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Animal Diseases. Disease Broad definition – not being at ease or uncomfortable Producers have a vested interest to keep their animals healthy.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Diseases. Disease Broad definition – not being at ease or uncomfortable Producers have a vested interest to keep their animals healthy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Diseases

2 Disease Broad definition – not being at ease or uncomfortable Producers have a vested interest to keep their animals healthy

3 Healthy Animals Grow faster and produce more profit for their owners Some diseases are mild, others may be severe and cause rapid death

4 Sick animals Usually display outward signs of illness Animal may be droopy, go off feed and water, be restless, have a dull haircoat

5 Infectious diseases Caused by microorganisms that invade the animals body Usually contagious diseases that the animal can pass to another animal

6 Bacteria Live in a wide range of conditions Live on and in the bodies of all animals More numerous than the cells of the body

7 Bacteria Many are beneficial Those living in the stomachs of ruminant animals aid in digestion

8 Bacteria Useful in production of foods such as cheese and sauerkraut Many can be harmful Invade the cells of an animals body

9 Parasitic bacteria May harm the animal by feeding off the body cells or secreting a material known as a toxin

10 Toxin Substance that causes harm to an organism A poison

11 Harmful bacteria When large numbers invade, the animal becomes ill Type and form of the illness depends on the type of bacteria that invades the animal

12 Cocci Round spherical shaped bacteria Some forms of pneumonia and strep are caused by this bacteria

13 Bacillus Rod shaped Single, pairs, or arranged in chains Cause some serious diseases in animals

14 Bacillus Anthrax Tetanus Blackleg Intestinal coliform Salmonella and tuberculosis

15 Spirilla Shaped like spirals or corkscrews Very motile Require moist atmosphere to live

16 Spirilla Live very well in the reproductive tracts of animals Leptospirosis Vibrosis and spirochetosis

17 Most bacteria Can be controlled by the use of antibiotics Penicillin was one of the first Produced from extracts of molds

18 Penicillin Many forms are now produced Very effective against bacterial infection.

19 Viruses Very tiny particle of matter composed of a core of nucleic acid and a covering of protein that protects the virus

20 Viruses Have characteristics of both living and nonliving material Are on the borderline between living and non living

21 Viruses Made up of some of the material found in cells but are not cells because they do not have a nucleus or other cell parts.

22 Viruses Do not grow and cannot reproduce outside a living cell Once inside a living cell, virus reproduces using energy and materials in the invaded cell

23 Viruses Harm cells by causing them to burst during reproduction And by using material that the cell needs to function properly

24 Virus Viral diseases cause the animal to be sick by preventing certain cells in the body from functioning properly

25 Virus More difficult to treat than bacterial diseases Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections

26 Viral diseases Foot and mouth disease Influenza Hog cholera Pseudorabies

27 Viral diseases Best means of dealing with them is prevention

28 Protozoa Microorganism that causes disease Single celled organisms that are often parasitic

29 Protozoa Cause harm by feeding on cells or producing toxins African sleeping sickness Anaplasmosis

30 Protozoa Coccidiosis One of the most costly poultry diseases Caused diarrhea and weight loss

31 Protozoa Most can be controlled by drugs

32 The immune system Several lines of defense in fighting disease Physical barriers that keep pathogens out

33 The immune system Nostrils are lined with hairs that attract particles that harbor germs before they can enter the body

34 The immune system Mucous membranes secrete viscous water substance that traps and destroys bacteria and viruses

35 The immune system Digestive and respiratory systems – greatest avenue for entry Some disease germs can live in the soil for many years

36 Soil borne disease Animals come into contact with the ground when they graze Many pathogens are breathed in by livestock

37 Germs Swallowed by animals are destroyed by digestive enzymes Inhaled germs are trapped in mucous membranes of respiratory tract

38 2 nd line of defense Blood cells White and Red Red – carry oxygen and other nutrients to other body cells

39 White Blood Cells Are produced in the bone marrow Circulate throughout the body to get rid of worn out cells

40 Phagocytes White blood cells that intercept and destroy pathogens Also migrate to certain organs and remain there to intercept pathogens

41 White Blood Cells Circulate through other body fluids and the mucous membranes

42 Phagocytes Release chemicals that can induce the production of more white blood cells to help fight disease

43 Phagocytes An elevated WBC count indicated that there are disease organisms present in the animals body and a large number of phagocytes have been produced to combat them

44 Lymphocytes Lymph glands that produce certain WBCs These cells react to foreign substances by releasing chemicals that kill the pathogen or inactivate the foreign substance

45 Antigens Substances that cause the release of chemicals May be viruses, bacteria, toxins, or other substances

46 Antibodies The chemicals released by the lymphocytes

47 2 nd Immune Response Lymphocytes become memory cell and are ready to release the antibody if the antigen enters the body at a later time

48 2 nd Immune Response Response occurs much more quickly Lasts longer than primary response

49 Immunity Means than an animal is protected from catching a certain disease Animals body is capable of producing enough antibodies fast enough to neutralize the disease

50 Immunity Active or passive Active –animal is more or less permanently immune Passive – animal is only temporarily immune

51 Immunity Animals are born with some immunity Colostrum is rich in antibodies Serve the new animal until its own immune system can take over

52 Immunity As the animal is exposed to more antigens, antibodies build up within the animal. Naturally acquired active immunity results from the animal actually contracting the disease and recovering

53 Artificial Active Induced by injecting antigens into the animal Causes phagocytes to react without making the animal seriously ill

54 Edward Jenner Late 1700s Began vaccination process Smallpox and cow pox Collected material from sores of people with cowpox

55 Edward Jenner Injected healthy people with material Became mildly ill with cow pox Then were immune

56 Louis Pasteur Developed several vaccines following Jenners lead

57 Vaccines Live Killed or weakened strain Both stimulate production of antibodies Killed – less dangerous when compared to live vaccine

58 Noninfectious Disease Not contagious Genetic diseases Caused by defects in the genes Problem or disease can be passed from parent to offspring

59 Genetic Diseases Cannot be spread through contact with other animals Control of genetic diseases, using good selection practices Avoid breeding animals that are known to have genetic defects in their line

60 Nutritional Diseases Milk fever in dairy cattle Cows lie down and are unable to stand Insufficient amount of Ca in the bloodstream

61 Milk fever Usually cured by injection of Ca salts Effects are immediate and dramatic

62 Overeating Founder – horses, cattle and sheep Eat too much grain Causes feet to become inflamed and hooves to grow upward and outward

63 Poisoning Moldy feed can contain toxins Aflatoxins and ergot – fungi that grow on grains Grazing on poisonous plants

64 Disease prevention Vaccination Humans can carry disease from one farm to another Many farms require plastic boots be worn over the shoes of visitors

65 Quarantine Isolation of newly purchased animals Government regulates quarantine for animals coming into the US

66 Quarantine Many states have quarantine periods or require health papers for animals crossing state lines Animals tested positive for Brucellosis (Bangs) are branded and sent to slaughter.

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