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Marine Fisheries Management

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Fisheries Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Fisheries Management

2 Ocean can be considered the last frontier on this planet
unique physical characteristics

3 Ocean can support wide variety of plant and animal life

4 Physical Characteristics
four major areas zonation salinity temperature density water movements

5 Zonation classify ocean zones depth measurements temperature changes
pressure variations light penetration

6 Zonation depth and light penetration are the two most common methods
five zones

7 Zonation supratidal intertidal neritic bathyal abyssal

8 Zonation supratidal and intertidal above the water level
are omitted in some classifications

9 Intertidal sometimes called the littoral zone
area between high and low tide

10 Neritic begins at the water line
contains more biological substance than any other part of the ocean miles wide

11 Neritic feet deep zone stops at the end of the continental shelf site of huge dumping of industrial and city wastes

12 Bathyal contains the continental slope and rise
is regarded as a geologically active area underwater avalanches and slides common

13 Abyssal ocean deep zone reaching depths of 5,000 meters
trenches may extend to more than 6,000 meters

14 Abyssal trenches are referred to as the hadal zone scarcity of food
increased water pressure lack of dissolved oxygen

15 Abyssal animal life must be specialized to live
must be able to obtain nutrients from rich sediments on the ocean floor

16 light penetration euphotic zone - “twilight zone”
part of the ocean where sunlight penetrates the water supports plant and animal life that requires sunlight to live

17 Euphotic zone from the surface to about 600 feet beyond the horizontal shelf below the euphotic is the cold, dark Abyssal zone

18 Salinity concentration of salts within ocean water
concentrations and types of salts vary throughout the ocean

19 Salinity most commonly found salt compounds consist of: sodium - Na
chlorine - Cl magnesium - Mg

20 Salinity calcium - Ca potassium - K

21 Salinity defined as the number of grams of dissolved salt in 1,000 grams of sea water symbol for expressing salinity is %o

22 Salinity ranges in the ocean from 33%o to 38%o average is about 35%o

23 Temperature Density the ocean is a giant heat pump that moves and transports heat from the equator to the poles

24 Temperature Density temp changes occur as you move both to a different latitude and different depths

25 Temp stratification three layers mixed surface layer
middle thermocline layer (10-1,000 meters) deep water layer (1, ,000 meters)

26 Thermocline below the light penetration depth
suggests that there is a transfer of heat vertically as well as horizontally

27 Density mass per unit volume dependent upon salinity temperature

28 Density changes result from evaporation and heating of the ocean’s surface higher temps -lower density density increases as the pressure and depth increase

29 Water Movements waves tides currents

30 Water Movements dictates temperature, salinity, nutrient levels as well as animal and plant life

31 Waves classified as: wind generated internal catastrophic stationary

32 Wind generated most common sea swell surf

33 Wind generated sea wave is an irregular wave with no systematic pattern sea wave travels at different heights and changes direction as it moves

34 Wind generated swell waves are uniform with similar dimensions
travel together because of their similar speed

35 Wind generated-swell remain at a constant speed as they travel but decrease in height sometimes travel across an entire ocean

36 Wind generated surf wave is on occurring close to shore
water particles move in an orbital motion toward the beach

37 Wind generated - surf less depth energy is directed toward the shore

38 underwater internal found with the temperature changes in the depths of the ocean travels more slowly but has a greater height

39 Catastrophic waves massive power behind them
caused by storms, hurricanes and landslides on shore commonly known catastrophic wave is the tidal wave

40 Stationary wave occur in bays and calmer waters
does not move horizontally water surface moves up and down

41 Tides specialized waves caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the earth tides occur at very exact times with one-half lunar day

42 Tides 12 hours 25 minutes between high tides
lunar day is longer than the solar day tides occur 50 minutes later each day

43 Tides an area will have either one high tide and one low tide each day (diurnal) or two high tides an two low tides each day (semidiurnal)

