3I. History of Floral Design A. Flower arranging is a work of art.
4We follow certain guidelines to properly arrange flowers so that they become a “work of art”. These guidelines are called principles of design.
5Basic lawsfundamentals, truths or methods of operation that have been tested and proven for many centuries.
6Arrangements are judged by these principles. Tools that will guide in planning and evaluating arrangements.
7Concepts of floral design Two concepts developed independently of each other.Occidental Style – evolved in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Culturesfurther developed by the Europeans
8Oriental Stylebegan in Chinalater explored by the Japanese
9Egyptian PeriodBCarranged separate rows of different colored flowers in shallow bowls
10Egyptian periodfeast tables were often decorated with fruits and vegetables neatly piled in low baskets
11Egyptian Periodseveral flowers were considered sacred, symbolizing Egyptian Gods and GoddessesLotus and Water Lillies were placed in elaborate vases, bowls and jars
12Ancient GreeksBCDid not arrange flowers in vases, scattered blossoms on tables and on the streets
13Ancient Greeksflowers were used to make garland and wreaths worn during special occasions.Presented as awards to athletes, statesmen and soldiers.
14Ancient Greeksthe cornucopia (horn or plenty) was filled with fruits and vegetables and placed in an upright position rather than on its side as done today
15Romans 28 BC - 325 AD continued the customs of the Greeks arrangements and usage became more elaborate
16Romans scatter roses on banquet tables and on the floor scarves filled with blossoms were offered at an altar in Roman Religious Ceremonies
17RomansWreaths and Garlands became more elaborate
18Byzantine Period 320-600 AD arrangements of cut flowers used again formal conical designs with clusters of blossoms at regular intervals
19Middle AgesADvery little is known about floral designs of this time period
20Renaissance 1400-1600 AD beautifully documented in paintings designs were large, tall, pyramidal, and symmetrically balanced
21Renaissance flower arrangements were loose, un-crowded and airy formal bouquets featured the most important flower situated centrally, at the top of the bouquet, with other flower heads turned outward.
22Renaissanceflowers were arranged so that they were about twice the height of the containerintense colors were used to create contrast with the white plastered walls of buildings
23Renaissanceseveral traditional floral designs of today are styled after renaissance arrangements
24Baroque Period began as symmetrical, oval shaped designs asymmetrical curves in the shape of a crescent or an “s” were adopted later
25Baroque an abundance of flower types and colors were used together arrangements incorporated a variety of accessories such as figurines and butterflies
26Baroquethe “s” curve and crescent arrangements developed during this period are popular today
27Flemish-style 1600-1750 AD beautifully captured by Dutch painters traditional baroque styles were refined
28Flemish style refined - not as loose and open better proportioned and more compactRich colors and an array of flowers were combined into masses, oval shape bouquets.
29Flemish styleThe French developed mass arrangements during the same time that were lighter and more airy than those of the Dutch.Arrangements were made from delicate flowers in light pastel colors.
30Georgian periodA.D.Time period that spanned the reigns of the English kings George I and George IIArrangements were greatly influenced by Chinese arts.
31Georgian period Usually symmetrical and triangularly shaped. Many featured a single flower type.Designs moved away from formality and symmetry in the late part of the period.
32Georgian period nosegay, or handheld bouquet became stylish small nosegay bouquets placed in bowls were the first use of table centerpieces as we know them today.
33Georgian periodGeorgian art influenced the decorative arts in Colonial America.Fan shaped and triangular arrangements were made and sometimes placed the center of interest near the rim of the container.
34Georgian periodboxwood, ivy, and magnolia were used with garden flowers in the summerberries, cones, greens with fruit were used during the winter along with dried flowers.
35Victorian periodA.D.Flowers were fashionable but designs were rather unappealing.Improperly proportioned
36Victorian periodlarge amounts of flowers cramped into a container to create a compact arrangementusually asymmetrical with no focal point.
37Victorian periodmany different flower types and colors used, arrangements looked unplanned.Rules for flower arranging were established toward the end of the Victorian period.
38Oriental StyleBegan in India where Buddist priests scattered branches and stem on altar or placed them in pottery urns.Modified by the Chinese during the first century A.D.
39Oriental Style Arranged flowers in massive bronze vessels Felt it was improper to place flowers carelessly on the altar.Created symbolic arrangementsBright colors were favored.
40Oriental StyleUsually large and symmetrical with one or two types of foliage and flowers placed around a central branch.Lightest colors were used at outer portions of design, darker ones kept nearest the base.
41Oriental StyleSixth Century A.D. Japanese adopted many aspects of the Chinese culture, including floral arrangement.Japanese priest named Ikenabo refined the art.
42Oriental Style His instruction was sought by other Buddhist priests. Began the first school of floral art in Japan which bears his name.
43Oriental StyleName later changed to Ikebana which means “giving life to the flowers.”
44Oriental StyleMany schools of Japanese flower arrangements have evolved from this original one, the basic principles can be traced back to Ikenaba.
45Oriental StyleJapanese designs are characterized by minimum use of plant material and careful placement of branches and flowers.Each placement and angle has meaning.
46Oriental StyleThis type of arrangement became known as “line arrangement”
47European Style generally large, round or oval mass of flowers flower placement is not rigidly dictated as in oriental design
48European Style known as mass arrangements most floral designs in the US are referred to as “line mass” and combine Oriental and European ideas
49European StyleAmerican floral design uses more materials than the Oriental but far fewer than the EuropeanUS floral design is often built around linear patterns, showing the Oriental influence.