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1 Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems Chapter 29.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems Chapter 29."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems Chapter 29

2 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 2 Circulatory System Heart Right heart Pumps blood through the lungs (pulmonary circulation) Left heart Pumps blood through the systemic circulation

3 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 3 Circulatory System

4 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 4 Circulatory System Heart Mediastinum Heart wall Pericardium Parietal and visceral Pericardial cavity and fluid Myocardium Endocardium

5 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 5 The Heart Wall

6 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 6 The Chambers of the Heart Right atrium Left atrium Right ventricle Left ventricle

7 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 7 The Chambers of the Heart

8 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 8 The Valves of the Heart Atrioventricular valves Tricuspid valve Bicuspid valve Semilunar valves Pulmonic semilunar valve Aortic semilunar valve

9 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 9 The Valves of the Heart

10 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 10 The Great Vessels Superior and inferior venae cavae Pulmonary artery (trunk) Right and left pulmonary arteries Pulmonary veins

11 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 11 Blood Flow Cardiac cycle Diastole Systole Phases of the cardiac cycle

12 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 12 Blood Flow

13 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 13 Normal Intracardiac Pressures A wave V wave X descent Y descent C wave

14 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 14 Normal Intracardiac Pressures

15 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 15 Normal Intracardiac Pressures

16 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 16 The Coronary Vessels Right coronary artery Conus Right marginal branch Posterior descending branch Left coronary artery Left anterior descending artery Circumflex artery

17 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 17 The Coronary Vessels Collateral arteries Coronary capillaries Coronary veins Coronary sinus Great cardiac vein Posterior vein of the left ventricle Coronary lymphatic vessels

18 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 18 The Coronary Vessels

19 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 19 Structures That Control Heart Action Cardiac action potentials Conduction system Sinoatrial node (SA) Intranodal pathways Atrioventricular node (AV) Bundle of His (AV bundle) Right and left bundle branches Purkinje fibers

20 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 20 Conduction System of the Heart

21 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 21 Structures That Control Heart Action Cardiac excitation Propagation of cardiac action potentials Depolarization Repolarization Electocardiogram Automaticity Rhythmicity

22 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 22 Structures That Control Heart Action Cardiac innervation Sympathetic nerves Parasympathetic nerves Adrenergic receptor function α- or β-adrenergic receptors Norepinephrine or epinephrine

23 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 23 Autonomic Innervation of the Cardiovascular System

24 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 24 Myocardial Cells Nearly identical to skeletal muscle cells Intercalated disks Actin, myosin, and the troponin-tropomyosin complex Troponin T, I, and C Myocardial metabolism Myocardial oxygen consumption

25 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 25 Myocardial Contraction and Relaxation

26 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 26 Cardiac Performance Preload Afterload Frank-Starling law of the heart End-diastolic volume Laplace law

27 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 27 Cardiac Performance Heart rate Cardiovascular control center Cardioexcitatory and cardioinhibitory centers Neural reflexes Bainbridge and baroreceptor reflexes Atrial receptors Hormones and biochemicals

28 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 28 Cardiac Performance Myocardial contractility Stroke volume Inotropic agents Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels Cardiac output Volume of blood flowing through either the systemic or pulmonary circuit in liters per minute

29 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 29 Cardiac Output

30 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 30 Systemic Circulation Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins

31 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 31 Structure of Blood Vessels Lumen Tunica intima Tunica media Tunica externa (adventitia)

32 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 32 Endothelium

33 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 33 Structure of Blood Vessels

34 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 34 Factors Affecting Blood Flow Poiseuille law Pressure Force exerted on a liquid per unit area Resistance Opposition to force Diameter and length of the blood vessels contribute to resistance

35 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 35 Factors Affecting Blood Flow Neural control of total peripheral resistance Change in diameter of the vessels Baroreceptors Arterial chemoreceptors

36 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 36 Baroreceptor and Chemoreceptors

37 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 37 Factors Affecting Blood Flow Velocity Laminar vs. turbulent flow Vascular compliance

38 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 38 Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow

39 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 39 Regulation of Blood Pressure Arterial pressure Mean arterial pressure (MAP) Effects of cardiac output Effects of total peripheral resistance Effect of hyperemia Effects of hormones Epinephrine and norepinephrine Antidiuretic hormone, renin-angiotensin system, and natriuretic peptides

40 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 40 Regulation of Blood Pressure Adrenomedullin Insulin Venous pressure

41 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 41 Regulation of Coronary Circulation Coronary perfusion pressure Autoregulation Autonomic regulation

42 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 42 Lymphatic System Special vascular system that picks up excess fluid and returns it to the bloodstream Lymphatic fluid Lymphatic veins and venules Right lymphatic duct Thoracic duct Afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels

43 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 43 Lymphatic System

44 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 44 Tests of Cardiovascular Function Noninvasive assessments Sensorium of the individual Mucous membrane color Manually palpated pulse Auscultation of heart sounds Cardiography

45 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 45 Tests of Cardiovascular Function Noninvasive assessments Pulse tracing Magnetic resonance imaging Doppler studies Stress testing Chest x-ray examinations

46 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 46 Tests of Cardiovascular Function Invasive assessments X-ray films with barium Nuclear imaging with radiolabeled pharmaceuticals Hot spot imaging Cold spot imaging Tomographic studies

47 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 47 Tests of Cardiovascular Function Invasive assessments Atrioventricular bundle electrocardiography Cardiac catheterization Coronary angiography

48 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 48 Aging and the Cardiovascular System Arteriosclerosis Cross linking of collagen Increased collagen Changes in elastin Atherosclerosis

49 Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 49 Aging and the Cardiovascular System


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