Presentation on theme: "Barbara Tedesco & Elizabeth Franks Roselle Public Schools"— Presentation transcript:
1Barbara Tedesco & Elizabeth Franks Roselle Public Schools English Language Learners and Special Education: Who? What? When?Where? Why? How?Barbara Tedesco & Elizabeth FranksRoselle Public Schools
2Concerns Over-identification Under-identification Diana v. California Board of Education.Students classified due to language difference; inappropriate assessment.Under-identificationSchools are very sensitive to possibility of mis-classification.As a result, ELLs with real special education needs are left behind.
3IDEA 300.534 Determination of eligibility (b) A child may not be determined to be eligible under this part if(1) The determinant factor for that eligibility determination is(i) Lack of instruction in reading or math;(ii) Limited English proficiency;If the severe discrepancy or low functioning is due to one of the above factors, the student is NOT eligible for special education.
4Levels of Intervention SystemicInstructionalIndividual
5Response to Intervention Model Three Tiered ModelIndividualInstructionalSystemic
6Systemic An acceptable and supportive school environment characterized by: making AYP as measured on benchmarks based on NCLB legislationelimination of ineffective responses to failure: (retention, low level academics).programs that support interventions.Curriculum as window/mirroracademically rich,quality programs -ELLs have to “catchup” (15 month growthin 10 mos.)skilled use andtraining of teacherslinguistic and culturalincorporation
7Thomas-Collier Test for Equal Educational Opportunity Typical size of initial achievement gap between ELL and native English speakers NCEExpected NCE gains each year for:· Typical native English speakers NCEs· Students in a typical ELL program NCEs· Students in an effective ELL program NCEs· Students in an outstanding ELL program NCEsDoes your ELL instructional program close the achievement gap and keep it closed in later years?
8Systemic Process Profile Gather relevant data Attendance/educational gapsGradesAssessment of L1MobilityLength of time in district/countryAchievement in both languagesFamily dynamicsCultural characteristics
9Instructional All teachers use instructional strategies effective for ELLs. Research-Based Effective Models:SIOPReading First InitiativesCREDE’s 5 pedagogical standards
11Reading First Initiative Literacy-rich environment;Sufficient instructional time;Careful lesson planning;School-wide assessment system;School-wide interventions for struggling readers;Sound instructional approaches;grouping, maximizing student learningSchool climate of collaboration, strong leadership, and evidence of commitment;High quality professional development;School partnerships.Vocabulary developmentText ComprehensionPhonemic awarenessPhonics instructionFluencyMotivation
12Center for Research in Excellence, Diversity & Education (CREDE) Five pedagogical standards:Joint productive activity.Developing language and literacy across the curriculum.Making meaning: connecting school to students’ lives.Teaching complex thinking.Teaching through instructional conversation.
13Grouping and Classroom Management Vary grouping strategiesdirect instruction, mixed ability grouping, pairsProvide for differentiated teaching and learning.Plan and promote positive interdependence and individual accountability.Provide increased opportunity to practice academic language.Promote a positive social climate.
14Instructional The teacher uses a clinical teaching cycle in order to resolve the difficulty and/or validate the problem.Carefully sequenced, scaffolded instructionAssessTeach using significantly differentstrategies (learning styles, multipleintelligences)Informally monitor progress over time Document this process
15 If the problem is not resolved, seek support systems. * Consultation (PAC/I&RS)Gather relevant data from initial profileGather current dataClassroom observations (effective use of strategies; appropriate interventions)* Title I* Counseling* Community-based programs* One-on-one tutoring, identifying the exact weakness and using strategies that address that deficiency.Classroom observations August/ Hakuta 1998; Gersten, Marks, Keating, Baker 1998
16Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition Intra-personalAgeMotivationDegree of L1 proficiencyAttitude toward target language communityTolerance of learner for own errorsExternalAmount of exposureManner of acquisitionAvailability of language modelsAttitude of target language communityTolerance of errors by the community.
17Normal Processes of Second Language Acquisition Silent PeriodInterferenceCode switchingFossilizationLanguage Loss
18Language Loss An individual’s change from the habitual use of one language to the habitual use of another.Language Loss symptoms resemble monolingual pathology:poor comprehension;limited vocabulary;grammatical and syntactical errors;expressive language.It may be a disorder for one child and/or lack of English proficiency for another.
