3What is a concept map?Cognitive mapping: a kind of mental processing with which people can acquire and recall informationConcept mapping is a practical use of cognitive mappingOther practical uses of cognitive mappingMind mapping, mental mapping, argument mapping, semantic mapping, etc.
4What is a concept map? Carefully examine these examples of maps How are the maps similar?How are the maps different?Which do you think are examples of “concept maps”?
5“Flow Chart.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowchart This is an example of a flow chart: flow charts are used to describe a process or plan the stages of a project, there is usually not hierarchical arrangement, and linking words usually answer questionsThese are examples of a family tree: family trees have a hierarchical structure, nodes consists of people, and linking lines imply a type of family relationship“Flow Chart.”
6This is an example of a mind map This is an example of a mind map. Mind maps often use pictures or symbols, do not necessarily have hierarchical arrangement, and are often used for brainstorming.This is an example of an argument map or a rationale map: such maps are used to informally represent the structure of an argument; hierarchical arrangement usually exists; nodes consist of a contention, premises, objections, etc.Margulies, N. (1991). Mapping inner space: Learning and teaching mind mapping. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press.“Argument Map.”
7This is an example of a concept map! This is an example of a semantic map: semantic maps are often used to extend or introduce new vocabulary, nodes are words or categories of words, linking lines are relationships of similarityThis is an example of a concept map!(Novak, 1998)What makes this map different from the other maps?
8Key elements of a concept map A grounding in assimilation learning theory and constructivism (new knowledge related to old knowledge, progressive differentiation, etc.)Hierarchical Organization (general/abstract notions subsume specifics/details)Meaningful labeled links (linking words and concepts should form a meaningful proposition)Concepts are…“concepts”—“perceived regularity in objects or events” (Novak & Gowin, 1984)—not images, thoughts, sentences, people, events, etc.
9Concept maps of “concept maps” (Novak & Musonda, 1991)(Novak, 1998)(Canas, A. J., Coffey, J. W., Carnot, M. J., Feltovich, P., Hoffman, R. R., Feltovich, J., & Novak, J. D., 2003)
11What is the theoretical background of concept mapping? David Ausubel (1960’s)Assimilation theory—a learning theory in which new material is learned when it can be related to existing knowledgeThis distinguishes between rote learning and meaningful learningAusubel believed that the most important factor to influence learning was what the learner already knew
12What is the theoretical background of concept mapping? Joseph Novak (1970’s)He started using concept mapping as way to represent new science knowledge to studentsHe used Ausubel’s assimilation theory and constructivism (learners actively construct knowledge) to write his book Learning How to Learn (Novak & Gowin, 1984) and to formalize the technique of concept mapping
13What does other literature have to say about concept mapping? Students enjoy or have positive attitudes about concept mappingConcept mapping can reduce test and content anxietyStudents and teachers find that concept mapping helps students learn course material more deeplyConcept mapping is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating students’ differences in learningStudents’ maps are a valid and reliable way to identify student misconceptions
14Introducing concept mapping Start concept mapping training earlyDon’t assign a concept mapping exercise without some trainingFormalize concept, proposition, linking wordFormalize your expectations in terms of hierarchy, linking words, examplesShow students what you consider to be a well-crafted map and what maps could be improvedAllow students the opportunity to practice mapping several times before formally evaluating their mapsSee Novak & Gowin’s tips for introducing concept maps to your students
15How to create a concept map Identify your topic or focus questionList important concepts associated with the topic (10 to 20 is a good start)Rank the concepts from most general at the top to most specific at the bottom (add concepts as necessary)Arrange the topics on the mapping field hierarchicallyAdd linking phrases to describe relationshipsLook for crosslinksReview, make changes, and finalize
16Let’s create a concept map Start with the focus concept SPRINGList concepts related to “spring” (try for 10-15)Rank concepts according to level of abstraction and arrange hierarchicallyAdd linking phrases between conceptsLook for crosslinksReview, make changes, and finalize
