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The Large Animal Industry. The Meat Industry zEach year the average person in this country consumes 97 pounds of beef and veal, 64 pounds of pork, and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Large Animal Industry. The Meat Industry zEach year the average person in this country consumes 97 pounds of beef and veal, 64 pounds of pork, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Large Animal Industry

2 The Meat Industry zEach year the average person in this country consumes 97 pounds of beef and veal, 64 pounds of pork, and 90 pounds of poultry

3 The Meat Industry zVery few nations in the world even come close to us in the per capita consumption of meat.

4 The meat industry zOur land is well suited for the production of animals. zAmericans spend a small portion of their income on food when compared with the rest of the world.

5 The meat industry zCritics say Americans are wasteful in feeding several pounds of feed to animals in return for a pound of meat. Grains fed to animals could be better used to feed people.

6 The meat industry zProducers argue that the land on which animals are grazed could be used for little else. Almost half of the land in this country is unsuitable for raising crops.

7 The meat industry Grains used for fattening livestock are not considered good for human consumption

8 The meat industry zAgriculture animals also make use of by-products for feed.

9 The meat industry Meat is very dense in nutrients, a pound of meat may equal or surpass the nutritive content of the feed that produced it. Meat is among the most nutritionally complete food that we eat.

10 The beef industry zOver three quarters of the cash receipts for marketing of meat animals come from the sale of beef. zThe average size beef herd is around 100 head.

11 The beef industry zIn the US there are over forty different breeds as well as many crosses of these breeds.

12 The beef Industry zThe breed produced may be selected on many different criteria:

13 The beef Industry zdisease resistance, heat tolerance, mothering ability, feed efficiency, size, temperament, or color.

14 The beef industry zBreeds of beef cattle are broken into three categories or groups

15 British- zAngus, Hereford, Shorthorn, these were the first breeds brought into this country, they represent the largest segment of the beef industry.

16 Continental European zLimousin, Simmental, Charolais, Chianina, desired for their size and ability to grow

17 Zebu Breeds zScientifically classified as Bos indicus, the most common type of Zebu is the Braham.

18 Zebu Breeds z Other breeds developed form this line include; Brangus, Simbrah, Santa Gertrudis and Beefmaster.

19 4 Major Segments: zpurebred operations zcow-calf operations zstocker operations zfeedlot operations

20 Purebred operations zPurpose is to produce seed stock cattle. These cattle are used as the dams and sires of the calves that will be grown to market weight.

21 Purebred operations zGrowing purebred stock allows breeders to concentrate on improving an accentuating the advantages of a particular breed.

22 Cow-Calf operations: zMost calves produced are crossbreeds from purebred parents of different breeds.

23 Cow-Calf operations: zMuch of this industry is centered in the southern and western states, however, cow- calf operations are found all across the country.

24 Cow-Calf operations : zIn the west it is common to leave cows on free range-not fenced in until calving, at weaning time all stock is rounded up for the calves to be sold.

25 Cow-Calf operations zCalves are usually sold at weaning weight, around 500 pounds. Buyers prefer calves that have been castrated and vaccinated and are in good condition.

26 Stocker operations: zProvide a step between the weaning of calves and the finishing or fattening of the animals prior to slaughter.

27 Stocker operations zWeaned calves are placed on pasture and fed a ration to allow for skeletal and muscular growth. Before calves are sold to a feedlot for finishing they must be physically mature.

28 Feedlot operations: zMany feedlot operators are also stockers. Final phase before the animals are sent to slaughter.

29 Feedlot operations zAnimals are fed a highly concentrated ration which is designed to put the proper amount of fat cover on the animals.

30 Feedlot operations zProducers usually want sufficient fat cover to allow the animals to grade low choice.

31 Feedlot operation: zFeedlots range in size from feeding fewer than 100 head to those feeding thousands of head each year.

32 Feedlot operation zWhen animals reach the proper degree of finish, they are sold to slaughter. Usually around 18 to 24 months, weighing 800 to 1500 pounds depending on breed and body type.

33 The Pork Industry zAt one time in this country, most people on farms raised hogs. The animals required relatively little space and fit well into most enterprises as a sideline.

34 The Pork Industry zGestation period of a sow is short, several pigs are born in each litter.

35 The Pork Industry zTime required to build up a herd of hogs is short compared to most other agricultural animals.

36 The Pork Industry zHogs were once raised to produce fat which was rendered into lard.

37 The Pork Industry zLard was used in cooking and before petroleum based products was the basic ingredient in a variety of products from lubricants to cosmetics and soap

38 The Pork Industry zSince 1950 hogs have been produced mainly for meat. Per capita consumption of pork increased. Producers have developed hogs that are much leaner than their ancestors.

