Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2. Principles of Design I. History of Floral Design §A. Flower arranging is a work of art."— Presentation transcript:
Principles of Design
I. History of Floral Design §A. Flower arranging is a work of art.
We follow certain guidelines § to properly arrange flowers so that they become a work of art. These guidelines are called principles of design.
Basic laws §fundamentals, truths or methods of operation that have been tested and proven for many centuries.
Arrangements §are judged by these principles. §Tools that will guide in planning and evaluating arrangements.
Concepts of floral design §Two concepts developed independently of each other. §Occidental Style – evolved in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Cultures §further developed by the Europeans
Oriental Style §began in China §later explored by the Japanese
Egyptian Period § BC §arranged separate rows of different colored flowers in shallow bowls
Egyptian period §feast tables were often decorated with fruits and vegetables neatly piled in low baskets
Egyptian Period §several flowers were considered sacred, symbolizing Egyptian Gods and Goddesses §Lotus and Water Lillies were placed in elaborate vases, bowls and jars
Ancient Greeks § BC §Did not arrange flowers in vases, scattered blossoms on tables and on the streets
Ancient Greeks §flowers were used to make garland and wreaths worn during special occasions. §Presented as awards to athletes, statesmen and soldiers.
Ancient Greeks §the cornucopia (horn or plenty) was filled with fruits and vegetables and placed in an upright position rather than on its side as done today
Romans §28 BC AD §continued the customs of the Greeks §arrangements and usage became more elaborate
Romans §scatter roses on banquet tables and on the floor §scarves filled with blossoms were offered at an altar in Roman Religious Ceremonies
Romans §Wreaths and Garlands became more elaborate
Byzantine Period § AD §arrangements of cut flowers used again §formal conical designs with clusters of blossoms at regular intervals
Middle Ages § AD §very little is known about floral designs of this time period
Renaissance § AD §beautifully documented in paintings §designs were large, tall, pyramidal, and symmetrically balanced
Renaissance §flower arrangements were loose, un-crowded and airy §formal bouquets featured the most important flower situated centrally, at the top of the bouquet, with other flower heads turned outward.
Renaissance §flowers were arranged so that they were about twice the height of the container §intense colors were used to create contrast with the white plastered walls of buildings
Renaissance §several traditional floral designs of today are styled after renaissance arrangements
Baroque Period §began as symmetrical, oval shaped designs §asymmetrical curves in the shape of a crescent or an s were adopted later
Baroque §an abundance of flower types and colors were used together §arrangements incorporated a variety of accessories such as figurines and butterflies
Baroque §the s curve and crescent arrangements developed during this period are popular today
Flemish-style § AD §beautifully captured by Dutch painters §traditional baroque styles were refined
Flemish style §refined - not as loose and open §better proportioned and more compact §Rich colors and an array of flowers were combined into masses, oval shape bouquets.
Flemish style §The French developed mass arrangements during the same time that were lighter and more airy than those of the Dutch. §Arrangements were made from delicate flowers in light pastel colors.
Georgian period § A.D. §Time period that spanned the reigns of the English kings George I and George II §Arrangements were greatly influenced by Chinese arts.
Georgian period §Usually symmetrical and triangularly shaped. §Many featured a single flower type. §Designs moved away from formality and symmetry in the late part of the period.
Georgian period §nosegay, or handheld bouquet became stylish §small nosegay bouquets placed in bowls were the first use of table centerpieces as we know them today.
Georgian period §Georgian art influenced the decorative arts in Colonial America. §Fan shaped and triangular arrangements were made and sometimes placed the center of interest near the rim of the container.
Georgian period §boxwood, ivy, and magnolia were used with garden flowers in the summer §berries, cones, greens with fruit were used during the winter along with dried flowers.
Victorian period § A.D. §Flowers were fashionable but designs were rather unappealing. §Improperly proportioned
Victorian period §large amounts of flowers cramped into a container to create a compact arrangement §usually asymmetrical with no focal point.
Victorian period §many different flower types and colors used, arrangements looked unplanned. §Rules for flower arranging were established toward the end of the Victorian period.
Oriental Style §Began in India where Buddist priests scattered branches and stem on altar or placed them in pottery urns. §Modified by the Chinese during the first century A.D.
Oriental Style §Arranged flowers in massive bronze vessels §Felt it was improper to place flowers carelessly on the altar. §Created symbolic arrangements §Bright colors were favored.
Oriental Style §Usually large and symmetrical with one or two types of foliage and flowers placed around a central branch. §Lightest colors were used at outer portions of design, darker ones kept nearest the base.
Oriental Style §Sixth Century A.D. Japanese adopted many aspects of the Chinese culture, including floral arrangement. §Japanese priest named Ikenabo refined the art.
Oriental Style §His instruction was sought by other Buddhist priests. §Began the first school of floral art in Japan which bears his name.
Oriental Style §Name later changed to Ikebana which means giving life to the flowers.
Oriental Style §Many schools of Japanese flower arrangements have evolved from this original one, the basic principles can be traced back to Ikenaba.
Oriental Style §Japanese designs are characterized by minimum use of plant material and careful placement of branches and flowers. §Each placement and angle has meaning.
Oriental Style §This type of arrangement became known as line arrangement
European Style §generally large, round or oval mass of flowers §flower placement is not rigidly dictated as in oriental design
European Style §known as mass arrangements §most floral designs in the US are referred to as line mass and combine Oriental and European ideas
European Style §American floral design uses more materials than the Oriental but far fewer than the European §US floral design is often built around linear patterns, showing the Oriental influence.