44 Tides when the sun and the moon line up with the earth a strong tide is produced this happens every 14 days at the time of the new and full moons

45 Tides this exceptionally high tide is called the spring tide
when the sun and moon are at right angles with each other occurs during the half moon

46 Tides an exceptionally low tide is produced called neap tide

47 Currents most common are surface currents, turbidity currents and bottom currents surface currents, which are caused by the prevailing winds

48 Currents - surface reach velocities of about 3 knots 1 knot = 1.15 mph

49 Currents when a hurricane reaches shore or an earthquake occurs, landslides can occur landslides can produce a turbidity current underwater

50 Currents in the deep water become the bottom currents
responsible for moving sediments on the ocean floor

51 Currents transporting water from the Atlantic Basin to the southern Atlantic Ocean

52 Life the ocean is a wonderland of plant and animal life
storehouse of food and nutrients is virtually untapped

53 Life with proper management the ocean could provide wide relief to the world food problem

54 Animal life divided into four major groups microscopic marine fish
marine shellfish marine mammals

55 Microscopic most common are the plankton zooplankton
staple food for species ranging from tiny fish to whales

56 Microscopic many zooplankton are related to marine crabs and shrimp
plankton concentration varies average concentration is one tenth of a gram per cubic meter of water

57 Microscopic some scientists suggest harvesting plankton because they contain the nutrients and amino acids found in human food

58 Microscopic would require filtering over one million gallons of water with sophisticated nets to collect one pound of dry plankton material

59 Marine Fish four most important marine fish species are: salmon tuna
menhaden flounder

60 Marine Fish these species make up the world fishing markets
less economically important species include: haddock, herring, cod, and mackerel

61 Salmon seven main species Atlantic Cherry Chinook Chum

62 Salmon Coho Pink Sockeye

63 Salmon range in size from 16 inches long and weighing 5 pounds to 36 inches and 25 pounds live in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

64 Salmon begin life in fresh water migrate to the ocean to live and grow
Atlantic Salmon make the trip repeatedly

65 Salmon Pacific species include all or the seven except the Atlantic
spawn only once and die soon afterward

66 Salmon spawn in shallow streams during late summer or early fall
female finds a rocky stream bed where she digs a saucer shaped nest with her tail

67 Salmon male salmon stays close by to guard the female
she deposits her eggs in the nest and the male fertilizes them

68 Salmon procedure is repeated upstream
female will lay 2, ,000 eggs during this spawning time

69 Salmon eggs hatch in 3-4 months
fry retreat to the gravel bottom to try to avoid predators - birds and other fish

70 Salmon young salmon live off food in the yolk sack attached to their stomachs some species move toward the ocean immediately

71 Salmon some stay in fresh water for up to 3 years
adult salmon remain in the ocean from 6 months to 5 years before returning to fresh water to spawn

72 Salmon Once the salmon reaches fresh water it stops eating and depends on body fat for energy male develops a hooked snout

73 Salmon some species develop a hump on their backs
quality of the meat is decreased at this time as the salmon loses some of its flavor

74 Salmon management practices to protect and preserve
fish ladders to help salmon over dams artificial spawning channels

75 Salmon temp and water flow are controlled in the channels
use of hatcheries construction of escarpments which allow a certain number of fish to spawn

76 Salmon have also been used to control other rapidly producing fish species coho salmon was introduced into the great lakes to control alewives

77 Salmon commercially are caught in nets and sold fresh frozen
smoked and canned

78 Salmon main fishing countries are: US Japan Canada

79 Tuna member of the mackerel family leading game fish in the US

80 Tuna three most commercially important types are: albacore skipjack

81 Tuna species range in size from the 10 foot long, 2,000 pound northern bluefin to the 2 foot long 10 pound frigate

82 Tuna are fast swimmers reach speeds of up to 45 mph
Does not have the ability to push water through its gills

83 Tuna must swim continuously in order to live
caught by bait fishing, long lining and purse seining bait fishing involves using live bait to attract tuna