39 The Pork Industry zAs a pork producer, the US ranks behind Asia and Europe.

40 The Pork Industry zPork production and consumption rank second to beef in the US. Pork is distributed throughout the country. There are religious groups that do not eat pork.

41 The Pork Industry zPopular breeds of swine in the U.S. are categorized as mother or sire breeds.

42 The Pork Industry zMother breeds include: Landrace and Yorkshire, sire breeds are Duroc and Hampshire. zMost hogs are crosses of the mother and sire breeds.

43 2 phases of industry: zFarrowing- where sows give birth to litters of pigs. Sows are usually kept in farrowing crates to prevent injury to the piglets by the sow.

44 2 phases of industry Finishing- taking feeder pigs to market weight.

45 The Pork Industry zMany producers use confinement systems. Pigs are weaned and grouped with other of the same age and size. The animals are kept in pens rather than running loose.

46 The Pork Industry zHogs are marketed at about 20 weeks usually weighing pounds.

47 The Pork Industry zOn the average, pigs will gain one pound for every five pounds of feed consumed. This is known as the feed conversion ration.

48 The Pork Industry zHogs are very susceptible to diseases, many hogs are raised in shower in shower out operations.

49 The Pork Industry z Workers and visitors must shower and put clothes provided by the producer, cuts down on transmission of diseases

50 The Sheep Industry zCompared to beef and pork, Americans eat relatively little lamb and mutton. zLamb refers to meat from a sheep that is less than one year old.

51 The Sheep Industry zLarge cities along the eastern seaboard, account for almost half of the lamb consumed.

52 The Sheep Industry zPer capita consumption of lamb is only about 2 1/2 pounds. 96% of this consumption is lamb.

53 The Sheep Industry zAmericans have not developed a taste for the strong taste of mutton.

54 The Sheep Industry Most lamb and mutton are raised in the midwest. South Dakota ranks fifth in lamb and mutton production.

55 The Sheep Industry zBreeds of sheep are broken down into categories according to the type of wool the animals grow.

56 The Sheep Industry zMedium wool types, including Suffolk, Hampshire, Corset and South Down are commonly used to produce slaughter lambs

57 The Sheep Industry zPredators are a major problem facing producers. zCoyotes and wild dogs kill many sheep each year.

58 The Sheep Industry zSome producers report losing 29% of their lamb crop to predators each year.

59 The Wool Industry zWool is one of the oldest known fibers used for clothing. zuse recorded by ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Hebrews.

60 The Wool Industry late 1800s cotton production began to overtake wool as the primary clothing fiber.

61 The Wool Industry zWool fibers are made up of two distinct layers of cells: the cuticle on the outside and the cortex on the inside.

62 The Wool Industry zWool is graded according to the diameter of the fiber. Fine diameter wools are the highest grade.

63 The Wool Industry zWhen wool is cleaned, oils are extracted from it, these oils are called lanolin. Lanolin is used in many soaps and lotions

64 The Wool Industry zMohair is the fiber fleece from Angora goats. This fiber is used to make a fabric that resists wrinkles.

65 The Horse Industry zFirst source of power. Used for work, transportation and war throughout recorded history.

66 The Horse Industry The numbers of horses and mules in the U.S. grew until the 1920s when the car, truck and tractor caused a sharp decline in their numbers.

67 The Horse Industry zNumbers continued to decline until the 1960s. Since then, numbers have increased dramatically.

68 The Horse Industry zHorses are categorized into three categories: light horse, draft horse and pony.

69 The Horse Industry zlight horses weigh over pounds. zThis group is further divided into groups according to use.

70 The Horse Industry zGaited saddle horses, driving horses, stock horses, and racehorses.

71 The Horse Industry zPonies range in weight from pounds. They may also be defined by height at the withers being shorter than 54 to 56 inches depending on the breed.

72 The Horse Industry zDraft horses weigh more than 1400 pounds. zThey are used for pulling heavy loads and are seen in pulling competitions and parades.

73 The Horse Industry zThere are more registered Quarter horses than any other breed in the US, Arabians rank second.

74 Mules zThe mule has its own place in the history of America. zAround the Revolutionary War, mules began to be bred to work on farms and plantations.

75 Mules zParticularly popular in the South, because they adapted well to working in hot humid weather

76 Mules zMules are a true hybrid, a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. Because of this, mules are usually sterile and cannot reproduce.

77 Mules zMules are more surefooted in rocky or hilly terrain. They are used to take tourists through the Grand Canyon. Mules will seldom overeat as horses will.

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