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Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems Chapter 22 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems Chapter 22 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems Chapter 22 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

2 2 Development of the Reproductive Systems Dependent on sex hormones Dependent on sex hormones Malestestosterone Malestestosterone 6 to 7 weeks gestation, male embryos differentiate under the influence of testes-determining factor (TDF) 6 to 7 weeks gestation, male embryos differentiate under the influence of testes-determining factor (TDF) Femalesestrogen, FSH, and LH Femalesestrogen, FSH, and LH Gonads produce estrogen; in the absence of testosterone, there is a loss of the wolffian system, and the two gonads develop into ovaries Gonads produce estrogen; in the absence of testosterone, there is a loss of the wolffian system, and the two gonads develop into ovaries Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) produced in the hypothalamus by 10 weeks gestation controlling the production of the gonadotropins LH and FSH Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) produced in the hypothalamus by 10 weeks gestation controlling the production of the gonadotropins LH and FSH LH and FSH levels rise until 28 weeks, stimulating estrogen and progesterone production LH and FSH levels rise until 28 weeks, stimulating estrogen and progesterone production Gonadostat-negative feedback mechanism controls GnRH Gonadostat-negative feedback mechanism controls GnRH

3 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 3 Development of the Reproductive Systems Sexual differentiation in utero Sexual differentiation in utero Homologous structures Homologous structures Gonads Gonads Ducts Ducts Mesonephric Mesonephric Paramesonephric Paramesonephric

4 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 4 Development of the Reproductive Systems

5 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 5 Development of the Reproductive Systems

6 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 6 Development of the Reproductive Systems Puberty Puberty Exact trigger unknown Exact trigger unknown Females Females Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHAS) Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHAS) Begins with thelarche (breast development) in females Begins with thelarche (breast development) in females Adrenarche Adrenarche Gonadarche Gonadarche

7 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 7 Development of the Reproductive Systems Puberty Puberty Accelerated growth followed by thelarche Accelerated growth followed by thelarche 9 years of age in white girls 9 years of age in white girls 8 years of age in black girls 8 years of age in black girls Early puberty in girls linked to: Early puberty in girls linked to: Obesity Obesity Increased levels of leptin (a hormone secreted from adipose tissue); regulates appetite Increased levels of leptin (a hormone secreted from adipose tissue); regulates appetite Leptin levels increase until puberty, then decrease as puberty advances Leptin levels increase until puberty, then decrease as puberty advances Contributes to increased adipose tissue, allowing maturation to occur Contributes to increased adipose tissue, allowing maturation to occur

8 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 8 Development of the Reproductive Systems Puberty Puberty Malestestes begin to produce mature sperm Malestestes begin to produce mature sperm Male puberty complete with the first ejaculation that contains mature sperm Male puberty complete with the first ejaculation that contains mature sperm Femalesovaries begin to release mature ova Femalesovaries begin to release mature ova Female puberty complete at first ovulatory menstrual period Female puberty complete at first ovulatory menstrual period

9 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 9 Development of the Reproductive Systems

10 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 10 Female Reproductive System External genitalia (vulva) External genitalia (vulva) Mons pubis Mons pubis Labia majora Labia majora Labia minora Labia minora Clitoris Clitoris Vestibule Vestibule

11 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 11 Female Reproductive System External genitalia (vulva) External genitalia (vulva) Introitus Introitus Hymen Hymen Urinary meatus Urinary meatus Lesser vestibular glands (Skene glands) Lesser vestibular glands (Skene glands) Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin glands) Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin glands) Perineum Perineum

12 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 12 External Genitalia (Vulva)

13 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 13 Internal Genitalia Vagina Vagina Uterus Uterus Fallopian tubes Fallopian tubes Ovaries Ovaries

14 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 14 Internal Genitalia

15 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 15 Uterine Position

16 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 16 Internal Genitalia

17 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 17 Ovary

18 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 18 Follicle Development

19 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 19 Female Sex Hormones Estrogens Estrogens Estradiol Estradiol Estrone Estrone Estriol Estriol Progesterone Progesterone Androgens Androgens

20 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 20 Menstrual Cycle Menarche Menarche Menopause Menopause Phases Phases Menstruation (menses) Menstruation (menses) Follicular/proliferative phase Follicular/proliferative phase Luteal/secretory phase Luteal/secretory phase

