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What is To Be Done with Coal Power? Robert H. Williams Head, Carbon Capture Group Carbon Mitigation Initiative (10-year BP/Ford-supported PEI Project)

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Presentation on theme: "What is To Be Done with Coal Power? Robert H. Williams Head, Carbon Capture Group Carbon Mitigation Initiative (10-year BP/Ford-supported PEI Project)"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is To Be Done with Coal Power? Robert H. Williams Head, Carbon Capture Group Carbon Mitigation Initiative (10-year BP/Ford-supported PEI Project) Senior Research Scientist Princeton Environmental Institute Princeton University Invited Testimony at the NJ Clean Air Council Public Hearing on Electricity Generation Alternatives for New Jerseys Future NJ Department of Environmental Protection Trenton, NJ 1 April 2009

2 Meeting GHG mitigation goals being discussed in Administration/Congress will require one or more of the following courses of action for existing coal power plants: CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) via: –Retrofitting existing plants with CO 2 scrubbers –Repowering existing plants…but saving the sites Retiring the plants long before industry would like to do so

3 Main Near-Term CCS Options for Existing Coal Power Plants (e.g., Hudson) Retrofitting with amine scrubbers (costly, huge energy penalty, high GHG emissions price needed to make the technology cost-effective ) Repowering options (replacing equipment but saving the site): –IGCC-CCS: least costly stand-alone power option…but still costly –Coproduction of liquid fuels/electricity with CCS Low CO 2 capture cost for synfuels (mostly for CO 2 drying, compression) Higher energy efficiencies/lower capital costs than for separate production units Attractive economics for power generation at high oil prices Extremely low pollutant emissions (SO X, NO X, RO X, Hg) at plant and from ultimate burning of synfuels –Coprocessing coal/biomass to make liquid fuels/electricity with CCS biomass status transformed from C-neutral to C-negative

4 The Green Coal Path to Near-Zero Emissions Advanced Supercritical Combustion Plants Retrofitting PC Plants with CCS Demonstrating Carbon Capture / Storage (CCS) Commercial IGCC with CCS Commercial CTG/CTL with CCS New Supercritical Plants and CCS Demonstration Essential Source: presentation by Frederick D. Palmer (Senior VP - Government Relations, Peabody Energy) at World CTL 2009 (Washington, DC, 26 March 2009) Coal industry leaders recognize that CCS via CTL/CTG is commercially ready!!

5 Early CCS Project Already Underway in New Jersey High electricity prices, stringent environmental regulations, and favorable offshore prospects for CO 2 storage make NJ attractive for early CCS projects based on superclean energy via gasification PURGeN project proposed by SCS Energy to Planning Board of City of Linden on 24 March 2009 for 98 acre site (long idle DuPont property): –Would gasify Pennsylvania coal to generate ~ 500 MW e (net) and produce as coproducts H 2, NH 3, and urea –Would use dry cooling system for the combined cycle power system, as at the Astoria Energy Plant (a natural gas combined cycle) previously built by SCS –Would capture 90% of the carbon in the coal as CO 2 and store it in a sandstone formation 1700 m under the seafloor at a distance 100 miles from shore where the water is 800 m deep –Targeted date for plant start-up is 2014

6 H 2 S, CO 2 removal F-T Synthesis GTCC Power Island F-T FUELS Pressurized Gasification Gas cooling & cleaning Air separation unit oxygen air unconverted + recovered gas Upgrading, Refining process electricity air Underground Storage Water Gas Shift CO 2 Pressurized Gasification Gas cooling & cleaning Coal Biomass oxygen EXPORT ELECTRICITY Syngas streams from coal & biomass gasifiers are combined to make synthetic diesel & gasoline (Fischer-Tropsch liquids or FTL) Syngas unconverted in single pass through synthesis reactor burned to make electricity in GT/ST combined cycle plant Coproduction huge energy efficiency/capital cost advantages compared to production of liquid fuels & electricity in separate units Biomass/coal coprocessing exploit simultaneously: Negative GHG emissions benefit of photosynthetic CO 2 storage Coal conversion scale economies (& sometimes lower coal prices) LIQUID FUELS/ELECTRICITY COPRODUCTION FROM COAL + BIOMASS

7 Retrofit & Repowering Options for CCS at Hudson Power SystemEfficiency (%) OutputsElectricity generation relative to Hudson As Is a Barrels FTL per MWh % bio (HHV) CAPEX (10 6 $) Hudson As Is MW e Hudson Retrofitted for CCS MW e Repowering via Coal IGCC with CCS MW e Repowering via Coal to Liquids/Electricity with CCS -278 MW e + 9,490 B/D Repowering via Coal/Biomass b to Liquids/Electricity with CCS -312 MW e + 10,300 B/D a Capacity factors: 73% (Hudson As Is), 85% (other power only); 90% (coproduction) b Plausible bio supply: urban wood wastes in Bergen, Essex, Hudson, & Union Counties

