State, District, School Collaboration What’s the Bottom Line? AccountabilitySuperintendentsPrincipalsStatesRigorous TestingHigher StandardsDistrictsTeachersAccountability Section 1111The state is required to develop and implement a single, statewide state accountability system that will be effective in ensuring that all districts, public elementary schools, and public secondary schools make adequate yearly progress (AYP). Parents are supported in this process to ensure that children have the opportunities to meet the challenge standards. The single accountability system requires everyone to take part in increasing the academic development of children, especially children in Title I schools.Teachers, Principals, Superintendents, Districts, Schools, States, and Parents are all needed to assist students in achieving high standards. The single accountability system requires testing in grades 3 to 8 and higher standards, rewards, and sanctions for schools in need of improvement. The purpose of the testing is to review deficiencies in student learning in a timely fashion so that educators will be able to better instruct students.The law states that the state plan shall demonstrate that the state has developed and is implementing a single, statewide state accountability system that will be effective in ensuring that all districts, public elementary schools, and public secondary schools make AYP. The state accountability system shall include the following:Be based on the academic standards and academic assessments and other academic indicators and shall take into account the achievement of all public elementary school and secondary school students.Be the same accountability system the state uses for all public elementary schools and secondary schools or all districts in the state, except that public elementary schools, secondary schools, and districts not receiving Title I funds are not subject to the school improvement sanctions of Section 1116.Include sanctions and rewards, such as bonuses and recognition, the state will use to hold districts, public elementary schools, and secondary schools accountable for student achievement and for ensuring that they make AYP.Source:SchoolsStudent PerformanceNCLB HOLDS EVERYONE ACCOUNTABLE FOR STUDENT PERFORMANCEThe Single Accountability System Supports and Encourages Parents to Be Involved!
27#5. How does NCLB define parental involvement? DefinitionThe non-regulatory guidance on parental involvement was published on April 23, The guidance provides an excellent definition of parental involvement that should be shared with parents. The definition is much different than the traditional dictionary definition of parental involvement: The new definition encompasses the broad scope of parental involvement and the importance of participation in learning.Source:Definition
28Parental InvolvementNCLB defines parental involvement as the participation of parents in regular, two-way, meaningful communication involving student academic learning and other school activities.Parental Involvement GuidanceThe non-regulatory parental involvement guidance provides a fundamental definition of parental involvement. The definition is far beyond the normal dictionary version of parent involvement.[Read slide.][Please use the following definition of “parent “to clarify the USDE meaning of parent if a definition is requested.]Parent: The term “parent” includes a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis (such as a grandparent or stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for the child’s welfare). [NCLB, Section 9101(31)]Source:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004:
29Parental Involvement The Definition Ensures the Following: That parents play an integral role in their child’s learningThat parents are encouraged to be actively involved in their child’s education at schoolThat parents are full partners in their child’s education and are included, as appropriate, in decision-making and on advisory committees to assist in the education of their childCarrying out other activities, such as those described in Title I, Section (e.g., volunteer activities, serving on parent councils)Parental Involvement Guidance[Read Slide.][Notes to Presenter:]Examples have been included with the fourth bullet for clarification (e.g., volunteer activities, etc.).Additionally, please refer to section 9 of this presentation, which addresses the nuts and bolts for building capacity for parental involvement. This section lists 14 critical activities for building capacity.Source:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004:
30What Does the Research Show? #6. Is there supporting research that says parental involvement really makes a difference?Parental Involvement ResearchThe next series of slides discusses the valuable research that has been conducted on parental involvement. Over 30 years of research on parental involvement illustrates the significance of research and the positive effects parents can have on the academic development of their children.Handout in packet:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix C: Research-Based Resource,” USDE, April 2004What Doesthe Research Show?
31Parental Involvement Benefits Parents, Teachers, and Students Research ShowsParental Involvement BenefitsParents, Teachers, and StudentsParentsExtensive parent involvement leads to higher student achievementStudents have higher grades and test scoresStudents develop realistic plans for their futureDistricts/SchoolsTeachersStudents have higher grades and test scoresImproved attendanceComplete homework more consistentlyStudents have higher graduation rates and greater enrollment rates in post-secondary educationStudentsStudents exhibit more positive attitudes and behaviorStudents have higher graduation rates and greater enrollment rates in post-secondary educationResearch on Parental InvolvementOver 30 years of research has proven beyond dispute the positive connection between parent involvement and student achievement. Effectively engaging parents and families in the education of their children has the potential to be far more transformational than any other type of education reform. A few of the resources include: A New Wave of Evidence (2002); The Evidence Grows (1981); The Evidence Continues to Grow (1987); and A New Generation of Evidence: The Family Is Critical to Student Achievement (1995).You may also want to discuss the following research findings and how they benefit parents, districts/schools, and students in long-term capacities.Children from diverse cultural backgrounds tend to do better when parents and professionals collaborate to bridge the gap between the culture at home and the learning institution.Students are more likely to fall behind in academic performance if their parents do not participate in school events, develop a working relationship with their child's educators, or keep up with what is happening in their child's school.The benefits of involving parents are not confined to the early years; there are significant gains at all ages and grade levels.Junior and senior high school students whose parents remain involved make better transitions, maintain the quality of their work, and develop realistic plans for their future. Students whose parents are not involved, on the other hand, are more likely to drop out of school.Handout in packet:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix C: Research-Based Resource,” USDE, April 2004Sources:(Condition of Education 2000, USDE, Henderson and Mapp 2002, Henderson and Berla 1994, Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993, Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited in Eccles and Harold 1996) Anne Henderson and Nancy Berla: The Evidence Grows (1981); The Evidence Continues to Grow (1987); and A New Generation of Evidence: The Family Is Critical to Student Achievement ,(1995).
32Research Shows When Parents Are Involved! Students that are economically disadvantaged can achieve to the same high standards.Student behaviors, such as alcohol use, violence, and antisocial behavior decrease as parent involvement increases.Students achieve at all ages and grade levels.Research on Parental InvolvementThe research shows that in programs designed to involve parents in full partnerships, student achievement for disadvantaged children not only improves, it can reach levels that are standard for middle-class children. In addition, children who are farthest behind make the greatest gains. Additionally, research findings show that:Student behaviors, such as alcohol use, violence, and antisocial behavior decrease as parent involvement increases.Students are more likely to fall behind in academic performance if their parents do not participate in school events, develop a working relationship with their child's educators, or keep up with what is happening in their child's school.The benefits of involving parents are not confined to the early years; there are significant gains at all ages and grade levels.Junior and senior high school students whose parents remain involved, make better transitions, maintain the quality of their work, and develop realistic plans for their future. Students whose parents are not involved, on the other hand, are more likely to drop out of school.Handout in packet:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix C: Research-Based Resource,” USDE, April 2004Sources:(Condition of Education 2000, USDE, Henderson and Mapp 2002, Henderson and Berla 1994, Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993, Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited in Eccles and Harold 1996) Anne Henderson and Nancy Berla: The Evidence Grows (1981); The Evidence Continues to Grow (1987); and A New Generation of Evidence: The Family Is Critical to Student Achievement ,(1995).Source: ( 2002 A Wave of New Evidence, Henderson and Mapp, USDE, Condition of Education 2000, Henderson and Berla, Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993 Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited in Eccles and Harold 1996)
33Research Shows When Parents Are Involved! Students have higher grades and test scores, better attendance, and complete homework more consistently.Students exhibit more positive attitudes and behavior.Different types of parent/family involvement produce different gains.Research on Parental InvolvementThe research further shows the following:The more extensive the parent involvement, the higher the student achievement.When parents are involved in their students' education, those students have higher grades and test scores, better attendance, and complete homework more consistently.When parents are involved, students exhibit more positive attitudes and behavior.Students whose parents are involved in their lives have higher graduation rates and greater enrollment rates in post-secondary education.Different types of parent/family involvement produce different gains. To have long-lasting gains for students, parent involvement activities must be well-planned, inclusive, and comprehensive.Handout in packet:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix C: Research-Based Resource,” USDE, April 2004Sources:(Condition of Education 2000, USDE, Henderson and Mapp 2002, Henderson and Berla 1994, Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993, Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited in Eccles and Harold 1996) Anne Henderson and Nancy Berla: The Evidence Grows (1981); The Evidence Continues to Grow (1987); and A New Generation of Evidence: The Family Is Critical to Student Achievement ,(1995).Source: (2002 A Wave of New Evidence, Henderson and Mapp USDE, Condition of Education 2000, Henderson and Berla, Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993 Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited in Eccles and Harold 1996)
34Research ShowsAccording to the research, the achievement of a student in school is not based solely on income or socioeconomic status, but the extent to which that student’s family is able to do the following:Create a home environment that encourages learningCommunicate high, yet reasonable, expectations for the child's achievement and future careersBecome involved in their child's education at school and communityResearch on Parental InvolvementThe research further shows that the most accurate predictor of a student's achievement in school is not income or social status, but the extent to which that student's family is able to become involved in the learning of their children. [Refer to slide.]Handout in packet:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix C: Research-Based Resource,” USDE, April 2004Sources:(Condition of Education 2000, USDE, Henderson and Mapp 2002, Henderson and Berla 1994, Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993, Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited in Eccles and Harold 1996) Anne Henderson and Nancy Berla: The Evidence Grows (1981); The Evidence Continues to Grow (1987); and A New Generation of Evidence: The Family Is Critical to Student Achievement ,(1995).Source: (2002 A Wave of New Evidence, Henderson and Mapp USDE, Condition of Education 2000, Henderson and Berla, Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993 Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited in Eccles and Harold 1996)
