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Genetics and Genetic Engineering terms b agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetics and Genetic Engineering terms b agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Genetics and Genetic Engineering

3 terms b agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments

4 centrifuge b device for separating substances on the basis of density

5 clones b organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source

6 complementary b containing structures that match or bond with related structures

7 electrophoresis b technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field

8 Excise b to remove a part by a process similar to cutting

9 Expression b the appearance of a trait directed by a gene

10 Genetic code b a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction

11 Genetic Engineering b technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

12 Genetics b science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another

13 Host b a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source

14 Hybrid b offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup

15 Ligase b enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA

16 Molecular weight b sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule

17 Mutation b a heritable change in genetic makeup

18 Nucleotides b building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base

19 Plasmid b a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA

20 Polymerase b an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid

21 Recombinant DNA b DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering

22 Restriction enzyme b restriction endonuclease b enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites

23 sequence b order of nucleotides or amino acids

24 template b a pattern used for developing a complementary structure

25 trait b a characteristic resulting from gene expression

26 transform b to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA

27 vector b an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell

28 Living material b Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction

29 Complex Organism b higher organism b an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit b ex. Plants, animals, humans

30 Organ b arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism b leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.

31 Tissue b arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ

32 Cell b smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes

33 Basic Cell structures b cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact

34 cell membrane b delicate structure that surrounds the cell

35 chloroplasts b site of photosynthesis in plant cells b contain some DNA

36 Cytoplasm b cell fluid containing all cell structures

37 Nucleus b control center of a cell b contains most of the DNA

38 Chromosomes b structures that are physical carriers of genes b made p of DNA b are located in cell nucleus

39 Mitochondria b energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm b contain some DNA

40 Plasmid b extra chromosomal piece of DNA b located in the cell cytoplasm

41 Ribosome b site where new proteins are produced b result of genetic expression

42 Cell reproduction b mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells b increases by simple division b chromosomes remain paired during cell division

43 meiosis b occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)

44 meiosis b increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual

45 meiosis b one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair b each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes

46 Genetic engineering b technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

47 Genetic engineering b movement of a gene from one organism to another

48 Other names b recombinant DNA technology b recombinant DNA science b gene transfer b gene splicing gene cloning

49 Naturally occurring b alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment

50 Naturally occurring b some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell

51 Naturally occurring b natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation

52 Scientific Gen eng. b Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another

53 Scientific Gen eng. b Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources

54 Scientific Gen eng. b Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites b cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms

55 Scientific Gen eng. b The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms

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