Presentation on theme: "Classroom Management That Works A Presentation Based on Classroom Management That Works by Robert J. Marzano."— Presentation transcript:
Classroom Management That Works A Presentation Based on Classroom Management That Works by Robert J. Marzano
Marzanos Approach Integrated with Effective Instructionlooks at connects between effective teaching and effective management Research-Basedbased upon a meta-analysis of more than 100 research reports Action-Orientedcontains action steps for each of four factors
Marzanos Approach Comprehensiveincludes multiple facets of classroom management, including both teacher and student responsibilities Holisticlooks at relationship between individual classroom management and school-wide management Balancedconsiders the need for balance between (1) teacher dominance and cooperation, (2) positive and negative reinforcers, and rules and procedures, on the one hand, and teacher-student relationships on the other
The Relationship Between Effective Classroom Management and Student Achievement An Overview-- Chapter 1
Student Achievement The teacher is probably the single most important factor affecting student achievement. Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels regardless of the levels of heterogeneity in their classes.
Teacher Effectiveness Three Major Teacher Roles Associated with Teacher Effectiveness 1.Making wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ 2.Designing classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning 3.Making effective use of classroom management techniques
4 Management Factors Associated with Effectiveness –Rules and Procedures –Disciplinary Interventions –Teacher-student relationships –Mental set
The Good News Effective classroom techniques can be learned. Classroom management skills can be learned rather quickly.
Chapter Two Rules and Procedures Prerequisite to Effective Classroom Managementand Effective Instruction
Rules & Procedures: Stated Expectations Regarding Behavior Rule identifies general expectations or standards, e.g., respect others and their property Procedure communicates expectations for specific behaviors, e.g., collecting assignments, turning in late work, etc.
Finding Across all studies, the average number of disruptions in classes where rules and procedures were effectively implemented was 28 percentile points lower than the average number of disruptions in classes where that was not the case. (Marzano, CMTW, p. 14)
Another Finding Rules and procedures should not simply be imposed on students. Rather, the proper design of rules and procedures involves explanation and input. (CMTW, p. 16)
Action Step 1 Identify specific rules and procedures for the classroom
General Categories for Which Classroom Rules and Procedures Are Needed General expectations for behavior Beginning or ending the class day or the class period Transitions and interruptions Materials and equipment Group work Seatwork and teacher-led activities
General Classroom Behavior Elementary Politeness and helpfulness when dealing with others Respecting the property of others Interrupting the teacher or others Hitting or shoving others Secondary Bringing materials to class Being in the assigned seat at the beginning of the class period Respecting and being polite to others Talking or not at specific times Leaving the assigned seat Respecting other peoples property
Beginnings and Endings Elementary Beginning the school day with specific social activities Beginning day with Pledge of Allegiance Completing administrative activities, e.g. taking attendance, Ending the day with housekeeping activities
Beginnings and Endings Secondary Taking attendance at beginning of period Addressing students who need to make up work because of absences Dealing with tardies, excuses for absences, etc. Ending with clear expectations for homework
Transitions and Interruptions Elementary and Secondary Leaving the room Returning to the room Use of the bathroom Use of library and resource room Fire and disaster drills Elementary OnlySecondary Only Classroom Helpers Split lunch Use of playground Use of cafeteria
Use of Materials and Equipment Distributing Materials Collecting Materials Storage of common materials Use of computers and other electronic equipment* The teachers desk and storage areas** Students desks and storage areas** Use of pencil sharpener, etc.** * Not included in Marzanos study; needed for 21 st century ** Suggested for elementary; appropriate for secondary
Group Work Movement in and out of the group Group communication with teacher Expected behaviors of students in the group (elementary) OR Group leadership and roles in the group (secondary) Expected behaviors of students not in the group (elementary) OR The relationship of the group to the rest of the class (secondary)
Seatwork and Teacher-Led Activities Elementary and Secondary Student attention during presentations Student participation Talking among students Obtaining help Out-of-seat behavior Behavior when work has been completed
Action Step 2 Involve students in the design of rules and procedures
Chapter 3 Disciplinary Interventions Potential Detractors from Academic Learning Time
Disturbing Finding Cotton (1990) has estimated that about half of all classroom time is used for instruction, and disciplinary problems occupy most of the other half. -Marzano, CMTW, p. 27
Other Research Findings Disciplinary interventions resulted in a decrease in disruptive behavior among almost 80 percent of the subjects in the studies they analyzed (Marzano, CMTW, p. 28). There is a need for a balance between positive reinforcement and punishment.
Findings from Marzanos Meta-Analysis … disciplinary procedures have an impact on lessening student misbehavior at all grade levels. …the effect of disciplinary interventions grows consistently larger the lower the grade-level interval. –Marzano, CMTW, p. 30.
