Presentation on theme: "Language, Learning, and Teaching"— Presentation transcript:
1Language, Learning, and Teaching By: Marisol BarrazaSource: Brown, D. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching.
2Learning a Second Language Learning a new languageLearning a new cultureA new way of thinkingA new way of feelingA new way of actingLong and complex undertaking
3Sucess Sending & Receiving Messages in a L2 TotalCommitmentResponsePhysicalIntellectualEmotionalInvolvement
4L2 LEARNING COURSES Inadequate on their own Facilitate learning a L2 Success is possible:Teachers know what/how/ why variables affect learning a L2.Long and complex undertaking
5Group Discussion At the beginning of this chapter, a Number of categories of questionsAbout L2 acquisition are described, withnumerous specific questions in each category.In small groups, try to generate some possible answers to selected questions.To personalize your responses, include examples from the learning experiences of members of your group.To understand the principles of language learningAnswers should begin with : It dependsDepends from learner to learner and moment to moment
6The L2 TeacherNeeds to understand the principles of language learning and teaching.Needs to understand the many aspects of the process of L2 learning.Understanding of how learners learn, determines:Teaching styleApproachMethodsClassroom techniquesLong and complex undertaking
7DEFINITIONS Teaching style Individual teachers' distinctive or characteristic manners of teaching.
8DEFINITIONSApproachTheoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.Describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language and makes statements about the conditions which will promote successful language learning.
9DEFINITIONSMethodsA generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material.
10DEFINITIONS Classroom techniques Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives.Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well
11Their RelationshipFor approach, method, and technique, which determines which?Approach determines methodMethod determines techniqueThe organizational key is that techniques carry out a method which is consistent with an approach
12LANGUAGE What is LANGUAGE? Language is systematic Language is a set of arbitrary symbols.Those symbols are primarily vocal, but may also be visual.The symbols have conventionalized meaning to which they refer.Language is used for communication.Language operates in a speech community or culture.Language is essentially human, although possibly not limited to humans.Language is acquired by all people in much the same way; language and language learning both have universal characteristics.
13L2 TEACHERUnderstanding of the components of language determine how you will teach a languageLanguage and cognitionWriting systemsNonverbal communicationSociolinguisticsFirst language acquisitionLong and complex undertaking
14LEARNING What is LEARNING? Learning is acquisition or ¨getting¨. Learning is retention of information or skill.Retention implies storage systems, memory, cognitive organization.Learning involves active, conscious focus on and acting upon events outside or inside the organism.Learning is relatively permanent but subject to forgetting.Learning involves some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice.Learning is a change in behavior.
15TEACHING What is TEACHING? Guides learning Facilitates learning Enables the learner to learnSets the conditions for learningLong and complex undertaking
16THEORY OF TEACHINGIntegrated with your understanding of the learner and the subject will allow you to choose the best procedure for the learners and context.Long and complex undertaking
17Schools of Thought in Second Language Learning Source: Brown, D. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. (p.p.9-15)Long and complex undertaking
18Trends in Linguistics and Psychology 1940’s-1950’s:Structural Linguistics-1960’s:Transformational-Generative SchoolPsychology1940’s-1950’s:Behaviorism/ Neobehaviorism-1960’s:Cognitive Psychology
19Structural Linguistics 1940’s-1950’sBehaviorism-It focused only on publicly observable behaviorsStructural Linguistics-Only observable linguistic behaviors can be studied.-Language could be dismantled into small pieces or units, described scientifically, contrasted, then added up again to form the whole.
20Structural Linguistics Cont’dBehaviorism-Notions such as intuition, memory, thinking, or any mental processes were ignored.Structural Linguistics-Notions such as meaning or thought were completely ignored.
21Cont’dBehaviorism -Learning a behavior: through conditioning ‘organisms’ to respond in desired ways to stimuli --} Practice/ drilling is important.Structural Ling.-Learning language:conditioning learners to make the right connection between stimuli and the desired responsesDrilling in the language classroom was a dominant method.
22Cont’dBehaviorism-Reinforcement (Positive or negative) plays an important role in learning.Structural Ling.-Positive/ negative reinforcement play a significant role in language learning.
23Transformational-Generative Linguistics The 1960’s ’sCognitive Psychology-Meaning, understanding, and knowing are important psychological data.Transformational-Generative Linguistics-They broke away from the structuralists’ insistence on only studying observable language (performance)
24Cont’dCognitive Psychology -Cognitivists sought to discover underlying motivation and deeper structures of human behavior.Transformational-Generative Linguistics -Linguistics goes beyond mere description of the surface structure of language.
25Cont’dCognitive Psychology-Instead of focusing on the mechanical stimulus-response connections, cognitivists tried to focus on psychological principles of organization and functioning.Transformational-Generative Linguistics -Studying competence reveals the hidden level of meaning and thought (deep structure) that generates the observable performance. -learning language: language is species-specific; it is innate: human beings are born with the ability to learn language.
26The 1980’s – 2000’s Constructivism It involves the integration of linguistic, psychological, and sociological paradigms.The active role of the learner is emphasized.A. Cognitive constructivism: emphasizes the role of the learner in constructing his/her own representation of reality:
27Constructivism-Learners must transform complex information to make it their own.A more active role for students in their learning.Piaget argues that, “learning is a developmental process that involves change, self-generation, and construction, each building on prior experiences.” (in Kaufman, 2004).
28ConstructivismSocial Constructivism: emphasizes the importance of social interaction and cooperative learning in constructing cognitive and emotional images of reality.Language learning is a result of thinking and meaning-making that is “socially constructed and emerges out of [learners’] social interactions with the environment.” (Brown, p. 13)Research of linguistics and psychology All 3 positions must be seen as important in creating balanced descriptions of SLA
29What is the Best Theory?No single theory is right or wrong all the way!
30GROUP DISCUSSIONLooking back at the three schools of thought described in this chapter, in a small group, suggest some examples of activities in the language classroom that would be derived from each of the perspectives.
31Language Teaching Before the 20th century Goal: Reading in a foreign languageClassical Method was adopted for teaching foreign languages (Grammar Translation Method)Focus on grammar rules, memorization of vocabulary, conjugations, translation and written exercises.
32GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD CHARACTERISTICSClasses taught in L1; little use of L2Vocabulary taught in lists and isolatedGrammar explanation, memorizationReading classical text earlyGrammar analysis of textTranslation0 attention to pronunciationPopular because it requires few specialized skills from the teacher
3320th CENTURY Methods Grammar Translation Method Direct Method The Audiolingual MethodCommunity Language TeachingThe Silent WaySuggestopediaTotal Physical ResponseThe Natural ApproachECLECTIC APPROACH
3421 Century Method –Approach Communicative Language Teaching (approach) Eclectical blend of previous methodsTeaching students to communicate genuinely, spontaneously, and meaningfully in the L2
35GROUP DISCUSSIONAt the end of the chapter, twentieth-century language teaching methodology is described as one that evolved into an approach rather than a specific accepted method, with the Direct Method and Audiolingual Method cited as examples of the latter.What is the difference between approach and method?