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Marine Fisheries Management
Ocean can be considered the last frontier on this planet unique physical characteristics
Ocean can support wide variety of plant and animal life
Physical Characteristics four major areas zonation salinity temperature density water movements
Zonation classify ocean zones depth measurements temperature changes pressure variations light penetration
Zonation depth and light penetration are the two most common methods five zones
Zonation supratidal intertidal neritic bathyal abyssal
Zonation supratidal and intertidal above the water level are omitted in some classifications
Intertidal sometimes called the littoral zone area between high and low tide
Neritic begins at the water line contains more biological substance than any other part of the ocean miles wide
Neritic feet deep zone stops at the end of the continental shelf site of huge dumping of industrial and city wastes
Bathyal contains the continental slope and rise is regarded as a geologically active area underwater avalanches and slides common
Abyssal ocean deep zone reaching depths of 5,000 meters trenches may extend to more than 6,000 meters
Abyssal trenches are referred to as the hadal zone scarcity of food increased water pressure lack of dissolved oxygen
Abyssal animal life must be specialized to live must be able to obtain nutrients from rich sediments on the ocean floor
light penetration euphotic zone - twilight zone part of the ocean where sunlight penetrates the water supports plant and animal life that requires sunlight to live
Euphotic zone from the surface to about 600 feet beyond the horizontal shelf below the euphotic is the cold, dark Abyssal zone
Salinity concentration of salts within ocean water concentrations and types of salts vary throughout the ocean
Salinity most commonly found salt compounds consist of: sodium - Na chlorine - Cl magnesium - Mg
Salinity calcium - Ca potassium - K
Salinity defined as the number of grams of dissolved salt in 1,000 grams of sea water symbol for expressing salinity is %o
Salinity ranges in the ocean from 33%o to 38%o average is about 35%o
Temperature Density the ocean is a giant heat pump that moves and transports heat from the equator to the poles
Temperature Density temp changes occur as you move both to a different latitude and different depths
Temp stratification three layers mixed surface layer middle thermocline layer (10-1,000 meters) deep water layer (1, ,000 meters)
Thermocline below the light penetration depth suggests that there is a transfer of heat vertically as well as horizontally
Density mass per unit volume dependent upon salinity temperature pressure
Density changes result from evaporation and heating of the oceans surface higher temps -lower density density increases as the pressure and depth increase
Water Movements waves tides currents
Water Movements dictates temperature, salinity, nutrient levels as well as animal and plant life
Waves classified as: wind generated internal catastrophic stationary
Wind generated most common sea swell surf
Wind generated sea wave is an irregular wave with no systematic pattern sea wave travels at different heights and changes direction as it moves
Wind generated swell waves are uniform with similar dimensions travel together because of their similar speed
Wind generated-swell remain at a constant speed as they travel but decrease in height sometimes travel across an entire ocean
Wind generated surf wave is on occurring close to shore water particles move in an orbital motion toward the beach
Wind generated - surf less depth energy is directed toward the shore
underwater internal found with the temperature changes in the depths of the ocean travels more slowly but has a greater height
Catastrophic waves massive power behind them caused by storms, hurricanes and landslides on shore commonly known catastrophic wave is the tidal wave
Stationary wave occur in bays and calmer waters does not move horizontally water surface moves up and down
Tides specialized waves caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the earth tides occur at very exact times with one-half lunar day
Tides 12 hours 25 minutes between high tides lunar day is longer than the solar day tides occur 50 minutes later each day
Tides an area will have either one high tide and one low tide each day (diurnal) or two high tides an two low tides each day (semidiurnal)
Tides when the sun and the moon line up with the earth a strong tide is produced this happens every 14 days at the time of the new and full moons
Tides this exceptionally high tide is called the spring tide when the sun and moon are at right angles with each other occurs during the half moon
Tides an exceptionally low tide is produced called neap tide
Currents most common are surface currents, turbidity currents and bottom currents surface currents, which are caused by the prevailing winds
Currents - surface reach velocities of about 3 knots 1 knot = 1.15 mph
Currents when a hurricane reaches shore or an earthquake occurs, landslides can occur landslides can produce a turbidity current underwater
Currents in the deep water become the bottom currents responsible for moving sediments on the ocean floor
Currents transporting water from the Atlantic Basin to the southern Atlantic Ocean
Life the ocean is a wonderland of plant and animal life storehouse of food and nutrients is virtually untapped
