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Genetics and Genetic Engineering
terms agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments
centrifuge device for separating substances on the basis of density
clones organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source
complementary containing structures that match or bond with related structures
electrophoresis technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field
Excise to remove a part by a process similar to cutting
Expression the appearance of a trait directed by a gene
Genetic code a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction
Genetic Engineering technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
Genetics science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another
Host a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source
Hybrid offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup
Ligase enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA
Molecular weight sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule
Mutation a heritable change in genetic makeup
Nucleotides building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
Plasmid a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA
Polymerase an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid
Recombinant DNA DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering
Restriction enzyme restriction endonucleaseenzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites
sequence order of nucleotides or amino acids
template a pattern used for developing a complementary structure
trait a characteristic resulting from gene expression
transform to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA
vector an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell
Living material Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction
Complex Organism higher organisman organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit ex. Plants, animals, humans
Organ arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.
Tissue arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ
Cell smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes
Basic Cell structures cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact
cell membrane delicate structure that surrounds the cell
chloroplasts site of photosynthesis in plant cells contain some DNA
Cytoplasm cell fluid containing all cell structures
Nucleus control center of a cell contains most of the DNA
Chromosomes structures that are physical carriers of genesmade p of DNA are located in cell nucleus
Mitochondria energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasmcontain some DNA
Plasmid extra chromosomal piece of DNA located in the cell cytoplasm
Ribosome site where new proteins are producedresult of genetic expression
Cell reproduction mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cellsincreases by simple division chromosomes remain paired during cell division
meiosis occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)
meiosis increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual
meiosis one chromosome from each parent forms the new paireach organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes
Genetic engineering technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
Genetic engineering movement of a gene from one organism to another
Other names recombinant DNA technology recombinant DNA sciencegene transfer gene splicing gene cloning
Naturally occurring alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment
Naturally occurring some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell
Naturally occurring natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation
Scientific Gen eng. Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another
Scientific Gen eng. Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources
Scientific Gen eng. Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms
Scientific Gen eng. The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms
Genetics and Genetic Engineering terms clones b organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source.
Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is also referred to as recombinant DNA technology – new combinations of genetic material are produced by artificially.
Chapter 3 The Biological Basis of Life. Chapter Outline The Cell DNA Structure DNA Replication Protein Synthesis Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis New.
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