35#7. What barriers must be acknowledged for districts and schools to implement effective parental involvement practices?Addressing Barriers to Parental Involvement – Section 1111The next slide outlines some of the barriers that districts, schools and parents often face in becoming involved in parental activities. The law articulates that the role of the state is to support parental involvement activities and disseminate effective practices that are based on current research and foster high academic standards for children.The effective practices employed should also be geared to lowering barriers to the participation of parents in areas related to school planning, review, and improvement.Source:NCLB:Addressing Barriers
36Barriers to Parental Involvement The barriers that limit effective parental involvement practices must be addressed by the district and the school.Breaking Down Barriers to Parental InvolvementIn order for parental involvement programs to be effective, existing barriers should be addressed. When barriers are acknowledged, trusting home/school relationships and effective parental involvement programs can be implemented. Some of the barriers that often plague low-performing communities include the following: [Please adapt according to your knowledge of the subjects.]Economic Barriers: Districts and schools must acknowledge the economic status of residents and develop programs that meet these needs. There is a broad range of economic situations that often arise in Title I schools (i.e., unemployment, TANF, multiple day and nighttime jobs or other income sources).Social Barriers: Districts and schools must acknowledge that families may be run by single parent households. According to the 2000 US Census, there are 11,891,000 single parent households in the nation. There is also an emergence of non-traditional households and families headed by the grandparent.Educational Barriers: Parents may have limited educational attainment, which may result in difficulty in assisting children in doing homework assignments (i.e., adult illiteracy).Language Barriers: Districts and schools are required to address the needs of students that are limited English proficient. Parents may also possess the same language limitations. Strategies must be developed to inform parents of the law in diverse languages in a practical and understandable manner.Cultural Barriers: Districts and schools must be sensitive to cultural differences among parents and students by acknowledging the wide array of cultures and religions that exist within the school community and ensuring that all cultures are represented..Sources:NCLB:The National Network of Partnership Schools: A Model for Family-School-Community Partnerships, The Harvard Family Research Project, Prepared for the DeWitt Wallace-Reader’s Digest Fund, May 20002000 US Census:
37Practical and Timely Information in a Language Parents Can Understand #8. What is Parents’ Right-to-Know?Parents’ Right-to-KnowThe next series of slides discusses how NCLB emphasizes the importance of communicating information to parents, such as Right-to-Know policy, state notifications, report cards, language instruction programs, supplemental educational services, and school choice option. Districts and schools are required by law to provide information in a practical, uniform, and understandable format.Practical and Timely Information in a Language Parents Can Understand
38Parent Notifications Parents’ Right-to-Know Paraprofessionals School Report CardsSchool ImprovementAdequate Yearly Progress (AYP)Language Instruction ProgramsNAEP Participation NotificationsParent NotificationsDistricts and schools are required to notify and provide parents with information concerning notifications, reportcards, supplemental educational services, school choice, and the qualifications of teachers.Parents’ Right-to-Know: District and School-Level ResponsibilityParents’ Right-to-Know under NCLB requires that the local school provide each individual parent with information related to the qualifications and skills of teachers. The information must be presented in a manner that is practical and understandable for parents.Notice to Parents: Role of the State (School Improvement)The state shall promptly provide, to the parents of each student enrolled in a school served by a district identified for improvement, the status of that district (in a format and, to the extent practicable, in a language the parents can understand), and the reasons for that identification and how parents can participate in upgrading the quality of the district.Notice to Parents: Role of the District (School Improvement)The district shall publish and disseminate information, to the public and to the parents of each student enrolled in a school subject to corrective action, regarding any corrective action the district takes at a school in need of improvement. The information must be in an understandable and uniform format and, to the extent practicable, provided in a language that the parents can understand. It must be communicated through such means as the Internet, the media, and public agencies.Language Instruction Program: District Requirements - Section 1111Not later than 30 days after the beginning of the school year, the district is required to inform a parent(s) of a limited English proficient (LEP) child identified for participation in a language instruction educational program of the reasons for the identification of their child as limited English proficient and in need of placement in a language instruction educational program; the child’s level of English proficiency, how such level was assessed, and the status of the child’s academic achievement.Paraprofessionals, School Report Cards, NAEP, Written PoliciesNotifications on paraprofessionals (Section 1119), school report cards (Section 1111), and NAEP participation must also be provided for parents.Source:and sec1111Handout: Report Cards: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, September 2003Handout: Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix B: Parental Notice Requirements,” USDE, April 2004
39Notifications to Parents Teacher Qualifications Parents’ Right-to-KnowThe local district must notify parents of their right to request the following information about their child’s teachers:Whether they met state license requirements for the grade and subject areas taughtIf they are teaching under emergency or provisional statusWhat baccalaureate degree and other degrees the teachers have earnedThe qualifications of paraprofessionalsWhether the child has been taught for four or more consecutive weeks by a teacher who is not highly qualifiedParents’ Right-to-Know: District and School-Level ResponsibilityThe Parents’ Right-to-Know is addressed in Section 1111 of NCLB. This section is important because it provides parents with the opportunity to review the qualifications of teachers instructing their children. At the beginning of each school year, a district that receives Title I funds shall notify the parents of each student attending a Title I school that the parents may request, and the district will provide (in a timely manner), information regarding the professional qualifications of the student's classroom teachers, including, at a minimum, the following:Whether the teacher has met state qualification and licensing criteria for the grade levels and subject areas in which the teacher provides instruction.Whether the teacher is teaching under emergency or other provisional status through which state qualification or licensing criteria have been waived.The baccalaureate degree major of the teacher and any other graduate certification or degree held by the teacher, and the field of discipline of the certification or degree.Whether the child is provided services by paraprofessionals and, if so, their qualifications.Timely notice that the parent’s child has been assigned, or has been taught for four or more consecutive weeks by, a teacher who is not highly qualified.ParaprofessionalsParaprofessionals hired after January 8, 2002, must meet stringent requirements. They are required to meet at least one of the following options:1. Possess an associate’s degree with approximately 60 credits in a single discipline, such as Language Arts Literacy and Business. (Discipline can include noneducational fields, e.g., business major.)2. Two years of college, or 48 credits (not including remedial/development courses)3. An assessment/test (e.g., ETS Parapro Assessment, Performance Portfolio Assessment)Paraprofessionals hired prior to January 8, 2002, must meet these requirements by January 8, 2006.Sources:
40Notifications to Parents School Report Cards 1. Information on student achievement broken into six categories:(Race and ethnicity, gender, disability status, migrant status, English proficiency, and economic status)2. The percentage of students not tested3. Two-year trends in student achievement (all subject areas & grade levels)4. Information on indicators used to determine AYP5. Graduation rates for secondary studentsInformation on the performance of the district toward making AYPInformation on the professional qualifications of teachersComparative informationSchool Report CardsThe Annual Report Card provides vital information on what each child (student) is learning in school. It provides information on state test results in all tested grades. The state and district must prepare an annual report card in order for parents to know what the child and school is accomplishing. All states and districts receiving Title I funds must prepare and disseminate annual report cards. School report cards are critical tools for promoting accountability for schools, local school districts, and states by publicizing data about student performance and program effectiveness for parents, policymakers, and other stakeholders. The Annual School Report Card should contain the following information in compliance with federal regulation. [Refer to slide.]The law requires states and districts to publish report cards and distribute to parents. The reports can be published on a Web site. The New Jersey Department of Education has posted the school report cards for school identified in need of improvement and a school report card for all schools. A sample of a school report is included in the packet.State School Report CardsBeginning in the school year, unless the state has received a one-year extension, the state is required to prepare and disseminate an annual state report card. The report card should be presented in an understandable and uniform format, and in a language that parents can understand.District School Report CardsBeginning in the school year, a district receiving funds is required to prepare and disseminate an annual district report, except the state may provide the district with a one-year extension due to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances.NCLB, Section 1116(b)(1) states that districts must “publicize and disseminate the results of the local annual review to parents, teachers, principals, schools, and the community so that the teachers, principals, other staff, and schools can continually refine, in an instructionally useful manner, the program of instruction to help all Title I children meet the challenging state student academic achievement standards.Sources:(and 1116)New Jersey School Report Cards:Handout: Report Cards, Title I Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, September 2003:
41State AssessmentsStudents are currently tested in grades 3, 4, 8, and 11 in language arts literacy (LAL) and mathematics using the state assessments.Other grades will be phased in. By the school year, LAL and mathematics tests will be administered in every year in grades 3 through 8 and once during grade spanScience will be tested in all the above grades by the school year.An Alternative Proficiency Assessment (APA) will be administered to eligible students with disabilities.State AssessmentsIt is important for districts and schools to communicate the state assessment system to parents. In school year , the grade 3 assessment was a pilot. It will no longer be in pilot in ; the results will be applied to the AYP calculations. The Alternative Proficiency Assessment (APA) can be applied to only 1% of students. It is linked to a student’s Individual Education Plan (IEP). Students with disabilities who are moved from their neighborhood school to receive services at other schools are included in their home school’s accountability results.The law requires limited English proficient (LEP) students to be assessed, with accommodations. English language proficiency tests are administered to all LEP students. Districts can substitute one of these tests for first-year LEP students for the language arts literacy (LAL) portion of the state assessment to determine participation. LEP students enrolled in a language assistance program plus those who have achieved English proficiency and exited from language assistance for up to two years are used for the AYP calculations.AYP calculations apply to LAL and mathematics. Although science will be tested, the results will not be included for AYP calculations.Accountability is central to the success of NCLB. States are required to set high standards for improving academic achievement in order to improve the quality of education for all students.Under NCLB, New Jersey has established a system of accountability that includes rewards and sanctions. This system of accountability is applied to all public schools and districts in the state. State regulations clearly articulate the requirement for the annual evaluation of all public schools to determine if they are meeting standards. (N.J.A.C. 6A:30-1.1).The standards by which these schools will now be evaluated, as outlined in the Accountability Workbook, are based upon AYP indicators, that is, state assessment results for the total student population plus subgroups (economically disadvantaged, race/ethnicity, students with disabilities, and limited English proficiency) in mathematics and language arts literacy, along with secondary indicators―attendance for elementary and middle schools and graduation rate for high schools―plus 95% participation in the state assessments. This includes all students, as well as special education students who are placed out of the district. AYP under the new federal goal is 100% proficiency by 2014.A single statewide accountability system must be applied to all public schools and LEAs.All schools and LEAs include both Title I and non-Title I schools and LEAs. Student assessments are administered and the accountability system is applied in the same manner for all schools, regardless of receipt of Title I funds. All public school students are included in the state accountability system.A student attending the same school for a “full academic year” must be included when determining if a school has made AYP. (A full academic year is defined as from July 1 to June 30.) All student results are included in the school-level report card.Source:Accountability Workbook – Title I Web site:
42Notification to Parents Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Goal: 100% Proficiency byDefinition of AYP:AYP is a method of determining the progress of student success within the local school. AYP is used to establish subgroup and school compliance with the incremental goals of success and achievement of the state’s established benchmarks for success.Each state must measure the yearly incremental progress of schools to reach 100 percent proficiency by the school year.AYP is used to close achievement gaps.What Parents Need to Know About AYPIt is important as a district and school to understand what AYP is to communicate this information to parents. The definition has been supplied below to assist you discussing AYP. [Refer to slide.]Adequate Yearly Progress Definition: Adequate yearly progress (AYP) is defined by the state in a manner that (1) applies the same high standards of academic achievement to all public elementary school and secondary school students in the state; (2) is statistically valid and reliable; (3) results in continuous and substantial academic improvement for all students; (4) measures the progress of public elementary schools, secondary schools and districts, and the state, based primarily on the state academic assessments; and (5) includes separate, measurable annual objectives for continuous and substantial improvement for the achievement of all public elementary school and secondary school students including economically disadvantaged students, students from major racial and ethnic groups, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency.Starting Point: Each state, using data for the school year, is required to establish the starting point for measuring academic achievement based on specific proficiency criteria (see the Accountability Workbook).2003 Starting PointsLanguage Arts Literacy MathematicsGrade 4 (68) Grade 4 (53)Grade 8 (58) Grade 8 (39)Grade 11 (73) Grade 11 (55)Beginning not later than school year , student academic achievement is measured against the challenging state academic content in each of grades 3 through 8 in, at a minimum, mathematics and reading or language arts.Handouts:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix A: Definitions,” USDE, April 2004Sources:Title I Web site:Incremental Increase in Expectations Chart, Understanding Accountability:
43Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Goal: 100% Proficiency by 2013-2014 AYP means continuous, substantial improvement and measurement for achievement of the following:All public elementary school and secondary school studentsEconomically disadvantaged studentsStudents from major racial and ethnic groupsStudents with disabilitiesStudents with limited English proficiencyWhat Parents Need to Know About AYPBeginning not later than the school year, states must measure the achievement of students against the challenging state academic content and student academic achievement standards in each of grades 3 through 8 in, at a minimum, mathematics and reading or language arts, except that one additional year may be granted by the USDE if the state demonstrates exceptional or uncontrollable circumstances.Handouts:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix A: Definitions,” USDE, April 2004Sources:Title I Web site:Incremental Increase in Expectations Chart, Understanding Accountability:
44Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) According to NCLB, Section 1111, the state (SEA) and district (LEA) must use the annual review of school progress to determine primarily:Whether a school has made adequate progress toward its students meeting or exceeding the state’s student academic achievement standards byWhether a school has narrowed the achievement gapAdequate Yearly Progress: State Plans, Section 1111[Read slide.]Each state plan shall demonstrate, based on the state academic assessments, what constitutes adequate yearly progress for the state, and all public elementary and secondary schools and districts in the state, toward enabling all public elementary and secondary school students to meet the state’s student academic achievement standards, while working toward the goal of narrowing the achievement gap.The state and districts use AYP primarily to determine (1) if a school has made adequate progress toward all students meeting or exceeding the state’s student academic achievement standards by , and (2) if a school has narrowed the achievement gap. AYP results also provide the state and districts with detailed, useful information that they can use to develop or refine technical assistance strategies they employ with schools.Sources:LEA and School Improvement, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, January 2004:School Improvement Status Letter:Supplemental Educational Services, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, August 2003:USDE Web site:
45Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Schools that do not meet state standards for two consecutive years must make progress toward attaining standards by 2014.Each state establishes a minimum standard for percentage of students proficient for each year during that period.Under NCLB, states are required to calculate the participation rates and student performance on the state assessments for all students.Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)In New Jersey, those schools that do not meet state standards for two consecutive years, are expected to make incremental progress toward attaining standards by Every state is required to set AYP starting points based on data.Definition of AYP: AYP is a method of determining the progress of student success within the local school. AYP is used to establish subgroup and school compliance with the incremental goals of success and achievement of the state’s established benchmarks for success.State Flexibility: States are required to define AYP. Under NCLB, each state must establish a definition of “adequate yearly progress” (AYP) to use each year to determine the achievement of each school district and school. The new definition of AYP is diagnostic in nature, and intended to highlight where schools need improvement and should focus their resources. The statute gives states and districts significant flexibility in how they direct resources and tailor interventions to the needs of individual schools identified for improvement.The Aggregate: AYP must be met for the whole, the aggregate, and for each of the student subgroups (disaggregated), including major racial and ethnic groups (white, African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American, and other), economically disadvantaged, limited English proficient (LEP), and disabled. To meet AYP, the total school and all subgroups must attain the performance benchmarks, participation requirement, and secondary measures.Handouts:AYP Starting Points, USDOE Web siteUnderstanding Accountability in New Jersey, NJDOE Web siteSource:Title I Web site:
46AYP Calculations Subgroups Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) is calculated for total district, total for each school, and the following student subgroups for each content area (LAL/math):Racial/ethnic groups, including white, African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Native AmericanStudents with disabilitiesEconomically disadvantagedLimited English proficient (LEP)SubgroupsAYP is calculated for total student population and student subgroups. Each subgroup must have a minimum number (“n”) of 20 students for performance (35 for students with disabilities) and 40 for participation. There are 41 indicators used for calculating AYP.Handout:“The ABCs of AYP”Sources:NCLB, Section 1111(b)Accountability Workbook
47AYP Calculations (cont.) Participation95% of students in each subgroup must take the assessment. Students must be enrolled by July 1 to be counted.Under NCLB, states are required to calculate the participation rates and student performance of all students on the state assessments.Secondary IndicatorsDistricts must also meet certain standards for the following secondary indicators to make AYP:Attendance for elementary and middle school levelsGraduation rate for high schoolAYP CalculationsThe participation rate and performance rate of all students on the three assessments must be included to determine if AYP is met. The following chart illustrates the process. [Turn to next slide.]Secondary Measure: Each school, school district, and the state as a whole must show progress on an additional indicator (graduation rate for high schools and attendance rate for elementary and middle schools). The secondary indicator must also be met for safe harbor calculations for any student subgroup.
48Sample Chart Groups Made 95% Participation Rate Student Performance Made 2003 AYP Benchmark TargetMade Safe HarborAn * denotes no students or less than 20 students in a groupAn * denotes no comparable dataLALMathTotal PopulationYESStudents with Disabilities*Limited English Proficient StudentsWhiteAfrican-AmericanNOAsian/Pacific IslanderAmerican Indian/Native AmericanHispanicOtherEconomically DisadvantagedSchool Attendance Rate: Met Target(For elementary and middle schools)Graduation Rate: Met Target(For high schools)AYP Chart with Safe HarborUnder NCLB, states are required to calculate student performance and participation rates of all students on the state assessments.This sample school profile chart illustrates which AYP indicators were met and which were not. A separate profile is created for each assessment. The column labeled “Groups” indicates the student groups measured as primary indicators for AYP. The ten groups are measured for performance and participation for LAL and mathematics for a total of 40 indicators. [Each yes and * represents a positive count. The asterisk represents that the data was suppressed for small cell size (less than 20 or 35 for performance and 40 for participation) or the population does not exist.] This school profile shows that the school achieved 34 of the 40 indicators. When safe harbor is calculated, the school makes 39 of the 40 indicators.There are a total of 40 primary indicators and one secondary indicator. The primary indicators are as follows:Indicators DefinedTotal populationStudents with disabilitiesLimited English proficientWhiteAfrican-AmericanAsian/Pacific IslanderAmerican Indian/Native AmericanHispanicOtherEconomically disadvantagedThere is a 41st indicator called secondary measure.41st secondary indicator for elementary and middle schools is attendance rate and for high schools it is graduation rate.(k-8 (attendance) and high school (drop out rate) * Secondary measure is the new participation and performance rate, there is no safe harbor for the secondary measure. Making a total of 41 primary indicators.HandoutUSDOE Web site: AYP Starting PointsNJDOE Web site: Understanding Accountability in New JerseySource: Title I web site
49Incremental Increases in Expectations Starting Point 20032005200820112014Language Arts/LiteracyGrade 468758291100Grade 858667687Grade 1173798592Math5362394955647486Starting Point and Incremental ExpectationsThe Incremental Increases in Expectations chart illustrates the percent of proficiency required for state assessments up to These targets must be achieved in the given year in order for the school to meet AYP requirements. The expectations increase every three years until The preliminary starting points for Language Arts Literacy (Reading/Writing) are: NJ ASK 4 68%, GEPA 58%, HSPA 73%; and for Mathematics: NJ ASK 4 53%, GEPA 39%, HSPA 55%. The targets increase in future years until, as required, all students are proficient in In addition, by the school year, tests must be administered every year in grades 3 through 8 and one year in grade span States must develop standards in science by the school year. Beginning in the school year, science achievement must also be tested. Please refer to the Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook to assist you in understanding how the starting points and increments were determined.Sources:Consolidated Accountability Workbook:Understanding Accountability in New Jersey:USDOE Guidance Web site:NJDOE Guidance Web site:
50Sample School AYP Profile This chart illustrates the actual profile that each school receives to identify its AYP status.
