3 I. History of Floral Design A. Flower arranging is a work of art.
4 We follow certain guidelines to properly arrange flowers so that they become a “work of art”. These guidelines are called principles of design.
5 Basic lawsfundamentals, truths or methods of operation that have been tested and proven for many centuries.
6 Arrangements are judged by these principles. Tools that will guide in planning and evaluating arrangements.
7 Concepts of floral design Two concepts developed independently of each other.Occidental Style – evolved in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Culturesfurther developed by the Europeans
8 Oriental Stylebegan in Chinalater explored by the Japanese
9 Egyptian PeriodBCarranged separate rows of different colored flowers in shallow bowls
10 Egyptian periodfeast tables were often decorated with fruits and vegetables neatly piled in low baskets
11 Egyptian Periodseveral flowers were considered sacred, symbolizing Egyptian Gods and GoddessesLotus and Water Lillies were placed in elaborate vases, bowls and jars
12 Ancient GreeksBCDid not arrange flowers in vases, scattered blossoms on tables and on the streets
13 Ancient Greeksflowers were used to make garland and wreaths worn during special occasions.Presented as awards to athletes, statesmen and soldiers.
14 Ancient Greeksthe cornucopia (horn or plenty) was filled with fruits and vegetables and placed in an upright position rather than on its side as done today
15 Romans 28 BC - 325 AD continued the customs of the Greeks arrangements and usage became more elaborate
16 Romans scatter roses on banquet tables and on the floor scarves filled with blossoms were offered at an altar in Roman Religious Ceremonies
17 RomansWreaths and Garlands became more elaborate
18 Byzantine Period 320-600 AD arrangements of cut flowers used again formal conical designs with clusters of blossoms at regular intervals
19 Middle AgesADvery little is known about floral designs of this time period
20 Renaissance 1400-1600 AD beautifully documented in paintings designs were large, tall, pyramidal, and symmetrically balanced
21 Renaissance flower arrangements were loose, un-crowded and airy formal bouquets featured the most important flower situated centrally, at the top of the bouquet, with other flower heads turned outward.
22 Renaissanceflowers were arranged so that they were about twice the height of the containerintense colors were used to create contrast with the white plastered walls of buildings
23 Renaissanceseveral traditional floral designs of today are styled after renaissance arrangements
24 Baroque Period began as symmetrical, oval shaped designs asymmetrical curves in the shape of a crescent or an “s” were adopted later
25 Baroque an abundance of flower types and colors were used together arrangements incorporated a variety of accessories such as figurines and butterflies
26 Baroquethe “s” curve and crescent arrangements developed during this period are popular today
27 Flemish-style 1600-1750 AD beautifully captured by Dutch painters traditional baroque styles were refined
28 Flemish style refined - not as loose and open better proportioned and more compactRich colors and an array of flowers were combined into masses, oval shape bouquets.
29 Flemish styleThe French developed mass arrangements during the same time that were lighter and more airy than those of the Dutch.Arrangements were made from delicate flowers in light pastel colors.
30 Georgian periodA.D.Time period that spanned the reigns of the English kings George I and George IIArrangements were greatly influenced by Chinese arts.
31 Georgian period Usually symmetrical and triangularly shaped. Many featured a single flower type.Designs moved away from formality and symmetry in the late part of the period.
32 Georgian period nosegay, or handheld bouquet became stylish small nosegay bouquets placed in bowls were the first use of table centerpieces as we know them today.
33 Georgian periodGeorgian art influenced the decorative arts in Colonial America.Fan shaped and triangular arrangements were made and sometimes placed the center of interest near the rim of the container.
34 Georgian periodboxwood, ivy, and magnolia were used with garden flowers in the summerberries, cones, greens with fruit were used during the winter along with dried flowers.
35 Victorian periodA.D.Flowers were fashionable but designs were rather unappealing.Improperly proportioned
36 Victorian periodlarge amounts of flowers cramped into a container to create a compact arrangementusually asymmetrical with no focal point.
37 Victorian periodmany different flower types and colors used, arrangements looked unplanned.Rules for flower arranging were established toward the end of the Victorian period.
38 Oriental StyleBegan in India where Buddist priests scattered branches and stem on altar or placed them in pottery urns.Modified by the Chinese during the first century A.D.
39 Oriental Style Arranged flowers in massive bronze vessels Felt it was improper to place flowers carelessly on the altar.Created symbolic arrangementsBright colors were favored.
40 Oriental StyleUsually large and symmetrical with one or two types of foliage and flowers placed around a central branch.Lightest colors were used at outer portions of design, darker ones kept nearest the base.
41 Oriental StyleSixth Century A.D. Japanese adopted many aspects of the Chinese culture, including floral arrangement.Japanese priest named Ikenabo refined the art.
42 Oriental Style His instruction was sought by other Buddhist priests. Began the first school of floral art in Japan which bears his name.
43 Oriental StyleName later changed to Ikebana which means “giving life to the flowers.”
44 Oriental StyleMany schools of Japanese flower arrangements have evolved from this original one, the basic principles can be traced back to Ikenaba.
45 Oriental StyleJapanese designs are characterized by minimum use of plant material and careful placement of branches and flowers.Each placement and angle has meaning.
46 Oriental StyleThis type of arrangement became known as “line arrangement”
47 European Style generally large, round or oval mass of flowers flower placement is not rigidly dictated as in oriental design
48 European Style known as mass arrangements most floral designs in the US are referred to as “line mass” and combine Oriental and European ideas
49 European StyleAmerican floral design uses more materials than the Oriental but far fewer than the EuropeanUS floral design is often built around linear patterns, showing the Oriental influence.