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Marine Fisheries Management Ocean can be considered the last frontier on this planet unique physical characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Fisheries Management Ocean can be considered the last frontier on this planet unique physical characteristics."— Presentation transcript:


2 Marine Fisheries Management

3 Ocean can be considered the last frontier on this planet unique physical characteristics

4 Ocean can support wide variety of plant and animal life

5 Physical Characteristics four major areas zonation salinity temperature density water movements

6 Zonation classify ocean zones depth measurements temperature changes pressure variations light penetration

7 Zonation depth and light penetration are the two most common methods five zones

8 Zonation supratidal intertidal neritic bathyal abyssal

9 Zonation supratidal and intertidal above the water level are omitted in some classifications

10 Intertidal sometimes called the littoral zone area between high and low tide

11 Neritic begins at the water line contains more biological substance than any other part of the ocean miles wide

12 Neritic feet deep zone stops at the end of the continental shelf site of huge dumping of industrial and city wastes

13 Bathyal contains the continental slope and rise is regarded as a geologically active area underwater avalanches and slides common

14 Abyssal ocean deep zone reaching depths of 5,000 meters trenches may extend to more than 6,000 meters

15 Abyssal trenches are referred to as the hadal zone scarcity of food increased water pressure lack of dissolved oxygen

16 Abyssal animal life must be specialized to live must be able to obtain nutrients from rich sediments on the ocean floor

17 light penetration euphotic zone - twilight zone part of the ocean where sunlight penetrates the water supports plant and animal life that requires sunlight to live

18 Euphotic zone from the surface to about 600 feet beyond the horizontal shelf below the euphotic is the cold, dark Abyssal zone

19 Salinity concentration of salts within ocean water concentrations and types of salts vary throughout the ocean

20 Salinity most commonly found salt compounds consist of: sodium - Na chlorine - Cl magnesium - Mg

21 Salinity calcium - Ca potassium - K

22 Salinity defined as the number of grams of dissolved salt in 1,000 grams of sea water symbol for expressing salinity is %o

23 Salinity ranges in the ocean from 33%o to 38%o average is about 35%o

24 Temperature Density the ocean is a giant heat pump that moves and transports heat from the equator to the poles

25 Temperature Density temp changes occur as you move both to a different latitude and different depths

26 Temp stratification three layers mixed surface layer middle thermocline layer (10-1,000 meters) deep water layer (1, ,000 meters)

27 Thermocline below the light penetration depth suggests that there is a transfer of heat vertically as well as horizontally

28 Density mass per unit volume dependent upon salinity temperature pressure

29 Density changes result from evaporation and heating of the oceans surface higher temps -lower density density increases as the pressure and depth increase

30 Water Movements waves tides currents

31 Water Movements dictates temperature, salinity, nutrient levels as well as animal and plant life

32 Waves classified as: wind generated internal catastrophic stationary

33 Wind generated most common sea swell surf

34 Wind generated sea wave is an irregular wave with no systematic pattern sea wave travels at different heights and changes direction as it moves

35 Wind generated swell waves are uniform with similar dimensions travel together because of their similar speed

36 Wind generated-swell remain at a constant speed as they travel but decrease in height sometimes travel across an entire ocean

37 Wind generated surf wave is on occurring close to shore water particles move in an orbital motion toward the beach

38 Wind generated - surf less depth energy is directed toward the shore

39 underwater internal found with the temperature changes in the depths of the ocean travels more slowly but has a greater height

40 Catastrophic waves massive power behind them caused by storms, hurricanes and landslides on shore commonly known catastrophic wave is the tidal wave

41 Stationary wave occur in bays and calmer waters does not move horizontally water surface moves up and down

42 Tides specialized waves caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the earth tides occur at very exact times with one-half lunar day

43 Tides 12 hours 25 minutes between high tides lunar day is longer than the solar day tides occur 50 minutes later each day