19Language LossLoss in L1 is NOT matched by a corresponding replacement in L2. Loss can be much more rapid so that children will appear deficient in 2 languages.Investigate the child’s earlier L1 capabilities. Long exposure with errors still present can indicate speech/language or learning problems.
20If interventions do not solve problem A special education referral is initiated. A summary of all of the interventions and relevant data accompanies the referral.A child study team convenes to determine whether the child should be referred for a comprehensive evaluation.
21Child Study Team Referral? If no,Develop supportive plan in general educationIf yes,Determine and document dominant language
22Language Dominance and Proficiency (1) Oral language proficiency assessment in both languages.If teacher is not fluent in both languages, train and use interpreter (see recommendations for training and use of interpreters)Some suggestions of instruments:LAS, IPT, BVAT, Brigance ScreeningIf tests are unavailable in student’s native language, use informal assessment measures (language sample, oral story retelling, evaluation of receptive language).
23Language Dominance and Proficiency (2) If L1 dominant, consider English language skills in achievement.If English dominant, consider L1 in cognitive assessment.If bilingual with no clear dominance, assess in both languages.
24Assessment Assessment personnel complete the comprehensive individual assessment Select assessment battery- native language (if available)- English language- formal and informal procedures- curriculum-based assessment
25Adaptations Personnel - Hierarchy of Preferred Models Contract services of bilingual professional CST memberTrain bilingual education professional to assist.Train other bilingual professionals to assistTrain community professionals to serve as interpreters.Train non-professionals in the district as interpreters.Train community non-professionals as interpreters.In all instances train assessment personnel (monolingual or bilingual).
26NJAC 6A:14-2.4 Native Language (a) Written notice to the parent shall be provided and parent conferences required by this chapter shall be conducted in the language used for communication by the parent and student unless it is clearly not feasible to do so.1. Foreign language interpreters or translators and sign language interpreters for the deaf shall be provided, when necessary, by the district board of education at no cost to the parent.(b) If the native language is not a written language, the district board of education shall take steps to ensure that:1. The notice is translated orally or by other means to the parent in his or her native language or other mode of communication;2. That the parent understands the content of the notice; and3. There is written documentation that the requirements of (b)1 and 2 above have been met
27Characteristics of Interpreters Have excellent bilingual communication skills.Be able to relate to members of the cultural group.Understand their ethical responsibilities.Act in a professional manner.Be TRAINED for their roles.
28Training of Interpreters Legal requirements and professional ethics.Goals of testing and/or meeting.Special education terminology relevant to their roles in working with family members.Role on the team.Procedures for administering tests, if applicable.Consideration of cultural differences in assessment.Strategies for interacting with families.
29Use of Interpreters (1)Prior to the meeting, discuss the questions that will be asked with the interpreter.Interpreters should sit as close as possible to family members.Introduce family to everyone at the meeting.Speak in short units and avoid slang and professional jargon.Encourage the interpreter to translate the family’s words without paraphrasing them.
30Use of Interpreters (2)Look at the family rather than the interpreter when speaking.Observe the nonverbal behaviors of the family during the interview.Allow opportunities for family members to ask questions.Provide written information (translated) when appropriate.Tape record the interview if the family is comfortable.
31Observation of Interpretation Session Observe the interpreter to prevent the following problems:Prompting or giving cluesUsing too many wordsGiving directions that are too brief or too complicatedOver- or under-using reinforcementRecording assessment data incorrectly, if applicable.Observe the student for the following behaviors:Response delaysUses of gestures to replace wordsFalse starts, word repetitions, perseverationConfusionInattention, distractibilityLanguage and articulation disorders
32Responsibilities of CST Member in Use of Interpreters Allow interpreter to only complete the activities for which training has been provided.Show the interpreter how to use the tests and allow time to organize materials, read instructions and clarify areas of concern.Provide the interpreter with background information about the student who is to be tested.Debrief with the interpreter after the session.Ensure that the interpreter does not protect the student by hiding the extent of the limitations/disabilities.
33Assessment Modifications Administer test according to protocol and score it.Re-administer with the following modifications:Remove time limitsVary the mode of response (read test questions to check receptive language; oral responses)Translation/InterpretersSimplification of languageDynamic assessment: test; teach; retestRe-score and compareDifference in score indicates 2nd language acquisition processNo difference – possible learning disability
34Intelligence/Cognition Must be conducted in the student’s most proficient language. (if NA consider nonverbal + informal measures).If not clearly proficient in one language, consider assessing in both languages.If very young, a developmental scale may be used.