21 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 21 Menstrual Cycle Ovarian cycle Ovarian cycle Uterine phases Uterine phases Vaginal response Vaginal response Body temperature change Body temperature change

22 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 22 Menstrual Cycle

23 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 23 Male Reproductive System

24 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 24 External genitalia External genitalia Testes Testes Essential organs of reproduction Essential organs of reproduction Produce gametes Produce gametes Produce sex hormones (androgens, testosterone) Produce sex hormones (androgens, testosterone) Suspended outside the pelvic cavity Suspended outside the pelvic cavity –Sperm production requires an environment that is 1° or 2° C cooler than body temperature Epididymis Epididymis Scrotum Scrotum Penis Penis Male Reproductive System

25 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 25 Male Reproductive System

26 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 26 Male Reproductive System

27 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 27 Male Reproductive System

28 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 28 Internal genitalia Internal genitalia Seminal vesicles Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands Bulbourethral glands Male Reproductive System

29 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 29 Male Internal Genitalia

30 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 30 Spermatogonia Spermatogonia Primary spermatocytes Primary spermatocytes Secondary spermatocytes Secondary spermatocytes Spermatids Spermatids Sertoli cells Sertoli cells Spermatogenesis

31 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 31 Spermatogenesis

32 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 32 Male Reproductive System

33 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 33 Androgens Androgens Primary androgentestosterone Primary androgentestosterone Produced mainly in Leydig cells of the testes Produced mainly in Leydig cells of the testes Testosterone Testosterone Sexual differentiation Sexual differentiation Urogenital system development Urogenital system development Nervous and skeletal tissue development Nervous and skeletal tissue development Sex drive Sex drive Dihydrotestosterone and prolactin Dihydrotestosterone and prolactin Male Sex Hormones

34 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 34 Hormones secreted at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (H-P-T) axis Hormones secreted at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (H-P-T) axis Control and coordinate testicular function Control and coordinate testicular function Positive and negative feedback signals Positive and negative feedback signals Sex steroids inhibit hypothalamic GnRH secretion and pituitary LH responsiveness to GnRH Sex steroids inhibit hypothalamic GnRH secretion and pituitary LH responsiveness to GnRH Testicular inhibin that inhibits pituitary FSH and, possibly, circulating estrogens Testicular inhibin that inhibits pituitary FSH and, possibly, circulating estrogens Disruption along the H-P-T axis may lead to hypogonadism or infertility Disruption along the H-P-T axis may lead to hypogonadism or infertility Male Sex Hormones

35 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 35 Modified sebaceous glands on the ventral surface of the thorax Modified sebaceous glands on the ventral surface of the thorax Female breast Female breast Nipple Nipple Areola Areola Glands of Montgomery Glands of Montgomery Male breast Male breast Until puberty, male and female development is similar Until puberty, male and female development is similar Without sufficient influence of estrogen and progesterone, male breast does not develop any further Without sufficient influence of estrogen and progesterone, male breast does not develop any further Structure and Function of the Breast

36 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 36 Structure and Function of the Breast

37 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 37 Structure and Function of the Breast

38 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 38 Infection and cancer tests Infection and cancer tests Culture Culture Serologic testing Serologic testing Tissue biopsy Tissue biopsy Needle biopsy Needle biopsy Papanicolaou (Pap) test Papanicolaou (Pap) test Mammography Mammography Fertility tests Fertility tests Tests of Reproductive Function

39 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 39 Menopause Menopause Perimenopause Perimenopause Vasomotor symptoms Vasomotor symptoms Vasomotor flush Vasomotor flush Associated with fluctuation in estrogen levels not just estrogen loss Associated with fluctuation in estrogen levels not just estrogen loss Aging and the Female Reproductive System

40 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 40 Reproductive capacity longer than womans Reproductive capacity longer than womans No event comparable to menopause No event comparable to menopause Decreased erectile and ejaculatory function Decreased erectile and ejaculatory function Testes atrophy, decrease in weight, and soften Testes atrophy, decrease in weight, and soften Decreased levels of gonadotropins and testosterone Decreased levels of gonadotropins and testosterone Aging and the Male Reproductive System


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