84 Tuna long-lining reel out a line up to 75 miles long
may have as many as 2,000 hooks

85 Tuna purse seining using nets called purse seines to catch fish
tuna usually travel below schools of porpoises

86 Tuna pilots locate the porpoises from the air and radio the location to the boats major problem is that many porpoises are netted at the same time

87 Tuna netting of porpoises is accidental and unlawful

88 Menhaden also known as bony fish or fatbacks
live in the Atlantic Ocean and feed on plankton swim in schools close to the ocean’s surface

89 Menhaden easy to catch 12-18 inches long
weigh about 1 pound at maturity

90 Menhaden most are used in products such as livestock feed, soap, and fertilizer, rather than human food

91 Flounder also called “Plaice”
lives on the sandy and muddy bottoms of bays have a flat body with both eyes on the same side of the head

92 Flounder feed on shrimp and small fish

93 Marine shellfish shrimp oysters crab lobster

94 Shrimp most economically important of the marine shellfish
live in salt and fresh water excellent swimmers

95 Shrimp large shrimp - called prawns feed from the ocean floor
can grow to 12 inches in length

96 Shrimp most common used for food is the Peneid shrimp
hatched from eggs laid in the ocean female may lay 500,000 to 1 million eggs

97 Shrimp as the young shrimp move toward shore
80 percent are lost to predators shrimp settle in bays and river mouths until 5-7 mos

98 Shrimp then move back to deeper water for breeding
female dies soon after laying her eggs

99 Shrimp nets called trawls are dragged on the ocean floor
once netted, shrimp are sold frozen or canned leading countries are US, Japan, India

100 Oyster type of mollusk shellfish with a two-piece shell protecting a soft inner body live in mild or warm climates

101 Oyster Oysters of the Persian gulf and the Pacific Ocean are responsible for making pearls

102 Oyster female oyster lays about 500 million eggs each year, spraying them into the water young oysters, called spat, hatches 10 hours later

103 Oyster about the size of the point of a needle
within 24 hours the shell starts to form young oyster attaches to a rock

104 Oyster where it spends the rest of its life some live up to 20 years
greatest enemies include: humans, fish, crabs, starfish and oyster drills

105 Crabs third economically important marine shellfish
habitats range from shallow waters close to shore to deep waters of the ocean

106 Crabs 4500 different kinds of crabs
most common - Atlantic - lives in burrows on saltwater streams

107 Crabs largest is the Alaskan King Crab can weigh up to 12 pounds!
Most sought after crab by American and Japanese fishermen

108 Lobster American Lobster lives on ocean bottoms near the shore in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans averages inches in length

109 Lobster weigh from 1 - 20 pounds
feeds by burrowing into a hole with only its claw at the edge

110 Lobster as prey comes close to the claw it quickly becomes the lobster’s next meal main food consists of crab, snails, small fish and other lobsters

111 Lobsters female carries her eggs under her tail for 11-12 months
every 2 years she lays 5, ,000 eggs by shaking the eggs from eggshells

112 Lobsters eggs will quickly rise to the surface
young will drift on the surface for three to five weeks easy prey for birds and fish

113 Lobsters young then sink to the ocean floor where they spend the remainder of their life life span up to 15 years

114 Lobsters caught in traps called pots
allow the lobster to enter but vertical wooden bars confuse the lobsters and prevent them from finding their way out

115 Lobsters traps are checked daily
two lobsters in confinement will fight till one dies claws are immobilized with a rubber band to prevent injury to other lobsters

116 Lobsters Lobsters are kept together for shipping so immobilizing the claw is important

117 Marine Mammals differ from other marine life in two important ways
warm blooded rather than cold blooded

118 Marine Mammals mammals have lungs as breathing devices rather than gills necessary to come to the surface to breath

119 Marine Mammals main marine mammals are whales porpoises walruses
fur seals

120 Whales include the largest mammals that have ever lived on the earth
the largest blue whale was 100 feet long and weight 136 metric tons