44 Tides an area will have either one high tide and one low tide each day (diurnal) or two high tides an two low tides each day (semidiurnal)

45 Tides when the sun and the moon line up with the earth a strong tide is produced this happens every 14 days at the time of the new and full moons

46 Tides this exceptionally high tide is called the spring tide when the sun and moon are at right angles with each other occurs during the half moon

47 Tides an exceptionally low tide is produced called neap tide

48 Currents most common are surface currents, turbidity currents and bottom currents surface currents, which are caused by the prevailing winds

49 Currents - surface reach velocities of about 3 knots 1 knot = 1.15 mph

50 Currents when a hurricane reaches shore or an earthquake occurs, landslides can occur landslides can produce a turbidity current underwater

51 Currents in the deep water become the bottom currents responsible for moving sediments on the ocean floor

52 Currents transporting water from the Atlantic Basin to the southern Atlantic Ocean

53 Life the ocean is a wonderland of plant and animal life storehouse of food and nutrients is virtually untapped

54 Life with proper management the ocean could provide wide relief to the world food problem

55 Animal life divided into four major groups microscopic marine fish marine shellfish marine mammals

56 Microscopic most common are the plankton zooplankton staple food for species ranging from tiny fish to whales

57 Microscopic many zooplankton are related to marine crabs and shrimp plankton concentration varies average concentration is one tenth of a gram per cubic meter of water

58 Microscopic some scientists suggest harvesting plankton because they contain the nutrients and amino acids found in human food

59 Microscopic would require filtering over one million gallons of water with sophisticated nets to collect one pound of dry plankton material

60 Marine Fish four most important marine fish species are: salmon tuna menhaden flounder

61 Marine Fish these species make up the world fishing markets less economically important species include: haddock, herring, cod, and mackerel

62 Salmon seven main species Atlantic Cherry Chinook Chum

63 Salmon Coho Pink Sockeye

64 Salmon range in size from 16 inches long and weighing 5 pounds to 36 inches and 25 pounds live in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

65 Salmon begin life in fresh water migrate to the ocean to live and grow Atlantic Salmon make the trip repeatedly

66 Salmon Pacific species include all or the seven except the Atlantic spawn only once and die soon afterward

67 Salmon spawn in shallow streams during late summer or early fall female finds a rocky stream bed where she digs a saucer shaped nest with her tail

68 Salmon male salmon stays close by to guard the female she deposits her eggs in the nest and the male fertilizes them

69 Salmon procedure is repeated upstream female will lay 2, ,000 eggs during this spawning time

70 Salmon eggs hatch in 3-4 months fry retreat to the gravel bottom to try to avoid predators - birds and other fish

71 Salmon young salmon live off food in the yolk sack attached to their stomachs some species move toward the ocean immediately

72 Salmon some stay in fresh water for up to 3 years adult salmon remain in the ocean from 6 months to 5 years before returning to fresh water to spawn

73 Salmon Once the salmon reaches fresh water it stops eating and depends on body fat for energy male develops a hooked snout

74 Salmon some species develop a hump on their backs quality of the meat is decreased at this time as the salmon loses some of its flavor

75 Salmon management practices to protect and preserve fish ladders to help salmon over dams artificial spawning channels

76 Salmon temp and water flow are controlled in the channels use of hatcheries construction of escarpments which allow a certain number of fish to spawn

77 Salmon have also been used to control other rapidly producing fish species coho salmon was introduced into the great lakes to control alewives

78 Salmon commercially are caught in nets and sold fresh frozen smoked and canned

79 Salmon main fishing countries are: US Japan Canada

80 Tuna member of the mackerel family leading game fish in the US

81 Tuna three most commercially important types are: albacore skipjack yellowfin

82 Tuna species range in size from the 10 foot long, 2,000 pound northern bluefin to the 2 foot long 10 pound frigate

83 Tuna are fast swimmers reach speeds of up to 45 mph Does not have the ability to push water through its gills

84 Tuna must swim continuously in order to live caught by bait fishing, long lining and purse seining bait fishing involves using live bait to attract tuna

