What is a concept map? Cognitive mapping: a kind of mental processing with which people can acquire and recall information –Concept mapping is a practical use of cognitive mapping –Other practical uses of cognitive mapping Mind mapping, mental mapping, argument mapping, semantic mapping, etc.
What is a concept map? Carefully examine these examples of maps How are the maps similar? How are the maps different? Which do you think are examples of concept maps?
This is an example of a flow chart: flow charts are used to describe a process or plan the stages of a project, there is usually not hierarchical arrangement, and linking words usually answer questions Flow Chart. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowchart These are examples of a family tree: family trees have a hierarchical structure, nodes consists of people, and linking lines imply a type of family relationship http://people.howstuffworks.com/mafia2.htm www.hqbach.net/images/Corleone.jpg
This is an example of a mind map. Mind maps often use pictures or symbols, do not necessarily have hierarchical arrangement, and are often used for brainstorming. Margulies, N. (1991). Mapping inner space: Learning and teaching mind mapping. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press. This is an example of an argument map or a rationale map: such maps are used to informally represent the structure of an argument; hierarchical arrangement usually exists; nodes consist of a contention, premises, objections, etc. Argument Map. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_map
http://www.prel.org/products/re_/ES0419.htm This is an example of a semantic map: semantic maps are often used to extend or introduce new vocabulary, nodes are words or categories of words, linking lines are relationships of similarity This is an example of a concept map! (Novak, 1998) What makes this map different from the other maps?
Key elements of a concept map 1.A grounding in assimilation learning theory and constructivism (new knowledge related to old knowledge, progressive differentiation, etc.) 2.Hierarchical Organization (general/abstract notions subsume specifics/details) 3.Meaningful labeled links (linking words and concepts should form a meaningful proposition) 4.Concepts are…conceptsperceived regularity in objects or events (Novak & Gowin, 1984)not images, thoughts, sentences, people, events, etc.
Concept maps of concept maps (Novak, 1998) (Canas, A. J., Coffey, J. W., Carnot, M. J., Feltovich, P., Hoffman, R. R., Feltovich, J., & Novak, J. D., 2003) (Novak & Musonda, 1991)
What is the theoretical background of concept mapping? David Ausubel (1960s) –Assimilation theorya learning theory in which new material is learned when it can be related to existing knowledge This distinguishes between rote learning and meaningful learning –Ausubel believed that the most important factor to influence learning was what the learner already knew
What is the theoretical background of concept mapping? Joseph Novak (1970s) –He started using concept mapping as way to represent new science knowledge to students –He used Ausubels assimilation theory and constructivism (learners actively construct knowledge) to write his book Learning How to Learn (Novak & Gowin, 1984) and to formalize the technique of concept mapping
What does other literature have to say about concept mapping? Students enjoy or have positive attitudes about concept mapping Concept mapping can reduce test and content anxiety Students and teachers find that concept mapping helps students learn course material more deeply Concept mapping is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating students differences in learning Students maps are a valid and reliable way to identify student misconceptions
Introducing concept mapping Start concept mapping training early Dont assign a concept mapping exercise without some training –Formalize concept, proposition, linking word –Formalize your expectations in terms of hierarchy, linking words, examples –Show students what you consider to be a well- crafted map and what maps could be improved –Allow students the opportunity to practice mapping several times before formally evaluating their maps See Novak & Gowins tips for introducing concept maps to your students
How to create a concept map 1.Identify your topic or focus question 2.List important concepts associated with the topic (10 to 20 is a good start) 3.Rank the concepts from most general at the top to most specific at the bottom (add concepts as necessary) 4.Arrange the topics on the mapping field hierarchically 5.Add linking phrases to describe relationships 6.Look for crosslinks 7.Review, make changes, and finalize
Lets create a concept map Start with the focus concept SPRING List concepts related to spring (try for 10-15) Rank concepts according to level of abstraction and arrange hierarchically Add linking phrases between concepts Look for crosslinks Review, make changes, and finalize
Best Practice Advice Give students a clear focus question to guide their maps –Dont give the assignment Create a map for the word SPRING. –A better assignment: Describe the forces affecting a mass hanging on a spring. Give students good parameters in which to work (be clear with your rules for hierarchy, types and numbers of concepts, linking words, etc.)let them know what you expect from them! Never ask students to memorize and replicate a given mapthis works against meaningful learning Never forget that concept mapping is less about the structure of the map and more about communicating ideas in a different format