35Academic EvaluationAn English evaluation should be attempted if English instruction has been given for 1+ years.If student has received native language instruction within a reasonable time period (1-2 years); a native language evaluation should be conducted.If native language assessment is NA, a functional assessment can provide information about student’s ability
36NJAC 6A: Evaluation(d) An initial evaluation shall consist of a multi-disciplinary assessment in all areas of suspected disability. Such evaluation shall include assessment by at least two members of the child study team and other specialists in the area of disability as required or as determined necessary. Each evaluation of the student shall:1. Include, where appropriate, or required, the use of a standardized test(s) which shall be:i. Individually administered;ii. Valid and reliable;iii. Normed on a representative population; andiv. Scored as either standard score with standard deviation or norm referenced scores with a cutoff score;2. Include functional assessment of academic performance and, where appropriate, behavior.
37Functional Assessment Both languages Authentic assessment in the classroomCurriculum-based assessmentDynamic assessment – evaluate performance over timeQuestionnaires from various staff membersPortfolio assessmentEvaluate communication holistically and across settingsUse natural language samples
38Speech and LanguageSpeech pathologists must use procedures, modifications and tests appropriate for diagnosis and appraisal in the language and speech of child.May include descriptive linguistic analysisResults indicating a language disorder should be handled with care. Language differences must be considered
39Socio-cultural Acculturation pattern Family background/dynamics Separation from parentsEducational support at homePrevious educational experiencesHome country political/economic realityBehavior at home and prior to coming to U.S.
40Indicators of Language Difference It is normal for ELLs to demonstrate a lower level of English proficiency than their monolingual peers.Second language acquisition follows a developmental course similar to first language acquisition.Language loss is a normal phenomenon when opportunities to hear and use L1 are minimized.Shifting from one language to another within utterances is not necessarily an indicator of language confusion (code switching).It is normal for second language acquirers to experience dysfluencies associated with lack of vocabulary, word finding difficulties and/or anxiety.
41Indicators of Learning Disability Difficulty in learning language at a normal rate compared to learners from similar backgrounds, even with special assistance in both languages.Short mean length of utterances (in both languages).Auditory processing problems (e.g. poor memory, poor comprehension).Poor sequencing skills. Communication is disorganized, incoherent and leaves listener confused.Communication difficulties when interacting with peers from a similar background.Lack of organization, structure and sequence in spoken and written language; difficulty conveying thoughts.
42Report WritingUse adapted standardized test information as functional assessment.
43Report Writing Document conditions of assessment Describe the nature of the bilingual evaluations.Level of evaluation model, language of test and deviations from standardized administration.Language dominance and proficiency results.Relevant behavioral information related to student’s academic functioning.All relevant background information.
44NJAC 6A: Evaluationf) A written report of the results of each assessment shall be prepared. Each written report shall be dated and signed by the individual(s) who conducted the assessment and shall include:…3. If an assessment is not conducted under standard conditions, the extent to which it varied from standard conditions.4. When a student is suspected of having a specific learning disability, the documentation of the determination of eligibility shall include a statement of:…vii. The determination concerning the effects of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage;
45Committee to determine eligibility NJAC:6A: Evaluation:(a) The child study team, the parent and the regular education teacher of the student who has knowledge of the student’s educational performance or if there is no teacher of the student, a teacher who is knowledgeable about the district’s programs shall:…
46NJAC 6A:14-3.5 Determination of eligibility for special education and related services (b) In making a determination of eligibility for special education and related services, a student shall not be determined eligible if the determinant factor is due to a lack of instruction in reading or math or due to limited English proficiency.
47Eligibility and IEP Development The committee determines eligibility:Reviews all data.Determines if child has a legally defined disability.Provides assurances that the determinant factor of the student’s problems are not primarily the result of language, culture or not having the opportunity to learn.The committee develops the IEP:Includes present level of performance: L1 and L2Annual goals for L1 and L2 (if applicable).Amount of time in each setting and duration of servicesEvaluation criteriaPersons responsible for implementationStrategies appropriate to disability and language and culture.
48NJAC 6A:14-3.7 Individualized education program (c) When developing the IEP, the IEP team shall:…4. In the case of a student with limited English proficiency, consider the language needs of the student as related to the IEP.6A: Provision of programs and services provided under N.J.S.A. 18A:46A-1 et seq. and 18A: et seq(d) English as a second language shall be provided according to N.J.S.A. 18A:46A-2c.