85 Tuna long-lining reel out a line up to 75 miles long may have as many as 2,000 hooks

86 Tuna purse seining using nets called purse seines to catch fish tuna usually travel below schools of porpoises

87 Tuna pilots locate the porpoises from the air and radio the location to the boats major problem is that many porpoises are netted at the same time

88 Tuna netting of porpoises is accidental and unlawful

89 Menhaden also known as bony fish or fatbacks live in the Atlantic Ocean and feed on plankton swim in schools close to the oceans surface

90 Menhaden easy to catch inches long weigh about 1 pound at maturity

91 Menhaden most are used in products such as livestock feed, soap, and fertilizer, rather than human food

92 Flounder also called Plaice lives on the sandy and muddy bottoms of bays have a flat body with both eyes on the same side of the head

93 Flounder feed on shrimp and small fish

94 Marine shellfish shrimp oysters crab lobster

95 Shrimp most economically important of the marine shellfish live in salt and fresh water excellent swimmers

96 Shrimp large shrimp - called prawns feed from the ocean floor can grow to 12 inches in length

97 Shrimp most common used for food is the Peneid shrimp hatched from eggs laid in the ocean female may lay 500,000 to 1 million eggs

98 Shrimp as the young shrimp move toward shore 80 percent are lost to predators shrimp settle in bays and river mouths until 5-7 mos

99 Shrimp then move back to deeper water for breeding female dies soon after laying her eggs

100 Shrimp nets called trawls are dragged on the ocean floor once netted, shrimp are sold frozen or canned leading countries are US, Japan, India

101 Oyster type of mollusk shellfish with a two-piece shell protecting a soft inner body live in mild or warm climates

102 Oyster Oysters of the Persian gulf and the Pacific Ocean are responsible for making pearls

103 Oyster female oyster lays about 500 million eggs each year, spraying them into the water young oysters, called spat, hatches 10 hours later

104 Oyster about the size of the point of a needle within 24 hours the shell starts to form young oyster attaches to a rock

105 Oyster where it spends the rest of its life some live up to 20 years greatest enemies include: humans, fish, crabs, starfish and oyster drills

106 Crabs third economically important marine shellfish habitats range from shallow waters close to shore to deep waters of the ocean

107 Crabs 4500 different kinds of crabs most common - Atlantic - lives in burrows on saltwater streams

108 Crabs largest is the Alaskan King Crab can weigh up to 12 pounds! Most sought after crab by American and Japanese fishermen

109 Lobster American Lobster lives on ocean bottoms near the shore in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans averages inches in length

110 Lobster weigh from pounds feeds by burrowing into a hole with only its claw at the edge

111 Lobster as prey comes close to the claw it quickly becomes the lobsters next meal main food consists of crab, snails, small fish and other lobsters

112 Lobsters female carries her eggs under her tail for months every 2 years she lays 5, ,000 eggs by shaking the eggs from eggshells

113 Lobsters eggs will quickly rise to the surface young will drift on the surface for three to five weeks easy prey for birds and fish

114 Lobsters young then sink to the ocean floor where they spend the remainder of their life life span up to 15 years

115 Lobsters caught in traps called pots allow the lobster to enter but vertical wooden bars confuse the lobsters and prevent them from finding their way out

116 Lobsters traps are checked daily two lobsters in confinement will fight till one dies claws are immobilized with a rubber band to prevent injury to other lobsters

117 Lobsters Lobsters are kept together for shipping so immobilizing the claw is important

118 Marine Mammals differ from other marine life in two important ways warm blooded rather than cold blooded

119 Marine Mammals mammals have lungs as breathing devices rather than gills necessary to come to the surface to breath

120 Marine Mammals main marine mammals are whales porpoises walruses fur seals

121 Whales include the largest mammals that have ever lived on the earth the largest blue whale was 100 feet long and weight 136 metric tons

