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Biotechnology in Livestock Production
Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals
Two areas ngngenetic engineering nenembryo transfer
Genetic Engineering ninis based on a technology involving recombinant DNA nDnDeoxyribonucleic acid
nininvolves taking a tiny bit of DNA containing the desired gene from one organism and splicing it into the DNA strand of another organism
npnpurpose - to have the recipient organism take on the characteristic controlled by the transferred gene
Examples ndndisease resistant animals ngngrowth regulators new drugs and vaccines
nsnspecify size and sex of animals nonorganism that eats oil used in the Persian Gulf
BST nBnBovine Somatotropin (Bovine Growth Hormone) nSnSomatotropins are proteins that affect the utilization of energy in the body
ncncauses energy derived from feed to be used for milk production rather than weight gain
ndndoes not reduce energy available for body maintenance ninincreases energy available by improving breakdown of fat and increasing appetite
nsnsmall amounts of BST are produced naturally in the cow by the pituitary gland
npnpreviously, the only source of BST for research has been from pituitary glands of dead cows
now, because of genetic engineering, large quantities of BST can be produced
ngngene that controls BST production is spliced into the DNA of a bacteria Agrobacteria ninis injected into a cow
BST ncncausing increased BST production in the cow
nrnresearch at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Cornell University in New York has showed an average increase of 40% over lactation (305 days)
Formula n2n20,000# X 40% = 8000# of extra milk $10/cwt =$800
Porcine Somatotropin ninis produced naturally by the pituitary gland of the pig ninit acts as a growth regulator
PST npnproduction decreases as an animal matures
npnproduced through RDNA technology
nhnhow it works A. causes an increase in cell division in muscle tissue. B. causes decrease in fat storage and increases in accumulation of protein.
nCnC. improves feed efficiency and decrease fat deposition
Results nAnA. increase in feed efficiency 29% nBnB. increase daily gain 19% nCnC. increase loin eye area 12% nDnD. decreases fat 33%
nmnmust be injected daily
Opposition to Biotech npnpeople fear npnproduction of new uncontrollable disease nfnfreak animals
nlnlong term adverse effects of environment from products
Biotech in Crop Production nlnlowered costs and increased yields ninimproved feeding values new corn plant
npnproduces higher levels of tryptophan nanamino acid essential for protein formation in an animals body.
ntnthe first plant patented
Other areas researched nhnherbicide resistance npnpest resistance nfnfrost resistance nsnsalt tolerant ndndrought resistance
Embryo Transfer nwnwell established in cattle industry, especially dairy
Process ncncow is treated with hormones to cause superovulation ncncan produce as many as 25 eggs
Process ndndonor cow then artificially inseminated
ndnduring this process, Recipient cows or heifers are treated with hormones to synchronize their heat cycle to be the same as the donor cow.
Process nanafter the eggs are fertilized and before they leave the oviduct, the cow is flushed with a saline solution or a solution of egg yolk and D.M.S.O.
Process nonovaries and oviducts are massaged & flushed with fluid-which washes the fertilized eggs out of the body into a cylinder
ninindividual embryos are located under a microscope and put into a straw
nenembryos may be frozen much the same as cattle semen samples nfnfirst research in the U.S. was done in central WI in 1982
nfnfreezing protocol now widely used nmnmost transfer work is done non-surgically with success rates of approximately 75%
Splitting nrnresearch has also successfully split embryos resulting in as many as 5 identical calves
Slow Progress nmnmany characteristics are controlled by multiple genes instead of a single gene
nlnlack of money for research ngngovernment regulations nenenvironmental groups filing lawsuits to stop research and testing
nmnmany farmers dont support genetic engineering because they feel we already have surplus production
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