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Light and Temperature Interaction
Fall Leaf Color cool temps - very bright days
Orange yellow, reds, purples and browns chlorophyll cells die as temperatures get cooler
Yellow carotenoids after chlorophyll dies you see the other pigments that are always present
Red-Purple anthocyanins not always present synthesized in cooler temps made from sugar molecules
Brown tanins mask or show up more once chlorophyll dies produced in the leaves
Leaf Fall need an abscission layer leaf can no longer translocate carbohydrates out of the leaf
Bright Days lots of carbohydrates in the leaf anthocyanins get brighter color
The Key…… cool, short days
Greenhouse Effect short, high energy wave lengths of light from sun enters house absorbed by structures and plants
plants re-radiate green light in longer waves long waves do not have as much energy as the short waves
longer waves do not have enough energy to escape from the house result is heat
this is how the earth is heated long waves cannot escape through the clouds cloudy nights are warmer
Light energy - electromagnetic radiation wavelengths - distance from peak to peak measured in nanometers NM
Far Red color plants use
Infra Red heat energy
Visible light light quality - color quantity - intensity, how bright duration - photoperiod
Quality blue - 400-510 NM cell elongation photosynthesis - chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light
phototropism - plant tends to grow or bend toward a light source
Red photosynthesis stimulates branching encourage growth of axillary buds
phytochrome - light absorbing pigment seed germination in photoblastic seeds
flowering responses photoperiod
Far red promotes stem elongation
Yellow - Green does not effect plants
Intensity measured in foot candles amount per unit area on plant
Plants shade loving too much sun - leaf burn dehydrate kill chlorophyll
sun loving low light, pale color new leaves are small lack vigor
dont flower properly if at all
Light Light Compensation Point - LCP light intensity where rate of photosynthesis = the rate of respiration
LCP Lowest intensity you can grow a plat at If a plant is grown below this level, respiration will be greater than photosynthesis
plant will die for a plant to grow photosynthesis must be greater than respiration
Acclimitization preparing plant for lower light intensity conditions expose to lower light intensity
Artificial Lights Incandescent far red, red - elongation low blue 80% of emitted radiation is heat
Incandescent 20% visible light 12% utilized by plant
Flourescent red, blue 36% heat energy 22% light used by plant spectral flexibility
can change the quality of the light by changing the coating on inside of bulbs Cool White - Ca Halophosphate
Gro-Lux coated with Mg Fluorogerminate not as long life as cool white, 30X more expensive
Metal Halide increase light intensity
Low Pressure Sodium yellow glow energy efficient yellow - orange light
High Pressure Sodium red, blue light energy efficient
Photoperiod length or duration of the light period biological measurement of relative length of light and dark periods
effects flowering leaf abscision dormancy - acclimate for winter
Effects….. Sex expression runner formation tuber formation bulb formation
Short Day Plants flower when day length is shorter the dark period is critical its dark longer than it is light
Short Day Plants examples Chrysanthemum Christmas Cactus Poinsettia
Long Day Plants flower when days are long and nights are short example: lettuce, radish, petunias
Facilitative Long Day flower any period if long day - flowering is enhanced examples - tomato, begonia
Day Neutral flower under long or short day lengths example: African Violet
Poinsettias use night interrupted lighting turn on artificial lights from 10 p.m. to 2 a.m. splits up the dark period
cyclic lighting from 10 p.m. to 2 a.m. lights on for 6 minutes and off for 24 minutes
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