Life with proper management the ocean could provide wide relief to the world food problem
Animal life divided into four major groups microscopic marine fish marine shellfish marine mammals
Microscopic most common are the plankton zooplankton staple food for species ranging from tiny fish to whales
Microscopic many zooplankton are related to marine crabs and shrimp plankton concentration varies average concentration is one tenth of a gram per cubic meter of water
Microscopic some scientists suggest harvesting plankton because they contain the nutrients and amino acids found in human food
Microscopic would require filtering over one million gallons of water with sophisticated nets to collect one pound of dry plankton material
Marine Fish four most important marine fish species are: salmon tuna menhaden flounder
Marine Fish these species make up the world fishing markets less economically important species include: haddock, herring, cod, and mackerel
Salmon seven main species Atlantic Cherry Chinook Chum
Salmon Coho Pink Sockeye
Salmon range in size from 16 inches long and weighing 5 pounds to 36 inches and 25 pounds live in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Salmon begin life in fresh water migrate to the ocean to live and grow Atlantic Salmon make the trip repeatedly
Salmon Pacific species include all or the seven except the Atlantic spawn only once and die soon afterward
Salmon spawn in shallow streams during late summer or early fall female finds a rocky stream bed where she digs a saucer shaped nest with her tail
Salmon male salmon stays close by to guard the female she deposits her eggs in the nest and the male fertilizes them
Salmon procedure is repeated upstream female will lay 2, ,000 eggs during this spawning time
Salmon eggs hatch in 3-4 months fry retreat to the gravel bottom to try to avoid predators - birds and other fish
Salmon young salmon live off food in the yolk sack attached to their stomachs some species move toward the ocean immediately
Salmon some stay in fresh water for up to 3 years adult salmon remain in the ocean from 6 months to 5 years before returning to fresh water to spawn
Salmon Once the salmon reaches fresh water it stops eating and depends on body fat for energy male develops a hooked snout
Salmon some species develop a hump on their backs quality of the meat is decreased at this time as the salmon loses some of its flavor
Salmon management practices to protect and preserve fish ladders to help salmon over dams artificial spawning channels
Salmon temp and water flow are controlled in the channels use of hatcheries construction of escarpments which allow a certain number of fish to spawn
Salmon have also been used to control other rapidly producing fish species coho salmon was introduced into the great lakes to control alewives
Salmon commercially are caught in nets and sold fresh frozen smoked and canned
Salmon main fishing countries are: US Japan Canada
Tuna member of the mackerel family leading game fish in the US
Tuna three most commercially important types are: albacore skipjack yellowfin
Tuna species range in size from the 10 foot long, 2,000 pound northern bluefin to the 2 foot long 10 pound frigate
Tuna are fast swimmers reach speeds of up to 45 mph Does not have the ability to push water through its gills
Tuna must swim continuously in order to live caught by bait fishing, long lining and purse seining bait fishing involves using live bait to attract tuna
Tuna long-lining reel out a line up to 75 miles long may have as many as 2,000 hooks
Tuna purse seining using nets called purse seines to catch fish tuna usually travel below schools of porpoises
Tuna pilots locate the porpoises from the air and radio the location to the boats major problem is that many porpoises are netted at the same time
Tuna netting of porpoises is accidental and unlawful
Menhaden also known as bony fish or fatbacks live in the Atlantic Ocean and feed on plankton swim in schools close to the oceans surface
Menhaden easy to catch inches long weigh about 1 pound at maturity
Menhaden most are used in products such as livestock feed, soap, and fertilizer, rather than human food
Flounder also called Plaice lives on the sandy and muddy bottoms of bays have a flat body with both eyes on the same side of the head
Flounder feed on shrimp and small fish
Marine shellfish shrimp oysters crab lobster
Shrimp most economically important of the marine shellfish live in salt and fresh water excellent swimmers
Shrimp large shrimp - called prawns feed from the ocean floor can grow to 12 inches in length
Shrimp most common used for food is the Peneid shrimp hatched from eggs laid in the ocean female may lay 500,000 to 1 million eggs
Shrimp as the young shrimp move toward shore 80 percent are lost to predators shrimp settle in bays and river mouths until 5-7 mos
Shrimp then move back to deeper water for breeding female dies soon after laying her eggs
Shrimp nets called trawls are dragged on the ocean floor once netted, shrimp are sold frozen or canned leading countries are US, Japan, India
Oyster type of mollusk shellfish with a two-piece shell protecting a soft inner body live in mild or warm climates
Oyster Oysters of the Persian gulf and the Pacific Ocean are responsible for making pearls
Oyster female oyster lays about 500 million eggs each year, spraying them into the water young oysters, called spat, hatches 10 hours later