49Placement and Services Services in the least restrictive environment that address all needs Be CreativeGeneral education program with ESL and/or inclusion servicesBilingual/ESL with inclusion/resource room servicesSpecial education with bilingual/ESL servicesBilingual Special EducationAnd so on….
50Collaborative Teaching Arrangements Complementary InstructionsTwo lessons are taught: functional (metacognitive) and contentImportant functional skills are modeled and practiced within class contextTeam teachingInstruction is provided alternately by each teacher.Uses each professional’s strength. Opportunity for staff development.Supportive instructionSpecialist develops specialized instruction, grouping or practice techniques.Enhancement is incorporated in future lessons. Students are supported.Parallel InstructionA small group is taught separately within the classroom.Teachers can informally observe each others’ activities.
51Tips on Co-teaching Planning is the key. Discuss views on teaching and learning.Discuss testing and grading responsibilities.Attend to details.Prepare parents.Avoid the “paraprofessional trap”When disagreements occur – TALK.Go slowly.
52Instructional adaptations for students with special needs Curriculum/InstructionBooksClassroom ModificationsBehaviorMastery of key concepts.Show a model of end product.Provide alternative books with same content; easier readabilityReduce visual distractions.Arrange a check-in time to organize the day.Use marker to highlight important informationProvide audiotapes of textbooksSeat student close to teacher or helpful peer.Arrange for time-out space and permission to leave roomUse computer and/or calculator.Use visuals andManipulatives.Provide two sets of books: home and school.Provide visual cues for routines and tasks.Be aware of behavioral changes related to medication and time of day.Use a study guide.Adapt reading selections.Give directions in small steps.Develop individualized rules.
53Assessment Modifications for Special Needs ELLs Allow extra timeReword questions using simplified languageUse bilingual dictionary or translation of items.Change percentage of work required for passing grade.Use rubric to grade student’s work.Refer to modifications on IEP.
54Every day an old man walked a beach with a pail, picking up starfish that had been washed in by the tide, and throwing them back into the sea. One day, a young boy stopped the old man and asked, “ Why do you throw the starfish back ? It doesn’t matter. They will only wash up on the shore again tomorrow?” The old man picked a starfish out of his pail, threw it as far as he could into the sea, and replied, “It mattered to that one.”
55Resources Cross-cultural Developmental Education Services Dr. Catherine Collier crosscultured.comThe National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) A. Artiles, Vanderbilt University and J. Klingner, University of CO at BoulderCEC Division for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional LearnersCenter for Applied LinguisticsNational Literacy PanelOffice English Language Acquisition
56Resources Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services National Institute of Child Health and Human DevelopmentIntercultural Development Research AssociationNational Association of Bilingual EducationNew Jersey Administrative Code forSpecial Education and Bilingual Education
57ReferencesAugust, D. & Hakuta, K. (1998). Educating language minority children. Washington, DC: National Research Council Institute of MedicineCollier, C. (1998). Cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners. Ferndale, WA: Cross Cultural Developmental Education ServicesCummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education: issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, Eng: Multilingual MattersEchevarria, J, Vogt, M., Short, D. (2000). Making Content Comprehensible forEnglish Language Learners: The siop model. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn &Bacon.Gersten, R. & Jimenez, R (Eds.) (1998). Promoting learning for culturally andlinguistically diverse students. Belmont, CA: WadsworthLangdon, H (2000). Factors affecting special education services for ELLs with suspected language learning disabilities. Multiple Voices, 5 (1)Mattes, L. & Omark, D. (1984). Speech and language assessment for the bilingual handicapped. San Diego: College Hill Press.
58ReferencesOrtiz, A. & Ramirez, B. (Eds.) (1998). Schools and the culturally diverse exceptional student:Promising practices and future directions. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.Ovando, C. & Collier, V. (1998). Bilingual and ESL Classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts. Boston: McGraw-HillRoseberry-McKibbin, (1995). Multicultural students with special language needs.Tharp, R. et al. (2000). Teaching transformed: Achieving excellence, fairness, inclusion and harmony. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Thomas, W. & Collier, V. (1997). School effectiveness for language minority students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.Determining appropriate referrals of ELLs to special education: A self assessment guide for principals. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children