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Game 2 WORK Games to help those with an intellectual disabilities become game to work Greg Carey University of Canberra 04/12/2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Game 2 WORK Games to help those with an intellectual disabilities become game to work Greg Carey University of Canberra 04/12/2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 game 2 WORK Games to help those with an intellectual disabilities become game to work Greg Carey University of Canberra 04/12/2006

2 game 2 WORK 40% of South Australian students who left school in 2005 were not in full time employment or further study by May Dusseldorp Skills Forum, 2006 Front Page Advertiser 11/11/2006 WORK IS KEY, NOT A DEGREE Chris Robinson (DECS CEO) Front page Advertiser 4/11/2006

3 game 2 WORK

4 What is needed for those with an intellectual disability to be game2WORK ?

5 game 2 WORK Emerging factors: skills can be more easily taught in the workplace other factors may be much more important in preparing new employees for a successful transition into the workplace (Black & Langone, 1997; Elksnin, 1993; Kright, 1999; Wehmeyer, Agran, & Hughes, 1998; Worth, 2003) Non-cognitive factors may be more important than the cognitive aspects traditionally addressed by the education and training system (Cherniss, 2000 Greenspan & Granfield, 1992 ).

6 game 2 WORK HOWEVER the skills acquired may not be generalised by the learner, or they may quickly become obsolete and redundant (Daniel, Schwier, & McCalla, 2003). Education and training groups have developed social skills programs to explicitly teach knowledge and skills

7 game 2 WORK Social Awareness teaching aims to help learner gain tacit knowledge drawn from experience Programs which aims to develop tacit knowledge are less likely to become obsolete and redundant (Daniel et al., 2003; Dourish & Bellotti, 1992, Solenkemp, 1999)

8 game 2 WORK Workplace Social Capital (Daniel et al., 2003) Networks of strong personal relationships that develop: trust, cooperation and collective action (Jacobs, 1965)

9 game 2 WORK information exchange, knowledge sharing, and knowledge construction ) (Luke, 2003) In the workplace this means:

10 game 2 WORK What is needed for those with an intellectual disability to be game2WORK ? WORKPLACE SOCIAL CAPITAL

11 game 2 WORK Workplace Social Capital - 3 types of relationship building : Bonding - establishing relationships with people who have similar roles. Bridging - establishing relationships with people who are in different roles or situations. Linking - establishing relationships with people in power. (Woolcock, 1998)

12 game 2 WORK The failure of many existing programs may be due to the traditional concentration on explicit social skills training (Daniel et al., 2003) rather than the development of tacit social awareness (Sohlenkemp, 1999) Linked to this is the difficulty in assessing personal attributes and the complexity of reporting these skills to employers (Pardy, 2004)

13 game 2 WORK Knowledge Skills Attitude Awareness How do they fit together?

14 game 2 WORK Knowledge + Skills = Aptitude Aptitude + Attitude = Ability Ability + Awareness = Achievement

15 game 2 WORK Knowledge + Skills = Aptitude This has been the typical approach by education and training organisations

16 game 2 WORK Knowledge + Attitude = Ability Some Education and training authorities have look to this area, but most programs have relied on outside influences

17 game 2 WORK Ability + Awareness = Achievement Education and training authroties have not addressed this aspect.

18 game 2 WORK Awareness is the ability to recognise and mediate a new situation using past experience (conceptial mediation)

19 game 2 WORK Conceptual Mediation Program Mediational Learning Theory (Lyndon,200) and the Conceptional Mediation Program (CMP) are derived from associative interference theory

20 game 2 WORK associative interference theory Information already held within the mind tends to be resistant to new learning, and can become a source of misconception. (Yates and Lyndon 2004)

21 game 2 WORK Conceptual Mediational Process: 1.Re-elicitation phase 2.Mediational phase 3.Application phase

22 game 2 WORK Can we devise a process that Pre-tests achievement (not just knowledge and skills)Pre-tests achievement (not just knowledge and skills) Identifies errant knowledge, skills, attitudes or awarenessIdentifies errant knowledge, skills, attitudes or awareness Uses a CMP process to produce achievementUses a CMP process to produce achievement Tests transference to new situationTests transference to new situation

23 game 2 WORK Can we use game based scenarios?

24 game 2 WORK The next step in my research: How can games develop this process? (In particular scenario based computer simulations)


26 References Black, R. S., & Langone, J. (1997). Social awareness and transition to employment for adolescents with mental retardation. Remedial and Special Education, 18(4), 214. Carey, G. J. P. (2005). Using Moodle to support the preparation of new workers who have an intellectual disability. Paper presented at the Moodle Moot 05, Oxford Institute of Legal Practice, Oxford, United Kingdom. Cherniss, C. (2000). Emotional Intelligence: What it is and Why it Matters. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology,, New Orleans, LA. Daniel, B., Schwier, R. A., & McCalla, G. (2003). Social Capital in Virtual Learning Communities and Distributed Communities of Practice. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 29(3). Dourish, P., & Bellotti, V. (1992). Awareness and coordination in shared workspace. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) 1992., Toronto. Dusseldorp Skills Forum. (2006). How are young people faring 2006 - Key Indicators. An update about the learning and work situation of young Australians: Dusseldorp Skills Forum. Elksnin, L., Elksnin,N.,& Saborinie,E. (1993). Job-related Social Skills Instruction of Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. Greenspan, S., & Granfield, J. M. (1992). Reconsidering the construct of mental retardation: Implications of a model of social competence. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96, 442-453. Jacobs, J. (1965). The death and life of great American cities. NJ: Penguin Books. Kavale, K. A., & Mostert, M. P. (2004). Social Skills Interventions for Individuals with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 31-47. Kright, K. A., L. (1999). Assessing Job-Readiness Skills- how students, teachers and employers can work together to eahance on the job training. Teaching Exceptional Children. Luke, C. (2003). Pedagogy, connectivity, multimodality, and interdisciplinarity. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(3), 397. Pardy, J. (2004). Back 2 basics - Employability skills. Training Packages at Work Retrieved July 20, 2004, 2004, from Sohlenkemp, M. (1999). Supporting group awareness in multi user environments through perceptualisation. Berlin: Forschngszentum Informationstechnik - Germany. Vaughn, S., Bos, C., & Schumm, J. (2007). Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education. Wehmeyer, M., Agran, M., & Hughes, C. (1998). Teaching self-determination to students with disabilities: Basic skills for successful transition. MD: Paul Brookes. Woolcock, M. (1998). Social capital and economic development: Towards a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27(2), 151-208. Worth, S. (2003). Adaptability and Self-Management: A New Ethic of Employability for the Young Unemployed? Journal of Social Policy, 32, 607.

27 game 2 WORK How does this fit? Education and training are often seen as vital aspects of strengthening security. This research may provide some directions to consider to ensure effective programs for education and training

28 game 2 WORK What do we really need to know? Charles Jennings Global Head of Learning, Reuters Over the past 20 years Charles has led learning, eLearning and collaborative learning initiatives for a number of business organisations, the UK Government and the European Commission. He has particular interest in learning and technologies, and ran online courses across Europe in the early 1980s. Before joining Reuters, Charles worked with Network Knowledge Architects, Online Courseware Factory, and as Director of Strategic Technology for Dow Jones Markets. Formerly he was Professor of Electronic Communications at Southampton Business School, UK. Direct Link to talk

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39 Supporting those with an intellectual disabilities become game to work Greg Carey University of Canberra 04/12/2006

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