Oyster about the size of the point of a needle within 24 hours the shell starts to form young oyster attaches to a rock
Oyster where it spends the rest of its life some live up to 20 years greatest enemies include: humans, fish, crabs, starfish and oyster drills
Crabs third economically important marine shellfish habitats range from shallow waters close to shore to deep waters of the ocean
Crabs 4500 different kinds of crabs most common - Atlantic - lives in burrows on saltwater streams
Crabs largest is the Alaskan King Crab can weigh up to 12 pounds! Most sought after crab by American and Japanese fishermen
Lobster American Lobster lives on ocean bottoms near the shore in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans averages inches in length
Lobster weigh from pounds feeds by burrowing into a hole with only its claw at the edge
Lobster as prey comes close to the claw it quickly becomes the lobsters next meal main food consists of crab, snails, small fish and other lobsters
Lobsters female carries her eggs under her tail for months every 2 years she lays 5, ,000 eggs by shaking the eggs from eggshells
Lobsters eggs will quickly rise to the surface young will drift on the surface for three to five weeks easy prey for birds and fish
Lobsters young then sink to the ocean floor where they spend the remainder of their life life span up to 15 years
Lobsters caught in traps called pots allow the lobster to enter but vertical wooden bars confuse the lobsters and prevent them from finding their way out
Lobsters traps are checked daily two lobsters in confinement will fight till one dies claws are immobilized with a rubber band to prevent injury to other lobsters
Lobsters Lobsters are kept together for shipping so immobilizing the claw is important
Marine Mammals differ from other marine life in two important ways warm blooded rather than cold blooded
Marine Mammals mammals have lungs as breathing devices rather than gills necessary to come to the surface to breath
Marine Mammals main marine mammals are whales porpoises walruses fur seals
Whales include the largest mammals that have ever lived on the earth the largest blue whale was 100 feet long and weight 136 metric tons
Whales divided into baleen whales and toothed whales
Baleen Whales obtain their food by straining plankton from the seawater through plates called whalebone
Baleen Whales ten different types three major groups right, gray, and rorqual
Baleen Whales Right include the bowhead black right - longest baleen, averages 60 feet long pygmy baleen- smallest baleen
Baleen gray are black to gray in color and dotted with white blotches feed from the ocean floor
Rorqual baleen fastest whale able to flee the whalers harpoon until the introduction of the diesel engine
Rorquals sometimes referred to as finback fin protrudes from their back
Rorquals most common include blue brydes fin humpback
Rorquals minke sei common food is small shrimp like animal called krill
Toothed whales have a lower set of peglike teeth over 65 different kinds of toothed whales
Toothed whales five major groups sperm beaked belugas and narwhales
Toothed Whales dolphins and porpoises river dolphins
Sperm Whale largest toothed whale about 60 feet in length blue gray to black in color enormous square head
Sperm whales live in the tropical waters feed off of squid, barracuda and sharks
Whales usually seasonal breeders mating during the winter months male - bull female - cow
Whales migrate to the equator for mating most baleen whales migrate most toothed whales do not migrate
Whales pregnancy lasts months when the calf is born it weighs nearly 4000 pounds 23 feet long
Whales cow nurses her offspring for about 7 months because of the rich milk, some calves can gain as much as 200 pounds a day
Whales travel in herds of ,000 adult male will form a harem school consisting of himself, his females and their young
Whales nursery groups of females and young and bachelor groups of males also travel along with the harem
Migrating mothers and young lead the herd followed by males and non pregnant females pregnant females at the rear
Whales average life span is 15 years for a porpoise and 40 years for a baleen whale
Fur Seals seals are divided into three groups eared - includes fur seals and sea lions earless walruses
Fur Seals most sought after seal because eof its soft coat US annual catch of fur seals amounts to over $3.5 million
Fur Seals spend the winter off the coast of California and the summer in Alaska male seal is called a bull and weighs between 500 and 700 pounds
Fur Seals female is called a cow weighs pounds bears one offspring per year offspring are called a pup, whelp, or calf
Fur Seals bulls arrive at the breeding grounds called rookeries in May or June stake out their territories about 40 feet in diameter
Fur Seals cows arrive in July immediately join a harem and bear their young cow mates again weeks after the birth of the pup
Fur Seals bull is always being challenged by other bulls for his territory usually must be at least 10 years old before he develops enough strength to defend
Fur Seals main predators include sharks killer whales and parasitic round worms humans
Fur Seals thousands killed annually at their breeding ground for fur 1911 North Pacific Fur Convention Japan, Russia, Canada, and the US
Fur Seals set a limit to the number of seals that can be harvested each year Only Russia and the US can harvest 30,000 a year
Fur Seals each country gives 15% of harvest to Japan and 15% to Canada US sealing is conducted by the government