Action Step 1 Employ specific techniques that acknowledge and reinforce acceptable behavior and acknowledge and provide negative consequences for unacceptable behavior. -Marzano, CMTW, p. 35
5 Types of Disciplinary Intervention Teacher Reaction Tangible Recognition Direct Cost Group Contingency Home Contingency
Teacher Reaction Verbal and Physical Reactions Make eye contact Use a physical signal Provide simple verbal cue State desired behavior Tell student to stop undesired behavior
Teacher ReactionStimulus Cueing What examples can you provide of stimulus cueing, providing a cue to students BEFORE misbehavior occurs?
Tangible Recognition Involves the use of some concrete symbol of appropriate behavior, e.g. stickers and M & Ms
Direct Cost Oriented toward negative, as opposed to positive consequences, e.g. time out, detention, etc.
Group Contingency Involves the use of some concrete symbol of appropriate behavior for a pre-established group, e.g., the entire class, a small table group, a row of students, etc.
Home Contingency Making parents aware of the positive and negative behaviors of their students
Action Step 2 Establish clear limits for unacceptable behavior and an effective system to record these behaviors.
Involve Students in Setting Limits Rather than teachers establishing limits in isolation, they can engage the entire class in discussing why the target behavior is important and what are fair expectations regarding the behavior.
Chapter 4: Teacher-Student Relationships The Keystone for Effective Classroom Management
2 Defining Dimensions of Teacher- Student Relationships Dominance vs. Submission Cooperation vs. Opposition
Dominance vs. Submission High dominancecharacterized by clarity of purpose and strong guidanceboth academic and behavioral High submissioncharacterized by lack of clarity and purpose
Cooperation vs. Opposition Extreme cooperationcharacterized by inability or lack of resolve to act without the input and approval of others Extreme oppositioncharacterized by active antagonism toward others and a desire to interfere with their goals and desires
High Dominance High Submission High Opposition High Cooperation Optimal Teacher- Student Relationship
An optimal teacher-student relationship consists of equal parts of dominance and cooperation
A Challenge to Teachers 40 percent of young people are at risk of failure in school because of serious problems outside of school. (Adelman & Taylor, 2002) Examples: Homelessness, Depression, Eating Disorders, Alcoholism, Attention Deficit &Violence, Hyperactivity, Incarcerated Parents, Poverty, Sexual and Physical Abuse
Important Research Findings The most effective classroom managers tend to use different strategies with different types of students, whereas the less effective managers do not. Effective managers make distinctions about the most appropriate strategies to use with individual students based upon the needs of those students.
Action Step 1 Use specific techniques to establish an appropriate level of dominance in the classroom.
Exhibit assertive behavior. 1.Use assertive body language 2.Use appropriate tone of voice. 3.Persist until appropriate student behavior is displayed.
Establish Clear Learning Goals Establish learning goals at the beginning of a unit Provide feedback on goals Continually revisit the goals Provide summative feedback regarding the goals
Action Step 2 Use specific behaviors to communicate an appropriate level of cooperation.
Strategies to Communicate Cooperative Approach Provide flexible learning goals Take a personal interest in students Use equitable and positive classroom behaviors Respond appropriately to students incorrect responses
Action Step 3 Be aware of the needs of different types of students.
Five Categories of High-Need Students CategorySubcategory PassiveFear of Relationships Fear of Failure AggressiveHostile Oppositional Covert Attention Problems Hyperactive Inattentive Perfectionist Socially Inept
Chapter 5Mental Set A Frame of Mind That Has a Big Effect
Mental Set Similar to Mindfulness Mindfulness involves a heightened sense of situational awareness and a conscious control over ones thoughts and behavior relative to that situation (Marzano, CMTW, p. 65)
2 Constructs Associated with Mental Set 1. With-it-ness 2. Emotional Objectivity
With-it-ness …disposition to quickly and accurately identify problem behavior and act on it immediately. (Kounin)
Emotional Objectivity Reacting to student misbehavior in a calm, non-emotional, objective fashionnot personalizing student
Action Step 1 Employ specific techniques to maintain or heighten awareness of the actions of students in the classroom.
React Immediately Walk around Periodically scan the classroom Pay attention to potential problems Make eye contact If eye contact doesnt work, move closer If moving closer doesnt work, say something privately to the student
Forecast Problems Anticipate problems particularly with special needs students
Observe Master Teachers Teachers develop with-it- ness over timeits a subtle and situational quality
Action Step 2 Employ specific techniques to maintain a healthy emotional objectivity with students.
Reframe Look for Reasons Why Dont personalize student misbehavior.
Monitor Your Own Thoughts Mentally review your students before class each dayparticularly the potential problems Try to imagine these problem students engaging in positive behavior Keep positive expectations in mind when you interact with these students