121 Whales divided into baleen whales and toothed whales

122 Baleen Whales obtain their food by straining plankton from the seawater through plates called whalebone

123 Baleen Whales ten different types three major groups
right, gray, and rorqual

124 Baleen Whales Right include the bowhead
black right - longest baleen, averages 60 feet long pygmy baleen- smallest baleen

125 Baleen gray are black to gray in color and dotted with white blotches
feed from the ocean floor

126 Rorqual baleen fastest whale
able to flee the whaler’s harpoon until the introduction of the diesel engine

127 Rorquals sometimes referred to as finback
fin protrudes from their back

128 Rorquals most common include blue bryde’s fin humpback

129 Rorquals minke sei common food is small shrimp like animal called krill

130 Toothed whales have a lower set of peglike teeth
over 65 different kinds of toothed whales

131 Toothed whales five major groups sperm beaked belugas and narwhales

132 Toothed Whales dolphins and porpoises river dolphins

133 Sperm Whale largest toothed whale about 60 feet in length
blue gray to black in color enormous square head

134 Sperm whales live in the tropical waters
feed off of squid, barracuda and sharks

135 Whales usually seasonal breeders mating during the winter months
male - bull female - cow

136 Whales migrate to the equator for mating most baleen whales migrate
most toothed whales do not migrate

137 Whales pregnancy lasts 10-12 months
when the calf is born it weighs nearly 4000 pounds 23 feet long

138 Whales cow nurses her offspring for about 7 months
because of the rich milk, some calves can gain as much as 200 pounds a day

139 Whales travel in herds of 100 - 1,000
adult male will form a harem school consisting of himself, his females and their young

140 Whales nursery groups of females and young and bachelor groups of males also travel along with the harem

141 Migrating mothers and young lead the herd
followed by males and non pregnant females pregnant females at the rear

142 Whales average life span is 15 years for a porpoise and 40 years for a baleen whale

143 Fur Seals seals are divided into three groups
eared - includes fur seals and sea lions earless walruses

144 Fur Seals most sought after seal because eof its soft coat
US annual catch of fur seals amounts to over $3.5 million

145 Fur Seals spend the winter off the coast of California and the summer in Alaska male seal is called a bull and weighs between 500 and 700 pounds

146 Fur Seals female is called a cow weighs 50-100 pounds
bears one offspring per year offspring are called a pup, whelp, or calf

147 Fur Seals bulls arrive at the breeding grounds called rookeries in May or June stake out their territories about 40 feet in diameter

148 Fur Seals cows arrive in July
immediately join a harem and bear their young cow mates again weeks after the birth of the pup

149 Fur Seals bull is always being challenged by other bulls for his territory usually must be at least 10 years old before he develops enough strength to defend

150 Fur Seals main predators include sharks killer whales
and parasitic round worms humans

151 Fur Seals thousands killed annually at their breeding ground for fur
1911 North Pacific Fur Convention Japan, Russia, Canada, and the US

152 Fur Seals set a limit to the number of seals that can be harvested each year Only Russia and the US can harvest 30,000 a year

153 Fur Seals each country gives 15% of harvest to Japan and 15% to Canada
US sealing is conducted by the government

154 Fur Seals money is deposited in the US Treasury
70% of money is returned to Alaskan gov’t. 30% goes to the National Marine Fisheries Service

155 Walrus the only tusked seals
live in the Arctic, North Atlantic, and North Pacific Regions

156 Walrus their bodies have developed flippers that make them excellent swimmers during winter and spring months, walruses drift on floating ice pieces

157 Walrus spend summers resting on shorelines main food is clams
Eskimo is the most common user of Walruses

158 Walrus meat is used for food hides for shelter oil for lamps

159 Estuarine Ecosystem area where freshwater source opens into the ocean
called an estuary

160 Estuary transition area supports a variety of life that is found nowhere else life that can withstand rapid changes in salinity, temperature and density