Concept maps and technology Many software programs exist for the purposes of concept mapping –Cmap (http://cmap.ihmc.us)http://cmap.ihmc.us Free, very easy to use and share, very customizable –Inspiration (www.inspiration.com)www.inspiration.com Very easy to use, K-12 focus, only free in certain campus labs –Glinkr (www.glinkr.net)www.glinkr.net Free with registration, less easy to use, not as pretty –FreeMind (http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki)http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki Free, not very customizable, fun icons –Compendium (www.compendiuminstitute.org)www.compendiuminstitute.org Not intuitive, not very customizable, a little boring
Concept maps and technology Great Cmap Features –Easy to add attachments (documents, websites, figures, tables, etc.) –A variety of ways to share maps –Knowledge soups –List View converts maps to and from outlines/lists –Built-in presentation features –Build and edit maps with others using synchronous collaboration
Concept maps and Cmap Lets try creating a map in Cmap using your SPRING map Open Cmap –Double click to create your first concept –Drag from the arrow box to connect the next concept A single click on a concept shows the concepts arrow icon Holding shift while dragging gives a connecting line without a linking word –Change colors and shapes: Format -> Styles… Note the tabs Font, Object, Line, Cmap
Concept maps and Cmap Try sharing your map –Save your map with your hawkid –Then save your map to the shared folder Click the world iconthis allows you to share your map on the public Cmap servers Save in the IHMC Publc Cmaps UI Concept Mapping Workshop folder –Edit Refresh allows you to see newly added maps –Double clicking a map will open it for viewing
Concept mapping as a teaching tool Use as an advance organizer
Concept mapping as a teaching tool Introduce a new topic (maps adapted from Novak, 1998, pp. 54-55)
Concept mapping as a teaching tool Create a Course Map –Collectively create the map as the course progresses –Allow students to supply the key concepts and connections Alternative idea: have students create mini-maps that can be combined into a comprehensive map Alternative idea: use the courses discussion session to create a master map of the weeks topic
Concept mapping as a teaching tool Varieties of complete the map –Fill in the concepts Dont give students a list of concepts to use OR do give students a list of concepts to use (list some related but incorrect words as well) –Fill in the propositions Similarly do or do not give students a list of linking words to use
Concept mapping as a teaching tool Concept Maps and Writing Assignments –Write about horizontal linking lines: (Cilburn, 1987) –Structure an essay assignment for students with a map –Let students structure their essay assignment for you with a map
Concept mapping as a teaching tool Create Misconception Maps –Display and discuss concept maps with commonly used inaccurate connections among topics or applications of commonly used inappropriate concepts –Have students analyze the maps in order to correct the concepts and connections
Concept mapping as a learning tool A note taking tool –Distribute simplified maps of your lecture for students to use as an outline for note-taking –Teach students how to map and encourage them to take notes in this format A tool for studying –Have students map various size units of text or their lecture notes in preparation for an exam
Concept mapping as a learning tool Collaborative mapping –Have students work in groups to diagram their understanding of a topic Working together can help generate whole-group discussion Mistakes that appear during collaborative mapping will show a lack of understanding by more than one student
Concept mapping as a learning tool Preparing for laboratory exercises or practicum experiences –Before the experience, have students map the necessary background information –During the experience (if possible), have students link events to their background map –After the experience, have students map any conclusions or summaries and synthesize these into their original map Such mapping can help students reflect on events and help make connections between theory and practice
Concept mapping as a learning tool Students can really see their learning in pre- and post mapping exercises –Have students create a map of their knowledge of the course material at the beginning of the course Collect this map from students and save it –Have students create map of their knowledge of the course material at the end of the course Return students maps from the beginning of the course so they can visually see all of the learning that occurred
Concept mapping as a learning tool Preparing for and summarizing readings –Teach students how to map a reading Before reading, students skim the table of contents, foreword, introduction, summaries, charts, etc. During reading, students can make notes on Post- its of key events and examples –The pre-map can serve as a guide to thinking about content After reading, students can transfer their notes/Post-its to the pre-map as a guide to mapping the entire reading
Concept mapping as a learning tool Lets collaboratively pre-map a book –Use one of the given books, or use a book youve brought with you Skim the table of contents, chapter subheadings, index, forward, pictures, charts, graphs, introductions, summaries, back cover, etc. As you begin to map, think –What appear to be the big ideas in the book? –What does it appear that the authors want you to learn? –How do the main topics appear to be related? –How is the book structured? –Does the order of topics matter? –How are examples introduced?
