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Genetics and Genetic Engineering

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Presentation on theme: "Genetics and Genetic Engineering"— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetics and Genetic Engineering

2 terms agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments

3 centrifuge device for separating substances on the basis of density

4 clones organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source

5 complementary containing structures that match or bond with related structures

6 electrophoresis technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field

7 Excise to remove a part by a process similar to cutting

8 Expression the appearance of a trait directed by a gene

9 Genetic code a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction

10 Genetic Engineering technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

11 Genetics science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another

12 Host a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source

13 Hybrid offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup

14 Ligase enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA

15 Molecular weight sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule

16 Mutation a heritable change in genetic makeup

17 Nucleotides building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base

18 Plasmid a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA

19 Polymerase an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid

20 Recombinant DNA DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering

21 Restriction enzyme restriction endonuclease
enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites

22 sequence order of nucleotides or amino acids

23 template a pattern used for developing a complementary structure

24 trait a characteristic resulting from gene expression

25 transform to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA

26 vector an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell

27 Living material Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction

28 Complex Organism higher organism
an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit ex. Plants, animals, humans

29 Organ arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.

30 Tissue arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ

31 Cell smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes

32 Basic Cell structures cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact

33 cell membrane delicate structure that surrounds the cell

34 chloroplasts site of photosynthesis in plant cells contain some DNA

35 Cytoplasm cell fluid containing all cell structures

36 Nucleus control center of a cell contains most of the DNA

37 Chromosomes structures that are physical carriers of genes
made p of DNA are located in cell nucleus

38 Mitochondria energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm
contain some DNA

39 Plasmid extra chromosomal piece of DNA located in the cell cytoplasm

40 Ribosome site where new proteins are produced
result of genetic expression

41 Cell reproduction mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells
increases by simple division chromosomes remain paired during cell division

42 meiosis occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)

43 meiosis increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual

44 meiosis one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair
each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes

45 Genetic engineering technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

46 Genetic engineering movement of a gene from one organism to another

47 Other names recombinant DNA technology recombinant DNA science
gene transfer gene splicing gene cloning

48 Naturally occurring alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment

49 Naturally occurring some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell

50 Naturally occurring natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation

51 Scientific Gen eng. Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another

52 Scientific Gen eng. Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources

53 Scientific Gen eng. Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms

54 Scientific Gen eng. The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms


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