8 Potential Urban Wood Waste Supply for Repowering Hudson Coal Power Plant with Coal/Biomass Co-Production Facility with CCS Source: Private communication from Dr. Marie Walsh (Adjunct Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics, U. of Tennessee, and energy consultant, M&E Biomass). See also Marie Walsh, Estimated US Urban Wood Waste Supply and DistributionDocumentation of Methodology and Data Sources, M&E Biomass 24 June

9 GHG Emission Rates: Hudson As Is & for Retrofit/Repowering Options For liquids/electricity options, synthetic fuel coproducts are assigned fuel-cycle- wide GHG emission rates = rates for crude oil-derived products displaced For Hudson CCS retrofit and IGCC with CCS, CO 2 is captured at a rate equivalent to 90% of the carbon in the coal For coal and coal/biomass to liquids/electricity with CCS, CO 2 is captured at a rate equivalent to 68% of the carbon in the feedstock that is not contained in the liquid fuel products

10 Cost Analysis of Co-Production Systems as Electricity Generators Value of FTL = economic worth based on refinery-gate prices of crude oil-derived products displaced Levelized electricity generation cost (LEGC) = [(Levelized energy system cost, $/year) – (Levelized economic worth of FTL, $/year)] /(Levelized electricity generation rate, MWh/year) For co-production systems the LEGC is a function of the crude oil price. Assumed feedstock costs: $4.0 per million BTU for both coal and urban wood waste

11 Hudson: Retrofit & Repowering Options for a 20-Year Levelized Crude Oil Price of $75 a Barrel #GHG emissions price ($/t) for breakeven with Hudson As Is Generation cost at breakeven relative to Hudson As Is generation $0/t CO 2eq #1: Hudson CCS Retrofit #2: Coal IGCC with CCS #3: Coal/Biomass to Liquids/Electricity with CCS

12 Hudson: Retrofit & Repowering Options for a 20-Year Levelized Crude Oil Price of $100 a Barrel #GHG emissions price ($/t) for breakeven with Hudson As Is Generation cost at breakeven relative to Hudson As Is generation $0/t CO 2eq #1: Hudson CCS Retrofit #2: Coal IGCC with CCS #3: Coal to Liquids/Electricity with CCS #4: Coal/Biomass to Liquids/Electricity with CCS

13 Proposed DoD/DoE CCS Early Action Initiative (CEAI) Urgency to carry out megascale integrated CCS projects G8 Summit (Japan 2008) –G8 agreement to sponsor 20 projects globally (up & running ~ 2016) –US commitment to sponsor 10 Do economic crisis/budget deficit concerns jeopardize G8 goal? CEAI (enabling goal realization at low cost to government) would: –Allow co-production systems to compete with power only systems for subsidies –Require that synfuels be in compliance with Section 526 of Energy Indepen- dence and Security Act of 2007: fuel-cycle-wide GHG emission rate for synfuels procured by government < that for crude oil-derived products displaced –Specify that winning projects are those with least costs of GHG emissions avoided (e.g., as determined in reverse auctions) For winning projects: –Government would pay incremental cost for CCS for 5 years –Air Force would offer 20-year procurement contracts for synthetic jet fuel

14 Requests: That the NJ Clean Air Council insert into the record of this hearing along with my testimony the following: –R.H. Williams, Toward Decarbonization of Power as Well as Fuels via Co-Production with CCS & Coal/Biomass Coprocessing, presentation at World CTL 2009, Washington, DC, March 2009 –R.H. Williams, Proposed CCS Early Action Initiative for the United States, v. 10, 18 March 2009 That the NJ Clean Air Council alert interested parties that technical details related to findings presented at this hearing can be found in: Kreutz, Thomas G., Eric D. Larson, Guangjian Liu, and Robert H. Williams, Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal and Biomass, Princeton Environmental Institute, August 21, 2008 (revised October 7, 2008). Published in Proc. 25 th Annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference, 2008, and available at: pdfhttp://www.princeton.edu/pei/energy/publications/texts/Kreutz-et-al-PCC pdf

15 Acknowledgments For collaboration in the research reported here: –Tom Kreutz (PEI) –Eric Larson (PEI) –Guangjian Liu (PEI and Asst. Professor, Dept. of Power Engineering, North China Power University, Beijing, China) For many discussions and helpful comments on this research –Robert Socolow (MAE Professor, PU, and Co-Principal Investigator, CMI) –Fred Dryer (MAE Professor, PU, and Principal Investigator, NetJets Project) –Jim Katzer (NRC, who coordinated the PEI groups interactions with the Alternative Fuels Panel of NRCs Americas Energy Future study) –Zheng Li (Thermal Engineering Professor and Head of BP Clean Energy Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China) –Ken Kern, Tom Tarka, Maria Vargas, and John Wimer (NETL) For research support: –Princeton Universitys Carbon Mitigation Initiative (BP/Ford-supported) –NetJets [a corporate jet services provider (a Warren Buffett-owned company)] –Hewlett Foundation –National Research Council contract


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