51School Improvement Continuum Chart StatusSanctionsYear 1Does not make AYPEarly warning; no sanctionsYear 2School in need of improvementPublic school choice, technical assistanceYear 3Public school choice, supplemental educational services, technical assistanceYear 4School in need of improvement – corrective actionPublic school choice, supplemental educational services, corrective action, technical assistanceSchool Improvement Continuum ChartThis chart identifies the progression of schools identified as in need of improvement and the related sanctions. [Refer to chart.]Year One – Early WarningA school that does not make AYP for one year goes into Early Warning status. There are no sanctions, but the school should be addressing the deficiencies so it can make AYP the following year and avoid going into improvement status.Year Two School ImprovementA school that does not make AYP for two consecutive years, as AYP is defined by the state’s accountability system, must be identified as a school in need of improvement. The school must prepare a school improvement plan and offer school choice. The district must provide for technical assistance.Year Three School ImprovementA school that does not make AYP for three consecutive years must continue to offer choice and also supplemental educational services (SES). The district continues its technical assistance.Year Four Corrective ActionA school that does not make AYP for four consecutive years is identified for corrective action. The school must continue to offer school choice and SES. Identifying a school for corrective action signals the LEA’s intention to take greater control of the school’s management and to have a more direct hand in its decision-making.Year Five Planning for RestructuringAfter five consecutive years of not making AYP, a school must plan to restructure. It must continue to offer choice and SES.Year Six RestructuringAfter six consecutive years of not making AYP, a school must be restructured. It must continue to offer choice and SES, and prepare an alternative governance plan which includes one of the following:Reopening the school as a public charter school.Replacing all or most of the school staff (which may include the principal) who are relevant to the failure to make AYP.Entering into a contract with an entity, such as a private management company, with a demonstrated record of effectiveness, to operate the public school.Turning the operation of the school over to the state, if permitted under state law and agreed to by the state.Sources:LEA and School Improvement, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, January 2004:School Improvement Status Letter:Supplemental Educational Services Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, August 2003:
52The local district is required to notify parents and Parent NotificationSchool ImprovementThe local district is required to notify parents andprovide the following:What school improvement meansHow the school compares with other schools academicallyReason for the identificationWhat the school is doing to address the problemNotification of School Improvement: Section 1116The district is required to notify parents of schools that are identified for improvement and provide an explanation of how the district and school is working to achieve the high state standards. The process is described below.Local District ResponsibilityNotice to Parents: A district shall promptly provide to the parent or parents (in an understandable and uniform format and, in a language the parents can understand) of each student enrolled in an elementary school or a secondary school identified for school improvement notification of the school’s improvement status. The NJDOE has posted sample letters on the Title I Web site. The notification date must be provided in the NCLB Consolidated Grant Application. The notice should include the following information:What the identification means.How the school compares in terms of academic achievement to other elementary schools or secondary schools served by the district and the state.The reasons for the identification.What the school identified for school improvement is doing to address the problem of low achievement.(continued on next page)Handout: USDE non-regulatory guidance on notificationsSource:NCLB, Section 1116:
53Parent Notification School Improvement (continued from previous slide)What the district and state are doing to help the schoolHow parents can be involved in addressing academic issuesExplanation of the school choice options and supplemental educational services availableSpecific technical assistance to address the implementation of parental involvementNotification of School Improvement (cont.)It is the responsibility of the local district to inform parents of the following: [Read slide.]Local District ResponsibilityThe notices should include the following:What the district and state are doing to help the school address the achievement problem.How the parents can become involved in addressing the academic issues that caused the school to be identified for school improvement.The parents’ option to transfer their child to another high-performing public school within the district (with transportation provided by the district) or to obtain supplemental educational services for the child.Districts are required to provide technical assistance for schools identified in need of improvement.Technical AssistanceFor each school identified for school improvement, the district must provide technical assistance as the school develops and implements the school plan throughout the plan’s duration, including the following:Analyzing data from the assessments, and other examples of student work, to identify and address problems in instruction, and problems if any, in implementing the parental involvement requirements described in Section 1118, the professional development requirements described in Section 1119, the responsibilities of the school and district under the school plan, and identify and address solutions to such problems.Identifying and implementing professional development, instructional strategies, and methods of instruction that are based on scientifically based research and that have proven effective in addressing the specific instructional issues that caused the school to be identified for school improvement.Analyzing and revising the school's budget so that the school’s resources are more effectively allocated to the activities most likely to increase student academic achievement and to remove the school from school improvement status.Handout: USDE non-regulatory guidance on notificationsSources:Notification Letters:Title I Web site
54Notification School Choice School Choice The district, not later than the first day of the school year following identification of improvement status, must provide all students enrolled in the school with the option to transfer to another public school served by the district that has not been identified for school improvement.Public School Choice: Section 1116The district is required to notify parents about choice options.Definition: In the case of a school identified for school improvement, the district will, not later than the first day of the school year following such identification, provide all parents of students enrolled in the school with the option to transfer their child to another public school served by the district, which may include a public charter school, that has not been identified for school improvement.General Rule: In providing students the option to transfer to another public school, the district is required to give priority to the lowest achieving children from low-income families.Transfer Options: Students who use the option to transfer will be enrolled in classes and other activities in the public school to which the students transfer in the same manner as all other children at the public school.Identification: If a school does not make AYP by the end of the first full school year in improvement, the district serving the schools is required to continue to provide all students enrolled in the school with the option to transfer to another public school served by the district, make supplemental educational services available, and continue to provide technical assistance.Internet Handout: Public School Choice Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, February 2004:Sources:NCLB, Section 1116:Title I Web site
55Supplemental Educational Services NotificationSupplemental Educational ServicesSupplemental Educational ServicesThe term supplemental educational services means tutoring and other supplemental academic enrichment services that are: (1) in addition to instruction provided during the school day; and (2) of high quality, research–based, and specifically designed to increase the academic achievement of eligible children.Supplemental Educational Services (SES): Section 1116The district is required to notify parents about supplemental educational services.New Jersey Implementation provides a clear and concise description of an education plan that focuses on Core Curriculum Content Standards and strong academic services for schools identified in need of improvement.The state is required to adhere to the following when implementing supplemental educational services statewide:Consult with districts, parents, teachers, and other public constituents to promote maximum participation by providers to ensure that parents have as many choices as possible.Develop and apply objective criteria to potential providers based on increasing academic proficiency.Maintain an updated list of approved providers across the state from which parents may select.Develop, implement, and publicly report on standards and techniques for monitoring the quality and effectiveness of the services and for withdrawing approval from providers that fail, for two consecutive years, to contribute to increasing the academic proficiency.Provide annual notice to potential providers of SES of the opportunity to provide services and the applicable procedures for obtaining approval from the state to be an approved provider of those services.Criteria for ProvidersApproved SES providers must be registered with the New Jersey Department of Treasury and agree to the following:1. Provide parents of children receiving SES and the district with information on the progress of the children in increasing achievement, in a format and, to the extent practicable, a language that parents can understand.2. Ensure that instruction provided and content used by the provider are consistent with the instruction and content used by the district and state and are aligned with state student academic achievement standards.3. Meet all applicable federals state, and local health, safety, and civil rights laws.4. Ensure that all instruction and content are secular, neutral, and nonideological.Note: Districts with schools in need of improvement must reserve 20 percent of their Title I allocation for public school choice andsupplemental educational services.Internet Handout: Supplemental Educational Services Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, August 2003:Sources:NCLB, Section 1116:Title I Web site:
56Notification Language Instruction Programs Not later than 30 days after the beginning of the schoolyear, the district is required to inform a child’s parent(s)of a limited English proficient child identified forparticipation in a Language Instruction Educationalprogram.Language Instruction Programs: District Requirements Section 1111The district is required to notify parents about the placement of their child in a language instruction educational program.The law says that not later than 30 days after the beginning of the school year, the district is required to inform parents of limited English proficient children who are identified for participation in a Language Instruction Educational Program. The district must provide the reasons for the identification of and the placement of the child in a language instruction educational program; the child’s level of English proficiency, how such level was assessed, and the status of the child’s academic achievement.Source:NCLB, Section 1111:
57Parent Notification NAEP States accepting Title I funds must assure the following:Participation in state NAEPBiennial test in reading and mathematicsThe sampled schools will cooperate with all phases of NAEPParents of children selected for NAEP must be notified their child may be excused from the NAEP and are not required to answer all test questionsNational Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)NCLB clearly provides strong incentives for school districts and states to participate in NAEP. Beginning with the school year, those states that wish to receive Title I grants from the federal government must participate in the biennial fourth-grade and eighth-grade NAEP reading and mathematics assessments. The federal government assumes the full cost of administering these assessments.Federal law specifies that NAEP is voluntary for every pupil, school, school district, and state. Parents must receive notice if their child is selected for the NAEP with the option to decline the testing.School districts that receive Title I funds and are selected for the NAEP sample are also required to participate in NAEP reading and mathematics assessments in grades 4 and 8. All other NAEP assessments are voluntary.Federal law also dictates complete privacy for all test takers and their families. Under NCLB, the state is charged with ensuring that NAEP tests do not question test takers about personal or family beliefs or make information about their personal identity publicly available.Sources:nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/NCLB, P.L Title VI, Part C, Section 411 (5)(A)
58#9. What are the nuts and bolts for building capacity for parental involvement? Building Capacity for Parental Involvement: Section 1118The next series of slides discusses how districts and schools are required to collaborate to encourage parental involvement. District and school collaboration is essential because this is the locus where students and parents can be reached. Section 1118 is important because it provides the basis to enable districts and schools to work with parents in developing written policy, school-parent compacts, and activities to build capacity.Handout: Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, “Appendix D: District Wide Parental Involvement Policy” and “Appendix E: School-Parent Compact,” USDE, April 2004Source:NCLB:BUILDING CAPACITY Written Policies School-Parent Compacts 14 Activities
