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Genetics and Genetic Engineering
terms b agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments
centrifuge b device for separating substances on the basis of density
clones b organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source
complementary b containing structures that match or bond with related structures
electrophoresis b technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field
Excise b to remove a part by a process similar to cutting
Expression b the appearance of a trait directed by a gene
Genetic code b a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction
Genetic Engineering b technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
Genetics b science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another
Host b a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source
Hybrid b offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup
Ligase b enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA
Molecular weight b sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule
Mutation b a heritable change in genetic makeup
Nucleotides b building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
Plasmid b a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA
Polymerase b an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid
Recombinant DNA b DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering
Restriction enzyme b restriction endonuclease b enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites
sequence b order of nucleotides or amino acids
template b a pattern used for developing a complementary structure
trait b a characteristic resulting from gene expression
transform b to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA
vector b an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell
Living material b Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction
Complex Organism b higher organism b an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit b ex. Plants, animals, humans
Organ b arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism b leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.
Tissue b arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ
Cell b smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes
Basic Cell structures b cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact
cell membrane b delicate structure that surrounds the cell
chloroplasts b site of photosynthesis in plant cells b contain some DNA
Cytoplasm b cell fluid containing all cell structures
Nucleus b control center of a cell b contains most of the DNA
Chromosomes b structures that are physical carriers of genes b made p of DNA b are located in cell nucleus
Mitochondria b energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm b contain some DNA
Plasmid b extra chromosomal piece of DNA b located in the cell cytoplasm
Ribosome b site where new proteins are produced b result of genetic expression
Cell reproduction b mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells b increases by simple division b chromosomes remain paired during cell division
meiosis b occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)
meiosis b increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual
meiosis b one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair b each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes
Genetic engineering b technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
Genetic engineering b movement of a gene from one organism to another
Other names b recombinant DNA technology b recombinant DNA science b gene transfer b gene splicing gene cloning
Naturally occurring b alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment
Naturally occurring b some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell
Naturally occurring b natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation
Scientific Gen eng. b Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another
Scientific Gen eng. b Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources
Scientific Gen eng. b Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites b cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms
Scientific Gen eng. b The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms
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