Assessing and evaluating concept maps Summative assessments –Periodic assessments designed to determine what students do an do not know Standardized exams, quizzes, formal essay, midterms, finals, etc. Formative assessments –Informal assessments designed to check on students progress Observations, in-class discussion, reflection papers, practice problems, etc.
Assessing and evaluating concept maps Any of the given exercises so far could be used as a summative assessment, but the following examples work particularly well: –Have students create a map given a list of key concepts: Below are seven concepts associated with [insert topic]. Use them to construct a map. You could supply a longer list (with some commonly used misconception concepts) and have them select a smaller amount of concepts to use. –The following slide is an example of a students map on a mid-term exam in the course Theory and Methods of Education The instructor gave students a list of thirty concepts to use and the instructions to add additional concepts as needed to complete their map
Alternative examples of summative assessment questions: –Have students create a map without a given set of concepts. This will allow you to see what the students thought was important –Give students a map of what you would like to assess and have them write an essay telling the story of the given map Note that in any assessment you do not want to ask students to recall from a memorized mapthis will not promote meaningful learning!
Assessing and evaluating concept maps Again, any of the given exercises so far could be used as a formative assessment, but the following exercises work particularly well (have students turn these in or look at them during class): –Have students map the previously assigned readings –Have students map their small-group discussions of a given topic –Have students map a summary of a given set of class periods –Have students map topics that they would like more information on or do not understand (these maps can then be addressed directly in small- or large-group discussions
Assessing and evaluating concept maps In analyzing students maps during a formative assessment, you can see what are students basic understandings of a topic
Assessing and evaluating concept maps And you can see which students have a more advanced understanding of a topic
Assessing and evaluating concept maps Concept maps are commonly graded or evaluated using rubrics –Rubrics are scoring tools that use a predetermined set of standards to assess criteria that are complex and subjective They articulate in writing the criteria and standards that an instructor will be using to evaluate student work –Rubrics can help link graded criteria to learning objectives, can help relate assignments to course content, and can help make grading criteria transparent For these reasons, it is often a good idea to share your rubric with your students
Assessing and evaluating concept maps TraitHigh score Criteria Medium score Criteria Low scoreCriteria Spelling10 pointsPaper has no spelling errors 8 pointsPaper has 1 spelling error 5 pointsPaper has two or more spelling errors High ScoreCharacteristics Medium ScoreCharacteristics Low scoreCharacteristics A paper Adequately states and defends argument Appropriate citations Counterarguments are identified and adequately answered B paper Has an argument with some weakly defended points Mostly appropriate citations Not all counterarguments are answered C paper Incorrect factual statements Mostly non-scholarly citations No counterarguments
Assessing and evaluating concept maps What do you think belongs in a rubric of a concept map? Look at some of these example rubrics –What do you like and not like about them? –What make them easier to use? –What makes them more difficult to use? –What other things are important to you to add? Use one of these rubrics (or an adaption) to evaluate the given ANIMALS map –How does using one or another rubric change the evaluation of the map?
Concept maps as a planning tool Lesson preparation –Map your plan for a lecture or use a map to integrate several lectures Distribute a simplified version of the lesson map to students as an outline of the days lecture notes –Use a map of students background knowledge so that you can plan to build on what they already know
Concept maps as a planning tool Lecture Notes –A concept map can be a useful tool to ensure you dont forget any of the important points in a lecture –Lesson maps can help you to decide in which areas to abbreviate if you are running short on time –Lesson maps can be useful visual aids for yourself and for your students to follow along
Concept maps as a planning tool Lesson evaluation –Periodically collect students maps of your lecture to make sure youre emphasizing the points you want to make –Have a colleague attend and map your lecture for comparison and feedback Create a set of classroom rules with your students using concept maps Time management –Useful for planning your week, your day, classroom pacing, classroom goals, etc. Possible branches include things to remember, things of urgency, things needed to prepare, etc.
Concept maps as a planning tool Concept maps are now commonly used to plan and evaluate curricula –Mapping can be applied to several levels of curriculaprogram, course, chapter, topic, etc.to ensure that an overall organization exists –Mapping curricular units can help with pacing and spacing If one branch seems to crowded, spilt it into separate branches. If your assignments are too clustered, restructure the homework
Concept maps as a planning tool The following is the classic template for curricular planning:
Concept maps as a planning tool Concept maps can even be used to plan workshops!