122 Whales divided into baleen whales and toothed whales

123 Baleen Whales obtain their food by straining plankton from the seawater through plates called whalebone

124 Baleen Whales ten different types three major groups right, gray, and rorqual

125 Baleen Whales Right include the bowhead black right - longest baleen, averages 60 feet long pygmy baleen- smallest baleen

126 Baleen gray are black to gray in color and dotted with white blotches feed from the ocean floor

127 Rorqual baleen fastest whale able to flee the whalers harpoon until the introduction of the diesel engine

128 Rorquals sometimes referred to as finback fin protrudes from their back

129 Rorquals most common include blue brydes fin humpback

130 Rorquals minke sei common food is small shrimp like animal called krill

131 Toothed whales have a lower set of peglike teeth over 65 different kinds of toothed whales

132 Toothed whales five major groups sperm beaked belugas and narwhales

133 Toothed Whales dolphins and porpoises river dolphins

134 Sperm Whale largest toothed whale about 60 feet in length blue gray to black in color enormous square head

135 Sperm whales live in the tropical waters feed off of squid, barracuda and sharks

136 Whales usually seasonal breeders mating during the winter months male - bull female - cow

137 Whales migrate to the equator for mating most baleen whales migrate most toothed whales do not migrate

138 Whales pregnancy lasts months when the calf is born it weighs nearly 4000 pounds 23 feet long

139 Whales cow nurses her offspring for about 7 months because of the rich milk, some calves can gain as much as 200 pounds a day

140 Whales travel in herds of ,000 adult male will form a harem school consisting of himself, his females and their young

141 Whales nursery groups of females and young and bachelor groups of males also travel along with the harem

142 Migrating mothers and young lead the herd followed by males and non pregnant females pregnant females at the rear

143 Whales average life span is 15 years for a porpoise and 40 years for a baleen whale

144 Fur Seals seals are divided into three groups eared - includes fur seals and sea lions earless walruses

145 Fur Seals most sought after seal because eof its soft coat US annual catch of fur seals amounts to over $3.5 million

146 Fur Seals spend the winter off the coast of California and the summer in Alaska male seal is called a bull and weighs between 500 and 700 pounds

147 Fur Seals female is called a cow weighs pounds bears one offspring per year offspring are called a pup, whelp, or calf

148 Fur Seals bulls arrive at the breeding grounds called rookeries in May or June stake out their territories about 40 feet in diameter

149 Fur Seals cows arrive in July immediately join a harem and bear their young cow mates again weeks after the birth of the pup

150 Fur Seals bull is always being challenged by other bulls for his territory usually must be at least 10 years old before he develops enough strength to defend

151 Fur Seals main predators include sharks killer whales and parasitic round worms humans

152 Fur Seals thousands killed annually at their breeding ground for fur 1911 North Pacific Fur Convention Japan, Russia, Canada, and the US

153 Fur Seals set a limit to the number of seals that can be harvested each year Only Russia and the US can harvest 30,000 a year

154 Fur Seals each country gives 15% of harvest to Japan and 15% to Canada US sealing is conducted by the government

155 Fur Seals money is deposited in the US Treasury 70% of money is returned to Alaskan govt. 30% goes to the National Marine Fisheries Service

156 Walrus the only tusked seals live in the Arctic, North Atlantic, and North Pacific Regions

157 Walrus their bodies have developed flippers that make them excellent swimmers during winter and spring months, walruses drift on floating ice pieces

158 Walrus spend summers resting on shorelines main food is clams Eskimo is the most common user of Walruses

159 Walrus meat is used for food hides for shelter oil for lamps

160 Estuarine Ecosystem area where freshwater source opens into the ocean called an estuary

161 Estuary transition area supports a variety of life that is found nowhere else life that can withstand rapid changes in salinity, temperature and density

