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Insects Affecting Production of Native Legume Seed in the Great Basin

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Presentation on theme: "Insects Affecting Production of Native Legume Seed in the Great Basin"— Presentation transcript:

1 Insects Affecting Production of Native Legume Seed in the Great Basin
Jim Cane USDA/ARS Bee Biology & Systematics Lab Logan UT Bob Hammon Tri River Cooperative Extension Grand Junction CO

2 “Natural controls” Insect Pests of Native Plants?
Economic considerations “Natural controls”

3 Hedysarum boreale Northern Sweetvetch
70%+ seed loss to seed weevils at Meeker CO 1990

4 Dalea ornata Western prairie clover
Seed weevils widespread!!

5 Lupinus argenteus Silvery Lupine
Significant weevil damage to seed in field collections

6 Astragalus filipes Basalt Milkvetch
5 species of weevils damaging seed in 2003/04 Several root boring weevils reported from Astragalus

7 2003 Astragalus collection sites

8 Weevils Curculionidae - True weevils
Tychius (ASFI, HEBO, LUAR) Brentidae – Straight-snouted weevils Taxonomic confusion!! Curculionidae, Apionidae, Brentidae Apion (DAOR, LUAR) Bruchidae - Seed weevils Acanthoscelides (ASFI, HEBO, DAOR)

9 Bruchidae Brentidae Curculionidae D. ornata A. filipes H. boreale
L. argenteus Bruchidae Acanthoscelides aureolus L X daleae fraterculus oregonensis pullus Brentidae Apion amaurum proclive oedorhychum Curculionidae Tychius lineellus semisquamosus tectus

10 Bruchidae – Seed Weevils
Acanthoscelides Head hypognathous (pointed downward) Antennae arise from base of eye Tip of abdomen not covered by elytra

11 Acanthoscelides oregonensis
Most seed weevils we are dealing with are < 2.5 mm In length 2mm

12 Brentidae Curculionidae
Agave weevil Scyphophrus acupunctatus Hollyhock weevil Apion longirostre

13 Weevil Larvae Found within seed pod Root feeders
May be within normal-looking seed Well developed head capsule Legs reduced or absent

14 Tychius Life History Feed on Fabaceae: Papilionoideae Seed predators
Adults feed on flowers/ pollen Oviposit in immature ovaries/pods Larvae feed on several seeds within pod External feeders Pupation in soil Pupation in pods aberrant?? Overwintering as adult in soil Clark, W.E The curculionid genus Tychius Germar: Natural history and coevolution with leguminous host plants. Southwestern Entomologist 2:

15 Acanthoscelides Life History
Many species, host plants Large diversity of life history Oviposition on pods, some spp on seed External or internal feeding on seeds, may eat 1 seed completely before moving on Multiple generations for some species Silken cocoon against side of pod, some spp within a seed

16 Handling Collected Seed Don’t bring them home alive
Inspect seed for damage Adult weevils on plant material Larvae within seed Inspect healthy-looking seed Keep samples for ID Larvae for rearing to adult Fumigate with No Pest Strip Cut into 1” strips 48h in sealed container

17 Management – Field Collection Sites
Anticipate problems Monitor the site Sweep net Nocturnal samples Pre-bloom soil drench Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub Insect Control Concentrate Imidacloprid Cheap, readily available, easy to apply

18 Management – Field Plantings
Monitoring with sweep net NOCTURNAL!!!!! Preventative controls Target adults pre-oviposition Systemic insecticide Prebloom imidacloprid Contact insecticide Residual pyrethroid Pollinator concerns Non-lethal effects

19 Seed Predator Challenges
Research needs Many species Life history diversity Taxonomy challenges Geographic differences Widespread distribution Many legume plantings will be affected Yearly changes We don’t know what next years challenge is

20 Seed Production Pesticide Labels
No labels for “Forbs grown for Seed” Field grown ornamentals listserv

21 Bob Hammon Tri River Cooperative Extension P.O. Box 20, Grand Junction CO (970)

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