161 Estuary continuously receives fresh water from the rivers and streams and salt water from the tides and currents

162 Estuary transitional zone
has characteristics common to neither rivers or the ocean

163 Estuary usually shallow and turbulent
results in high amount of oxygen in the water

164 Estuary tides cause the area to be nutrient rich
rivers bring nutrients to the estuary from above and the tides bring nutrients from the ocean

165 Estuary acts as a nutrient trap
bacteria count is high because of the high oxygen content

166 Estuary rapid decomposition of organic wastes
breakdown of organic matter to soluble nutrients causes plant life to prosper

167 Estuary high plant life attracts large numbers of plant eating fish
life in the estuary is grouped into three groups 1. Species that travel a short distance to the estuary

168 Estuary 2. Species found in both the estuary and in other parts of the ocean 3. Species whose entire life cycles are in the estuary

169 Estuary economically important to marine fisheries
90% of the marine fish harvested either comes from the estuarine ecosystem or passes through it

170 Estuary best known life in the estuary include: fish larvae oysters
clams, crabs lobsters, shrimp

171 Estuary problems facing estuaries include conflict between land developers and fishermen

172 Estuary shorelines are the most sought after types of real estate
some estuaries have been used as a dumping ground

173 Estuary dumping destroys natural habitat

174 Artificial Ocean Cultivation
scientists have developed ways to artificially propagate marine animals this form of agricultural production is called aquaculture

175 Artificial Ocean Cultivation
most commonly farmed marine resource crop is the oyster research is also being conducted with shrimp, salmon and milkfish

176 Oysters live in estuarine waters close to shore
makes them one of the easiest marine animals to raise

177 Oysters improving habitat is first step
providing a place for larvae to attach control parasites and predators

178 Oysters French Scientists have developed a special algae as an improved food for the oysters to grow more quickly.

179 Oysters Japan’s most productive oyster farm Inland Sea near Hiroshima
water flow and mineral content are correct

180 Oysters very desirable oyster producing area
only management item needed is a stopping apparatus to which the larvae can attach

181 Oysters Japanese oyster farms consist of bamboo poles tied together and floating on barrels wires are hung from the poles to a depth of 20 feet

182 Oysters wires hold clam shells
act as the stopping place for oyster larvae In July and August, billions of oyster larvae attach to the artificially hung shells

183 Oysters larvae are thinned to the correct amount
midseason - October - wires are pulled and young oysters are cleaned and brushed which helps them grow

184 Oysters harvested in January and February
standard oyster raft measures feet square may own as many as 100 rafts

185 Oysters number of barrels needed to support the raft increases as the oysters grow and weigh it down

186 Oysters feed on plankton costs are low
average yield is about 13,000 pounds of oyster flesh per acre farmed

187 Oysters shells are cleaned and sold for poultry grit and lime
Japan can attribute its successful oyster farming both to low labor costs and to preservation of habitat

188 Oysters pollution of waters has almost stripped every other nation of an economically feasible oyster industry

189 Laws and Regulations who owns the ocean
how many miles offshore can a country claim who owns the mineral resources on the ocean floor

190 Laws and Regs development of fishing policy
fish cannot be claimed as property like land wildlife can

191 Laws and Regs recent legislation is aimed at conservation
variety of commissions and committees have been formed

192 Laws and Regs most deal with regulation of one specific resource ie: fur seals, whale, tuna major examples include: Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)

193 Laws and Regs International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF) International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC

194 Laws and Regs International Whaling Commission (IWC)
most commissions are formed after a resource develops problems

195 Laws and Regs commissions are only as strong as their member nations want them to be most recent attempt to develop ocean regulations is the UN’s Law of the Sea

196 Laws and Regs a set of bargaining conferences involve 150 nations
first conference initiated in 1958

197 Laws and Regs other conferences held in 1960, 73, and 80
three major items discussed 1. Territorial limits

198 Laws and Regs 2. Jurisdiction over an exclusive economic zone
3. Seabed mining


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