162 Estuary continuously receives fresh water from the rivers and streams and salt water from the tides and currents

163 Estuary transitional zone has characteristics common to neither rivers or the ocean

164 Estuary usually shallow and turbulent results in high amount of oxygen in the water

165 Estuary tides cause the area to be nutrient rich rivers bring nutrients to the estuary from above and the tides bring nutrients from the ocean

166 Estuary acts as a nutrient trap bacteria count is high because of the high oxygen content

167 Estuary rapid decomposition of organic wastes breakdown of organic matter to soluble nutrients causes plant life to prosper

168 Estuary high plant life attracts large numbers of plant eating fish life in the estuary is grouped into three groups 1. Species that travel a short distance to the estuary

169 Estuary 2. Species found in both the estuary and in other parts of the ocean 3. Species whose entire life cycles are in the estuary

170 Estuary economically important to marine fisheries 90% of the marine fish harvested either comes from the estuarine ecosystem or passes through it

171 Estuary best known life in the estuary include: fish larvae oysters clams, crabs lobsters, shrimp

172 Estuary problems facing estuaries include conflict between land developers and fishermen

173 Estuary shorelines are the most sought after types of real estate some estuaries have been used as a dumping ground

174 Estuary dumping destroys natural habitat

175 Artificial Ocean Cultivation scientists have developed ways to artificially propagate marine animals this form of agricultural production is called aquaculture

176 Artificial Ocean Cultivation most commonly farmed marine resource crop is the oyster research is also being conducted with shrimp, salmon and milkfish

177 Oysters live in estuarine waters close to shore makes them one of the easiest marine animals to raise

178 Oysters improving habitat is first step providing a place for larvae to attach control parasites and predators

179 Oysters French Scientists have developed a special algae as an improved food for the oysters to grow more quickly.

180 Oysters Japans most productive oyster farm Inland Sea near Hiroshima water flow and mineral content are correct

181 Oysters very desirable oyster producing area only management item needed is a stopping apparatus to which the larvae can attach

182 Oysters Japanese oyster farms consist of bamboo poles tied together and floating on barrels wires are hung from the poles to a depth of 20 feet

183 Oysters wires hold clam shells act as the stopping place for oyster larvae In July and August, billions of oyster larvae attach to the artificially hung shells

184 Oysters larvae are thinned to the correct amount midseason - October - wires are pulled and young oysters are cleaned and brushed which helps them grow

185 Oysters harvested in January and February standard oyster raft measures feet square may own as many as 100 rafts

186 Oysters number of barrels needed to support the raft increases as the oysters grow and weigh it down

187 Oysters feed on plankton costs are low average yield is about 13,000 pounds of oyster flesh per acre farmed

188 Oysters shells are cleaned and sold for poultry grit and lime Japan can attribute its successful oyster farming both to low labor costs and to preservation of habitat

189 Oysters pollution of waters has almost stripped every other nation of an economically feasible oyster industry

190 Laws and Regulations who owns the ocean how many miles offshore can a country claim who owns the mineral resources on the ocean floor

191 Laws and Regs development of fishing policy fish cannot be claimed as property like land wildlife can

192 Laws and Regs recent legislation is aimed at conservation variety of commissions and committees have been formed

193 Laws and Regs most deal with regulation of one specific resource ie: fur seals, whale, tuna major examples include: Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)

194 Laws and Regs International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF) International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC

195 Laws and Regs International Whaling Commission (IWC) most commissions are formed after a resource develops problems

196 Laws and Regs commissions are only as strong as their member nations want them to be most recent attempt to develop ocean regulations is the UNs Law of the Sea

197 Laws and Regs a set of bargaining conferences involve 150 nations first conference initiated in 1958

198 Laws and Regs other conferences held in 1960, 73, and 80 three major items discussed 1. Territorial limits

199 Laws and Regs 2. Jurisdiction over an exclusive economic zone 3. Seabed mining


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