59District-School-Parents Policies and Compacts The written policies and compacts must be developed jointly with parents. All pieces must come together for policies and school-parent compacts to be effective.District InputWritten Policies & School-Parent CompactsDistrict-School-Parent CollaborationThis pie chart illustrates the importance of collaboration with parents and shows that parents are often excluded in the process of developing the written policies and school-parent compacts.Both the district and school-level policies must be developed in coordination with parents. School-parent compacts must also be developed with the input of parents. The input of the parent is vital to the success of any school. Parents are often outside of the loop. As you develop your written policies and compacts, please ensure that parents are included in the process of development: make a commitment that each parent in your building is aware that these policies and school-parent compacts exist.ParentsSchool Input
60District and School Parental Involvement Policies 1. The District LevelWritten Parental Involvement Policy2. The School LevelThe Written Parental Involvement PolicyIt is important to understand that both the district and the local school must develop a written policy in collaboration with parents. The written parent involvement policy must be coordinated on both the district and school levels. Essentially, both the district and the school are required under Section 1118 to both develop parental involvement policies that ensure that parents are included in the planning process in improving their child’s academic development, and to build capacity for parental involvement. In order to do this, the policies are required to be developed in joint collaboration with parents.Sources:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004
61District Parental Involvement Policy The District Policy:Involves parents in the development of school plansProvides coordination, technical assistance, and supportEncourages the school’s and district’s capacity for strong parental involvementCoordinates and integrates parental involvement strategies with other programsConducts, with parent input, an annual evaluation of the effectiveness of the parent involvement policyDistrict Responsibilities: Written Parental Involvement PlansIt is important that the district collaborate with parents on the development of the district parental involvement policy.NCLB CitationWritten Policy: Each district that receives Title I funds shall develop jointly with, agree on with, and distribute to, parents of participating children a written parent involvement policy. The policy shall be incorporated into the district’s plan developed under Section 1112, establish the agency's expectations for parent involvement, and describe how the agency will do the following:Involve parents in the joint development of the plan (Section 1112), and the process of school review and improvement (Section 1116).Provide the coordination, technical assistance, and other support necessary to assist participating schools in planning and implementing effective parent involvement activities to improve student academic achievement and school performance.Build the schools’ and parents’ capacity for strong parental involvement.Coordinate and integrate parental involvement strategies with those under other programs such as Head Start, Reading First, Early Reading First, Even Start, Parents as Teachers, Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters, and state-run preschool programs.Conduct, with the involvement of parents, an annual evaluation of the content and effectiveness of the parental involvement policy in improving the academic quality, including identifying barriers to greater participation by parents in activities (with particular attention to parents who are economically disadvantaged, disabled, have limited English proficiency, have limited literacy, or are of any racial or ethnic minority background), and use the findings of such evaluation to design strategies for more effective parental involvement, and to revise, if necessary, the parental involvement policies.Involve parents in the activities of the schools.Sources:(and 1112)Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004
62School Parental Involvement Policy The School Policy:Requires schools to meet annually to inform parents of their school's participation and explain the rights of the parentsOffers flexible meetingsInvolves parents in the planning, review, and improvement of programsProvides parents information related to curriculum, assessment, and proficiency levelsEnables parents to submit comments concerning schoolwide programsSchool-Level Responsibilities: Written Parental PolicyIt is important that the school collaborates with parents on the development of the district parental involvement policy.The law says that each school served with Title I funds is required to jointly develop with, and distribute to, parents of participating children a written parental involvement policy, agreed on by such parents. Parents shall be notified of the policy in an understandable and uniform format and, to the extent practicable, provided in a language the parents can understand. Such policy shall be made available to the local community and updated periodically to meet the changing needs of parents and the school.Each Title I school is required to do the following:Convene an annual meeting, at a convenient time, to which all parents of participating children shall be invited and encouraged to attend, to inform parents of their school’s participation in Title I and to explain the parental involvement requirements.Offer a flexible number of meetings, such as meetings in the morning or evening, and may provide, using Title I funds, transportation, child care, or home visits, as such services relate to parental involvement.Involve parents, in an organized, ongoing, and timely way, in the planning, review, and improvement of Title I programs, including the planning, review, and improvement of the school parental involvement policy and the joint development of the schoolwide program plan, if applicable, except that if a school has in place a process for involving parents in the joint planning and design of the school's programs, the school may use that process, if such process includes an adequate representation of parents of participating children.Provide parents of participating children: timely information about programs; a description and explanation of the curriculum in use at the school, the forms of academic assessment used to measure student progress, and the proficiency levels students are expected to meet; and if requested by parents, opportunities for regular meetings to formulate suggestions and to participate, as appropriate, in decisions relating to the education of their children, and respond to any such suggestions as soon as practicably possible; and if the schoolwide program plan is not satisfactory to the parents of participating children, submit any parent comments on the plan when the school makes the plan available to the district.Sources:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004
63The School-Parent Compact The School-Parent Compact describes:The school’s responsibility to provide high-quality curriculum and instructionWays in which parents will be responsible for supporting their children’s learningThe importance of communication between teachers and parents on an ongoing basis through the following:Parent-teacher conferencesReports to parents on student progressAccess to staff and volunteer opportunitiesParticipation in classroom activities, and observations of classroom activitiesThe School-Parent Compact: Section It is important that the school collaborates with parents around the school-parent compact. This third component of the school-parent compact is often overlooked. [Refer to 3rd bullet.]The school-parent compact must describe the following:The school’s responsibility to provide high-quality curriculum and instruction in a supportive and effectivelearning environment that enables children served under Title I, Part A to meet the state’s student academicachievement standards.2. Methods in which parents will be responsible for supporting their children’s learning (for example, monitoringattendance, homework completion, or television watching; volunteering in their child’s classroom; andparticipating as appropriate in decisions relating to the education of their children and positive use of extracurriculartime).3. The importance of communication between teachers and parents on an ongoing basis through, at a minimum, thesestrategies:Parent-teacher conferences in elementary schools, at least annually, during which the compact will be discussed as it relates to the individual child’s achievement.Frequent reports to parents on their child’s progress.Reasonable access to staff, opportunities to volunteer and participate in their child’s class, and observation of classroom activities. [NCLB, Section 1118(d)]Sources:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004
64Building Capacity for Parental Involvement 14 Activities 1. Parents must be assisted in understanding standards, assessments, and monitoring.2. Parents must be provided with materials and training to work with children, such as literacy training and using technology to foster parental involvement.Parents must be allowed to assist in providing education to the school staff in the contribution of parents and outreach activities.Building Capacity for Parental Involvement: Section 1118(e)School and Local Educational Agency (District) requirementsThe next slides outline the nuts and bolts of how districts and schools can collaborate to build capacity for parental involvement. In order to ensure effective parental involvement and to support a partnership between the school and the community to improve student academic achievement, each school and district is required to do the following to implement 14 activities to build capacity for parental involvement:14 Activities to Build Capacity for Involvement(1) Provide assistance to parents in understanding such topics as the state’s academic content standards and local academic assessments, the requirements and how to monitor a child’s progress, and how to work with educators to improve the achievement of their children.(2) Provide materials and training to help parents work with their children to improve their children’s achievement, such as literacy training and using technology, as appropriate, to foster parent involvement.(3) Educate teachers, pupil services personnel, principals, and other staff, with the assistance of parents, in the value and utility of contributions of parents; how to reach out to, communicate with, and work with parents as equal partners; implement and coordinate parent programs; and build ties between parents and the school.Note: The Educational Technology Training Centers (ETTC) have information related to technology training for parents.Sources:Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 2004
65Building Capacity for Parental Involvement 14 Activities (cont.) Parental involvement programs must be coordinated and integrated with related programs.Parent information must be sent in a format and language that parents can understand.Parents must be involved in the development of training for school staff.Building Capacity for Parental Involvement: Section 1118(e) (cont.)[Read slide.]14 Activities to Build Capacity for Involvement(4) Coordinate and integrate parent involvement programs and activities with other related programs (i.e., Head Start, Reading First, Early Reading First, Even Start, Parents as Teachers, Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters, and state-run preschool programs).(5) Ensure that information related to school and parent programs, meetings, and other activities is sent to the parents of the participating children in a format and language that parents can understand.(6) Involve parents in the development of training for teachers, principals, and other educators to improve the effectiveness of training.Source:
66Building Capacity for Parental Involvement 14 Activities (cont.) May provide literacy training.May pay reasonable expenses.May train parents to enhance the involvement of other parents.May arrange school meetings and in-home conferences.Building Capacity for Parental Involvement: Section (cont.)The remaining seven to fourteen activities have been combined because they are discretionary. These seven activities may be tied to specific Title I allocations of the district or school. These are highly recommended, yet suggested, options that the district and the school should consider in building capacity through parental involvement activities.14 Activities to Build Capacity for Involvement(7) May provide necessary literacy training through funds received under Title I if the district has exhausted all other reasonably available funding sources for training.(8) May pay reasonable and necessary expenses associated with local parental involvement activities, including transportation and child care costs, to enable parents to participate in school-related meetings and training services.(9) May train parents to enhance the involvement of other parents.(10) May arrange school meetings at a variety of times, or conduct in-home conferences between teachers or other educators with parents who are unable to attend conferences at school.Source
67Building Capacity for Parental Involvement 14 Activities (cont.) May adopt and implement model approaches.May establish a districtwide parent advisory council.May develop roles for community-based organizations and businessesProvide support as parents may requestBuilding Capacity for Parental Involvement: Section (cont.)[Read slide.]14 Activities to Build Capacity for Involvement(11) May adopt and implement model approaches to improving parental involvement.(12) May establish a districtwide parent advisory council to provide advice on all matters related to parental involvement.(13) May develop appropriate roles for community-based organizations and businesses in parent involvement activities.(14) Provide reasonable support for parental involvement activities as parents may request.Source
68Parental Involvement Technical Assistance Structure Research and legislation suggests that districts and schools should develop a technical/training assistance structure that provides ongoing outreach to parents. The technical assistance structure should provide information related to student achievement, data analysis and ways that parents can become more involved in fostering the learning of their children. This diagram outlines a process that can be adapted to meet the needs of an individual school and district. It is important to survey parents to find out their information needs (i.e., family literacy services, school report cards, school choice, etc.).Source:
69Strategies Section 1111Districts are required to coordinate and integrate parental involvement strategies with parental involvement strategies under other programs, such as the Head Start, Reading First, Early Reading First, Even Start, Parents as Teachers, Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters, and state-run preschool programs.Local Educational Agency Policy: Section 1111The law requires districts and schools to coordinate and integrate effective parental involvement strategies with other programs. [Read slide.]
70Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategy Districts and schools should adopt friendly strategies to engage parents.3 Critical QuestionsDo you have a parent marketing strategy in place at your district or school?Do you believe that it is important to have such a strategy in place?Have you evaluated your current parent marketing strategy?Parent Marketing StrategiesMarketing is a very important aspect of our daily lives. We expend countless amounts of energy and money daily to get others to buy into our work, products, and theories.Districts and schools are now confronted with the challenge to establish productive relationships with all parents to ensure that students learn to high academic standards. The strategies that districts and schools employ must be on target and purposeful. The ability to get parents involved is a difficult task, however, it can be accomplished. What would it take to get parents involved in the learning of their children?There are three critical questions to ask about your district and school parental involvement programs. [Refer to slide.]
71Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategies RecommendationsOpen meetings with an collaborative activity.Circulate a survey or needs assessment to determine how to structure parent activities for the year.Enable parents to assist in designing the strategy to engage parents.Parent-Friendly Marketing StrategiesPlease find a few recommendations to assist you in the development and design of your parent education strategic program. Evaluate how Title I dollars are spent for parental involvement. Districts and school must evaluate if the conferences, museum trips, and shopping trips reflect long term a good use of Title I money, especially when parents may be confronted with literacy problems and other issues.[Read slide.]
72Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategies Recommendations (cont.)Develop and communicate parent meetings and information via the district or school Web site.Create a parent flyer or newsletter to communicate information.Develop a parent education program focused on learning about New Jersey academic standards and assessments and NCLB/Title I information.Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategies (cont.)[Read slide.]
73Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategies Recommendations (cont.)Organize workshops that will assist parents in helping children do homework, take tests, develop mathematics literacy, and develop family literacy.Have purposeful “Back to School Nights.”Coordinate parent community information fairs.Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategies (cont.)[Read slide.]
74Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategies Recommendations (cont.)Coordinate children and adult literacy book fairs.Advertise Annenberg CPB channels and other television networks.Educate parent leaders about free on-line courses and resources.Parent-Friendly Marketing Strategies (cont.)[Read slide.][You may use the following as examples of free public services for parents and parent coordinators.]The Annenberg CPB ChannelA free satellite channel for schools, colleges, libraries, public broadcasting stations, public access channels, and other community agencies. It is presented 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, and airs an extraordinary range of teacher professional development and instructional programs funded by Annenberg/CPB. It is available to any non-commercial agency with a Ku-band satellite dish and a DigiCipher II satellite receiver.Verizon Literacy CampusOffers free on-line courses for volunteers and project leaders working with family literacy:
75Effective Practices Parental Involvement Models Family Literacy #10. How can districts and schools incorporate effective practices, models, and family literacy services into their program?Family LiteracyResearch has shown that family literacy is important to ensure that children learn the core curriculum content standards. There is a distinction between family literacy and parental involvement. Family literacy evaluates the literacy and economic status of parents and offers programs to expand the capacity of adult learners; whereas, parental involvement is the actual process of engaging parents in the learning of their children.Effective Practices Parental Involvement Models Family Literacy
76Parental Involvement Effective Practices NCLB supports the integration of models, effective practices, and research on parental involvement.Section 1118Districts and schools can adopt and implement model approaches to improving parental involvement.Section 1111Parental involvement practices should be based on the most current research that meets the highest professional and technical standards, and on effective parental involvement that fosters achievement to high standards for all children.Models and Effective PracticesThe law supports the integration of effective practices on parental involvement.[Read slide.]
77Epstein Framework for Parental Involvement Standards Adopted by National PTAParenting – Expressing clear expectations about students’ education, limiting television viewing, supervising time use and behavior.Communicating – Initiating parent contacts about student academic performance.Supporting School – Volunteering in schools and classrooms.Learning at Home – Providing information to assist students with curriculum-related activities.Decision-making – Taking part in parent organizations.Collaborating with Community – Identifying community services to strength school partnerships.Epstein's Framework for Parent InvolvementJoyce Epstein has developed a framework for defining six different types of parent involvement. This framework assists educators in developing school and family partnership programs. Epstein's framework defines the six types of involvement and lists sample practices or activities to describe the involvement more fully. The following information is excerpted from Epstein's work.Epstein’s Framework of Six Types of Involvement and Sample PracticesParenting: Help all families establish home environments to support children as students. Parent education and other courses or training for parents (e.g., GED, college credit, family literacy). Family support programs to assist families with health, nutrition, and other services.Communicating: Design effective forms of school-to-home and home-to-school communications about school programs and children’s progress. Conferences with every parent at least once a year. Language translators to assist families as needed. Regular schedule of useful notices, memos, phone calls, newsletters, and other communications.Volunteering: Recruit and organize parent help and support. School and classroom volunteer programs to help teachers, administrators, students, and other parents. Parent room or family center for volunteer work, meetings, resources for families. Annual postcard survey to identify all available talents, times, and locations of volunteers.Learning at Home: Provide information and ideas to families about how to help students at home with homework and other curriculum-related activities, decisions, and planning. Information for families on skills required for students in all subjects at each grade. Information on homework policies and how to monitor and discuss schoolwork at home. Family participation in setting student goals each year and in planning for college or work.Decision-Making: Include parents in school decisions, developing parent leaders and representatives. Active PTA/PTO or other parent organizations, advisory councils, or committees for parent leadership and participation.Collaborating with Community: Identify and integrate resources and services from the community to strengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning and development. Information for students and families on community health, cultural, recreational, social support, and other programs or services.Handout: Epstein's Six Types of Parent Involvement, National PTA National Standards ChecklistSources:National PTA Standards:A Wave of New Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement, Annual Synthesis 2002, Anne T. Henderson and Karen L. Mapp
78Parental Involvement Effective Practices The 2001 Longitudinal Evaluation of School Change and Performance in Title I Schools reported the following:Active teacher outreach to parents is as important as improved instructional practices to achieve the goals of standards-based education initiatives.Family involvement in the home and school makes an enormous difference in student achievement and healthy development.Case studies have been conducted that focus on capacity building across a range of organizational functions, including outreach, leadership development, research and program development, evaluation, and model expansion of family involvement.Parental Involvement ModelsFamily involvement plays a key role in student achievement. The 2001 Longitudinal Evaluation of School Change and Performance in Title I Schools reported that active teacher outreach to parents is as important as improved instructional practices to achieve the goals of standards-based education initiatives. This finding supports a long history of research linking parent involvement to student academic performance. It also confirms the need for more widespread teacher preparation in family involvement. Nearly four decades of work by committed educators and advocates has led to multiple concepts and models to engage families in children’s education. Family involvement must be understood as multi-faceted. This document identifies four conceptual dimensions of family involvement and illustrates their implementation through case studies or status reports. The case studies, in particular, describe what it means to build the capacity of schools and community-based organizations to engage families as supporters and advocates of student achievement and positive youth development.Source:Harvard Case Studies:
79Parental Involvement Effective Practices The following case studies can be used to learn about different models of family involvement and home-school partnership. The case studies completed in May 2000, describe the family-school partnership objectives of the organization and offer model approaches and capacity-building strategies.4 Case StudiesParenting PracticesSchool-Family PartnershipDemocratic ParticipationSchool ChoiceSource: The Harvard Family Research ProjectHarvard Family Research Project: Case StudiesThe following case studies are provided to assist you in accessing research about current and effective practice on parental involvement. None of the case studies are provided to advocate a particular stance on parental involvement.In 1997, the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) began a three-year effort to provide technical assistance to national nonprofit organizations working on family-school partnerships. The research included convening these organizations and documenting the capacity-building strategies of these organizations. The case studies, completed in May 2000, are the result of this documentation. The case studies focus on capacity building across a range of organizational functions, including outreach, leadership development, research and program development, evaluation, and model expansion.The case studies can be used in four ways:Learn about different models of family involvement and home-school partnership.Understand how research informs the organization of program practices in a coherent way.Appreciate the complexity and interrelation of strategies to engage schools, community organizations,and parent leaders in the work of family involvement.Gain insight into the processes of expansion, replication, and sustainability.HFRP launched the Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) to help build the capacity for effective and meaningful family-school-community partnerships. The FINE Web site offers a wide range of resources to its members to support teacher preparation in family involvement and enhance the family involvement work of school professionals, parent leaders, and community-based organizations. FINE members include higher education faculty, school professionals, directors and trainers of community-based and national organizations, parent leaders, and graduate students.Source:
80Parental Involvement Effective Practices The Case Studies1. Parenting Practices Case Study: Families and Schools Together2. School-Family Partnership Case Study: The National Network of Partnership Schools3. Democratic Participation Case Study: The Right Question ProjectCase Study: The National Coalition of Advocates for StudentsCase Study: The Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence4. School Choice Case StudyHarvard Family Research Project: Case Studies The following summaries have been provided for your review.Parenting PracticesGuided by the premise that a parent is a child’s first teacher, programs equip parents with the knowledge and skills to support their children’s learning and development. These programs offer parenting sessions on a variety of topics such as communicating with children, helping them develop literacy skills, supervising their homework and after-school activities, and gearing them for college preparation.The Families and Schools Together program is rooted in a set of core values and research-based theories of behavioral change for individuals and families. The values consist of building on family strengths and the role of schools and social service organizations in supporting families. The research base for the program draws extensively from risk and prevention, family support, and human development.Case Study: Families and Schools Together, Lawrence Hernandez (Abstract) School-Family PartnershipStemming largely from the research of Joyce Epstein, family involvement embodies the idea of a school-family partnership. In this model, families, schools, and communities have overlapping spheres of influence on student learning. Epstein provides a framework of six types of involvement to help educators develop partnerships: parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision-making, and collaborating with the community. The featured case study on the National Network of Schools describes Epstein's strategy to promote more widespread family-school partnerships.Case Study: National Network of Partnership Schools, Holly Kreider, Harvard Family Research Project (Abstract) Democratic ParticipationFamily involvement can be taken to mean a form of democratic participation in society’s institutions. This viewpoint assumes that families and communities are powerful social change agents that can participate effectively in school reform. The case studies demonstrate that education organizations can focus on skill development, as illustrated by The Right Question Project. This organization equips individuals to become critical problem-solvers on a wide range of individual and schoolwide issues.Case Study: The Right Question Project, Julia Coffman, Harvard Family Research Project (Abstract) Some organizations can focus on convening and dialogue to strengthen the relationship among families, schools, and communities. This strategy is illustrated in the case of the National Coalition of Advocates for Students.Case Study: National Coalition of Advocates for Students, M. Elena Lopez, Harvard Family Research Project (Abstract) Organizations can emphasize training leaders on standards development, implementation, and accountability. Equipped with school data and advocacy skills, parents and community leaders press schools for improved performance. This type of advocacy is exemplified in the case of the Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence.Case Study: Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence, Lawrence Hernandez (Abstract)School ChoiceFamily involvement relates to school choice, the decision that parents make about the schools their children will attend. School choice is based on a belief in the efficacy of market principles: schools that demonstrate good student performance are those that parents will choose for their children. Poor-performing schools must improve or else lose their customer base and face closure. Various types of school choice models exist, such as: choosing public schools within a district; forming charter schools, which exist within the framework of the public school system; and using vouchers to send children to private schools. Reports: School Vouchers: What We Know and Don't Know ... And How We Could Learn More, Center on Education PolicySource:Source:
81Family Literacy Services National and State Purpose of Family Literacy ProgramsTo help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy by improving the educational opportunities of the nation’s low-income families by integrating early childhood education, adult literacy or adult basic education, and parenting educationStrengthen parental involvementFamily Literacy Services DefinitionFamily literacy services are very important: All districts and schools should assess the need for suchservices.William F. Goodling Even Start Family Literacy Programs: NCLB, Title I, Part B, Subpart 3, Section 1231The purpose of the this subpart of Title I is to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy by the following measures:Improving the educational opportunities of the nation’s low-income families by integrating early childhood education, adult literacy or adult basic education, and parenting education into a unified family literacy program, to be referred to as Even Start.Establishing a program that meets the following criteria:● Is implemented through cooperative projects that build on high-quality existing community resources to create a new range of services.● Promotes the academic achievement of children and adults.● Assists children and adults from low-income families to achieve to challenging state content standards and challenging state student achievement standards.● Uses instructional programs based on scientifically based reading research and addresses the prevention of reading difficulties for children and adults, to the extent such research is available.Sources:ESEA (Even Start), Head Start Act, Reading Excellence Act, Workforce Investment Act (Adult Education and Family LiteracyAct), Community Services Block Grant Act (CSBG)
82Family Literacy Services The National Center for Family Literacy programs provide a comprehensive system of services that meet the educational needs of parents and their children. Family literacy also prepares parents to assume their role as their child’s first and most important teacher.Information and grants are available to implement services.National Center for Family Literacy:Even Start Statewide Family Literacy Initiative Grants:Verizon Literacy Campus at offers free on-line courses for volunteers and project leaders working with family literacyFederal Family Literacy Funding OpportunitiesFamily literacy programs access a variety of funding sources to provide services. Below are some of the more common examples.U.S. Department of Education Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) ProgramsReading First (Title I, Part B, Subpart 1); Early Reading First (Title I, Part B, Subpart 2); Even Start, Migrant Even Start and Indian Even Start (Title I, Part B, Subpart 3); Even Start Statewide Family Literacy Initiative Grants Education of Migratory Children (Title I, Part C); Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (Title I, Part F); State and Local Technology Grants (Title II, Part D, Subpart 1); Ready to Learn Television (Title II, Part D, Subpart 3); Grants and Subgrants for English Language Instruction (Title III, Part A); 21st Century Community Learning Centers (Title IV, Part B); Local Innovative Education Programs (Title V, Part A); Community Technology Centers (Title V, Part D, Subpart 11); Indian Education (Title VII, Part A); Native Hawaiian Education (Title VII, Part B); Alaska Native Education (Title VII, Part C); Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (Workforce Investment Act, Title II); Federal Work-Study Program (Higher Education Act) Bureau of Indian AffairsFamily and Child Education Program U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesHead Start, Early Head Start, Migrant Head Start, and Indian Head Start (Head Start Act) Community Services Block Grant (Community Services Block Grant Act) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)U.S. Department of LaborWelfare-to-Work Grants (Balanced Budget Act of 1997) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentNeighborhood Networks Program Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency Program U.S. Department of CommerceTechnology Opportunities Program Source:National Center for Family Literacy:
83Family Literacy in New Jersey Even Start’s core services consist of five components, as specified in the reauthorized legislation:1. Adult Education and Adult Literacy/Career Training: High-quality instructional programs to promote adult literacy, including adult basic education (ABE), adult secondary education (ASE), English as a second language (ESL), and preparation for the General Education Development (GED) certificate.Family Literacy Services in New JerseyThere are 30 Even Start Programs funded throughout the state. The Even Start Family Literacy Program is an education program that supports family-centered educational and parenting activities that engage parents and children in a cooperative effort. This effort is designed to empower parents to become full partners in the educational and social development of their children, thus assisting children to reach their full potential. Eligible participants must meet the federal government’s guidelines, which include low-income parents, non-English speaking parents, parents without a state endorsed high school diploma, and/or teen parents. Congress first authorized the Even Start Family Literacy Program in 1988 as Part B of Chapter 1 of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). Congress amended the Even Start legislation in July 1991, when it passed the National Literacy Act (P.L ). In 1994, Congress reauthorized Even Start as Title I, Part B of the ESEA, as amended by the Improving America’s Schools Act. The reauthorization of the program by the Literacy Involves Families Together (LIFT) Act of 2000 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) is the most recent legislation to date.The following is provided to assist you if questions arise about the Even Start program.Eligibility: Even Start Program School districts, nonprofit community-based organizations (CBOs), public agencies other than a district, institutions of higher education (including two- and four-year institutions), or public or private nonprofit organizations of demonstrated quality other than a district are eligible to apply. The applicant is required to form a partnership with one or more districts and one or more of the other eligible agencies.The partnership provision in the Even Start law strengthens the connections between schools and communities and improves a project’s ability to reach families in greatest need of services through community outreach.Target Population The target population is low-income families with children between the ages of birth and seven, that include at least one adult with low literacy skills. Even Start also targets those who are eligible to participate in an adult education program under the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act or who are within the compulsory school attendance age range.Average Grant Allocation An Even Start program’s funding includes a federal share and a local share and can range from a minimum of $75,000 to a maximum of $250,000. The amount of the local share in the first year of the program must be at least 10 percent of the total cost of the project. In the second year of federal funding, the grantee must provide at least 20 percent of the total cost of the second-year budget; in the third year, at least 30 percent of the third-year total budget; in the fourth year, at least 40 percent of the fourth-year budget; in the fifth through eighth years, at least 50 percent of each year’s total budget; and in each subsequent year, at least 65 percent (65%) of each subsequent year’s total budget.Contract Period The fiscal year for Even Start is October 1 through September 30 of any year.Source:
84Family Literacy in New Jersey 2. Parenting Education: High-quality instructional programs to help parents support the educational growth of their children.3. Early Childhood Education: Developmentally appropriate educational services and scientifically based reading activities for children designed to prepare them for success in regular school programs.Family Literacy Services in New Jersey (cont.)[Read slide.]Source:
85Family Literacy in New Jersey Home-Based Education: Designed to improve the literacy skills of children and their parents and communicate the message that home is a child’s first classroom just as the parent is a child’s first teacher.Parent and Child Interactive Time: Involves a group activity, which engages the parent and child in a literacy activity such as reading a book together and working on projects based on the book.Family Literacy Services in New Jersey (cont.)[Read slide.]Source:
86Comer School Development Program Model The Comer Model has a strong parental involvement component.Rationale for Parent Involvement Parent involvement is a key element of the School Development Program. The program recognizes the critical role parents can and should play in their children's education.The Comer ModelThe Comer Process provides a structure as well as a process for mobilizing adults to support students’ learning and overall development. It is a different way of conceptualizing and working in schools and replaces traditional school organization and management with an operating system that works for schools and the students they serve. The model has a strong component for parental involvement. To obtain further information visit the Web site atThe following three structures comprise the basic framework on which the Comer Process operating system is built:The School Planning and Management Team develops a comprehensive school plan, sets academic, social and community relations goals, and coordinates all school activities, including staff development programs. The team creates critical dialogue around teaching and learning and monitors progress to identify needed adjustments to the school plan as well as opportunities to support the plan. Members of the team include administrators, teachers, support staff, and parents.The Student and Staff Support Team promotes desirable social conditions and relationships. It connects all of the school’s student services, facilitates the sharing of information and advice, addresses individual student needs, accesses resources outside the school, and develops prevention programs. Serving on this team are the principal and staff members with expertise in child development and mental health, such as a counselor, social worker, psychologist, or nurse.The Parent Team involves parents in the school by developing activities through which the parents can support the school’s social and academic programs. Composed of parents, this team also selects representatives to serve on the School Planning and Management Team.The founder of the model is James P. Comer, M.D., M.P.H., a Maurice Falk Professor of Child Psychiatry at Yale University School of Medicine’s Child Study Center. He has been a Yale medical faculty member since Dr. Comer is perhaps best known for founding the Comer School Development Program in 1968, which promotes the collaboration of parents, educators, and the community to improve social, emotional, and academic outcomes for children that, in turn, help them achieve greater school success. His concept of teamwork has improved the educational environment in more than 500 schools throughout America.Source:
87Monitoring Parental Involvement Programs #11. How are parental involvement practices monitored?Monitoring Parental Involvement ProgramsThe next series of slides discuss how parental involvement programs are monitored.Monitoring Parental Involvement Programs
88Monitoring Parental Involvement Programs Districts are required to conduct, with the involvement of parents, an annual evaluation of the content and effectiveness of the parental involvement policy in improving the academic quality of the schools served under Title I including:Identifying barriers to greater participation by parents in activities (with particular attention to parents who are economically disadvantaged, are disabled, have limited English proficiency, have limited literacy, or are of any racial or ethnic minority background)Using the findings of the evaluation to design strategies for more effective parental involvement, and revising, if necessary, the parental involvement policies.District Requirement: Section 1118Districts are required to conduct an annual evaluation of parental involvement programs according to NCLB, Section [Read slide.]
89Compliance Requirement State-Level Monitoring No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Consolidated Subgrant Evaluation of Local School Districts - Group 2Compliance RequirementTitles CoveredLegal AuthorityReview MethodCompliance IndicatorStatus (C,N/C or N/A)CommentsThe LEA is using funds reserved for parental involvement on the Eligibility form (1% for grant over $500,000 is required) to implement activities described in the application.Title I§1118Review documentation for schedules, sign-in sheets, meeting agendas. Interview parents.Documentation and interviews indicate that the parental involvement activities are being conducted and implemented.State-Level MonitoringThe NJDOE monitors parental involvement through the NCLB Consolidated Application and the Evaluation of Local School Districts-Group 2. The state monitors parental involvement in several categories, Including funding reserves, written policies and distribution, school-parent compacts, annual meetings, language instruction educational programs and the Parents’ Right-to-Know provision.For further information visit the Title I Web site.
90Collaborative Assessment & Planning for Achievement School Descriptors Monitoring RubricSTANDARD 5 Student/Family SupportThe school works with families and community groups to remove barriers to learning in an effort to meet the intellectual, social, career, and developmental needs of students consistent with 6A:10A-3.6 Supports for Parents and Families and NCLB §1118 Parental Involvement.INDICATOR 5.1aFamilies and the communities are active partners in the educational process and work together with the school staff to promote programs and services for all students.PERFORMANCE LEVELS4 - Exemplary level of development and implementation3 - Fully functioning and operational level of development and implementation2 - Limited development or partial implementation1 - Little or no development and implementationCollaborative Assessment and Planning for Achievement (CAPA)CAPA, a school review process for low-performing schools, includes Standard 5, Student/Family Support, to assess and monitor parental involvement activities. Indicator 5.1a, shown in this slide, is an example of the elements that are reviewed. The slide also lists the Performance Levels that serve as the scoring rubric. The CAPA handbook provides all areas that are monitored for compliance.For further information visit the Title I Web site.
91#12. What resources are available to assist districts and schools in understanding parental involvement?ResourcesIt is important for districts and schools to understand and stay current with new programs and happenings in the area of Title I parental involvement. The following resources will assist you in your information needs and help you develop stronger ties with parents.Resources
92Samples and Handouts PowerPoint Sample Slide Sample Parent Involvement PolicySample School-Parent CompactHandouts: Available Manually and On-line FormatUSDE Sample Parent Involvement PolicyUSDE Sample School-Parent CompactUSDE School Notification ChecklistUSDE Parental Involvement Research ResourcesUSDE Parental Involvement DefinitionsUSDE Funding Title I Parental InvolvementNJDOE Sample School Report Card14 ActivitiesDistrict/School Parental Involvement ChecklistEpstein’s 6 Types of ParentingNational PTA National Standards ChecklistOn-line FormatHarvard Parental Involvement Case StudiesSamples and HandoutsPlease refer to your packet. The handouts have been provided to assist you in learning about parental involvement.
93Bilingual Parent and Family Literacy Resources Hispanic Family Literacy InstituteFamily literacy offers Hispanic families access to an on-line education and learning environment that maintains strong cultural and language bonds between parents and their children.The Sesame Street Beginnings: Talk, Read, Write!This program is a bilingual multimedia program to improve the four fundamental skills for literacy development ( i.e., listening, speaking, reading, and writing.) No Child Left Behind: What's in It for Parents? (Spanish Version) Parent Leadership Associates, the national training affiliate of the Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence, produced a 40-page guide in 2003 for parent leaders and advocates about opportunities provided by the law.Bilingual Family Literacy ServicesThe Hispanic Family Literacy Institute (HFLI), an on-line initiative of the National Center for Family Literacy focuses on the dissemination of resources designed for supporting literacy practitioners working with Hispanic families. These families can gain core skill sets of language acquisition, increase basic skills acquisition, develop strong connections with the community and develop productive connections to educational institutions.Watch, Do, and Learn with Sesame Workshops Talk, Read, Write! On-line ResourcesThe Sesame Street Beginnings: Talk, Read, Write! program provides resource materials to parents and care givers who support and engage them in the delightful and important process of literacy development for preschool children, ages 3-5. Developed by Sesame Workshop and generously funded by The Prudential Foundation, the central goal of the bilingual multimedia program is improving the four fundamental skills necessary for literacy development: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. To learn more visitEngaging Latino Communities for Education InitiativeParent and family involvement are crucial to young people’s educational success, but there are often barriers such as language, culture, and others that stand in the way of families’ full engagement in education. These English- and Spanish-language materials provide an overview of the US educational system and key educational issues such as testing, reading, and support services that parents should know.Source:
94On-line ResourcesParental Involvement Guidance:NCLB Parents Guide:The New Jersey Department of Education:The United States Department of Education Especially for Parents:The New Jersey Department of Education Family Literacy:Region III Comprehensive Center: ceee.gwu.edu/parent_community/pci.htmThe Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory:National Center For Family Literacy:On-line ResourcesThis slide and the following slide provide you with resources about parental involvement that can be accessed on-line.
95Parental Involvement Training NJEA FAST – Family Involvement Training:Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE):Statewide Parent Advocacy Network Incorporation (SPAN):National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education:Training ResourcesThe Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) is a national network of over 3,000 people who are interested in promoting strong partnerships between children's educators, their families, and their communities. FINE's membership is composed of faculty in higher education, school professionals, directors and trainers of community-based and national organizations, parent leaders, and graduate students. The purpose is to help school leaders and teachers adequately prepared to build partnerships with families and communities through the following:● Creative approaches to family educational involvement based on family strengths, mutual respect, trusting relationships, and parent empowerment .● Collaborative school-community partnerships that enrich children’s development and learning in school and community contexts.FINE offers resources on-line at their Web site listed on the slide.
96Thank you for your attendance! Thank You and Closing