Fur Seals money is deposited in the US Treasury 70% of money is returned to Alaskan govt. 30% goes to the National Marine Fisheries Service
Walrus the only tusked seals live in the Arctic, North Atlantic, and North Pacific Regions
Walrus their bodies have developed flippers that make them excellent swimmers during winter and spring months, walruses drift on floating ice pieces
Walrus spend summers resting on shorelines main food is clams Eskimo is the most common user of Walruses
Walrus meat is used for food hides for shelter oil for lamps
Estuarine Ecosystem area where freshwater source opens into the ocean called an estuary
Estuary transition area supports a variety of life that is found nowhere else life that can withstand rapid changes in salinity, temperature and density
Estuary continuously receives fresh water from the rivers and streams and salt water from the tides and currents
Estuary transitional zone has characteristics common to neither rivers or the ocean
Estuary usually shallow and turbulent results in high amount of oxygen in the water
Estuary tides cause the area to be nutrient rich rivers bring nutrients to the estuary from above and the tides bring nutrients from the ocean
Estuary acts as a nutrient trap bacteria count is high because of the high oxygen content
Estuary rapid decomposition of organic wastes breakdown of organic matter to soluble nutrients causes plant life to prosper
Estuary high plant life attracts large numbers of plant eating fish life in the estuary is grouped into three groups 1. Species that travel a short distance to the estuary
Estuary 2. Species found in both the estuary and in other parts of the ocean 3. Species whose entire life cycles are in the estuary
Estuary economically important to marine fisheries 90% of the marine fish harvested either comes from the estuarine ecosystem or passes through it
Estuary best known life in the estuary include: fish larvae oysters clams, crabs lobsters, shrimp
Estuary problems facing estuaries include conflict between land developers and fishermen
Estuary shorelines are the most sought after types of real estate some estuaries have been used as a dumping ground
Estuary dumping destroys natural habitat
Artificial Ocean Cultivation scientists have developed ways to artificially propagate marine animals this form of agricultural production is called aquaculture
Artificial Ocean Cultivation most commonly farmed marine resource crop is the oyster research is also being conducted with shrimp, salmon and milkfish
Oysters live in estuarine waters close to shore makes them one of the easiest marine animals to raise
Oysters improving habitat is first step providing a place for larvae to attach control parasites and predators
Oysters French Scientists have developed a special algae as an improved food for the oysters to grow more quickly.
Oysters Japans most productive oyster farm Inland Sea near Hiroshima water flow and mineral content are correct
Oysters very desirable oyster producing area only management item needed is a stopping apparatus to which the larvae can attach
Oysters Japanese oyster farms consist of bamboo poles tied together and floating on barrels wires are hung from the poles to a depth of 20 feet
Oysters wires hold clam shells act as the stopping place for oyster larvae In July and August, billions of oyster larvae attach to the artificially hung shells
Oysters larvae are thinned to the correct amount midseason - October - wires are pulled and young oysters are cleaned and brushed which helps them grow
Oysters harvested in January and February standard oyster raft measures feet square may own as many as 100 rafts
Oysters number of barrels needed to support the raft increases as the oysters grow and weigh it down
Oysters feed on plankton costs are low average yield is about 13,000 pounds of oyster flesh per acre farmed
Oysters shells are cleaned and sold for poultry grit and lime Japan can attribute its successful oyster farming both to low labor costs and to preservation of habitat
Oysters pollution of waters has almost stripped every other nation of an economically feasible oyster industry
Laws and Regulations who owns the ocean how many miles offshore can a country claim who owns the mineral resources on the ocean floor
Laws and Regs development of fishing policy fish cannot be claimed as property like land wildlife can
Laws and Regs recent legislation is aimed at conservation variety of commissions and committees have been formed
Laws and Regs most deal with regulation of one specific resource ie: fur seals, whale, tuna major examples include: Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)
Laws and Regs International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF) International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC
Laws and Regs International Whaling Commission (IWC) most commissions are formed after a resource develops problems
Laws and Regs commissions are only as strong as their member nations want them to be most recent attempt to develop ocean regulations is the UNs Law of the Sea
Laws and Regs a set of bargaining conferences involve 150 nations first conference initiated in 1958
Laws and Regs other conferences held in 1960, 73, and 80 three major items discussed 1. Territorial limits
Laws and Regs 2. Jurisdiction over an exclusive economic zone 3. Seabed mining
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