17Best Practice AdviceGive students a clear focus question to guide their mapsDon’t give the assignment “Create a map for the word SPRING.”A better assignment: “Describe the forces affecting a mass hanging on a spring.”Give students good parameters in which to work (be clear with your rules for hierarchy, types and numbers of concepts, linking words, etc.)—let them know what you expect from them!Never ask students to memorize and replicate a given map—this works against meaningful learningNever forget that concept mapping is less about the structure of the map and more about communicating ideas in a different format
18Concept maps and technology Many software programs exist for the purposes of concept mappingCmap (http://cmap.ihmc.us)Free, very easy to use and share, very customizableInspiration (www.inspiration.com)Very easy to use, K-12 focus, only free in certain campus labsGlinkr (www.glinkr.net)Free with registration, less easy to use, not as prettyFreeMind (http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki)Free, not very customizable, fun iconsCompendium (www.compendiuminstitute.org)Not intuitive, not very customizable, a little boring
19Concept maps and technology Great Cmap FeaturesEasy to add attachments (documents, websites, figures, tables, etc.)A variety of ways to share mapsKnowledge “soups”“List View” converts maps to and from outlines/listsBuilt-in presentation featuresBuild and edit maps with others using “synchronous collaboration”
20Concept maps and CmapLet’s try creating a map in Cmap using your SPRING mapOpen CmapDouble click to create your first conceptDrag from the arrow box to connect the next conceptA single click on a concept shows the concept’s arrow iconHolding shift while dragging gives a connecting line without a linking wordChange colors and shapes: Format -> Styles…Note the tabs Font, Object, Line, Cmap
21Concept maps and Cmap Try sharing your map Save your map with your hawkidThen save your map to the shared folderClick the world icon—this allows you to share your map on the public Cmap serversSave in the “IHMC Publc Cmaps” → “UI Concept Mapping Workshop” folderEdit → Refresh allows you to see newly added mapsDouble clicking a map will open it for viewing
22Concept mapping as a teaching tool Use as an advance organizer
23Concept mapping as a teaching tool Introduce a new topic(maps adapted from Novak, 1998, pp )
24Concept mapping as a teaching tool Create a Course MapCollectively create the map as the course progressesAllow students to supply the key concepts and connectionsAlternative idea: have students create mini-maps that can be combined into a comprehensive mapAlternative idea: use the course’s discussion session to create a master map of the week’s topic
25Concept mapping as a teaching tool Varieties of “complete the map”Fill in the conceptsDon’t give students a list of concepts to useOR do give students a list of concepts to use (list some related but incorrect words as well)Fill in the propositionsSimilarly do or do not give students a list of linking words to use
26Concept mapping as a teaching tool Concept Maps and Writing AssignmentsWrite about horizontal linking lines:(Cilburn, 1987)Structure an essay assignment for students with a mapLet students structure their essay assignment for you with a map
27Concept mapping as a teaching tool Create Misconception MapsDisplay and discuss concept maps with commonly used inaccurate connections among topics or applications of commonly used inappropriate conceptsHave students analyze the maps in order to correct the concepts and connections
28Concept mapping as a learning tool A note taking toolDistribute simplified maps of your lecture for students to use as an outline for note-takingTeach students how to map and encourage them to take notes in this formatA tool for studyingHave students map various size units of text or their lecture notes in preparation for an exam
29Concept mapping as a learning tool Collaborative mappingHave students work in groups to diagram their understanding of a topicWorking together can help generate whole-group discussionMistakes that appear during collaborative mapping will show a lack of understanding by more than one student
30Concept mapping as a learning tool Preparing for laboratory exercises or practicum experiencesBefore the experience, have students map the necessary background informationDuring the experience (if possible), have students link events to their background mapAfter the experience, have students map any conclusions or summaries and synthesize these into their original mapSuch mapping can help students reflect on events and help make connections between theory and practice
31Concept mapping as a learning tool Students can really see their learning in pre- and post mapping exercisesHave students create a map of their knowledge of the course material at the beginning of the courseCollect this map from students and save itHave students create map of their knowledge of the course material at the end of the courseReturn students’ maps from the beginning of the course so they can visually see all of the learning that occurred
32Concept mapping as a learning tool Preparing for and summarizing readingsTeach students how to map a readingBefore reading, students skim the table of contents, foreword, introduction, summaries, charts, etc.During reading, students can make notes on Post-its of key events and examplesThe pre-map can serve as a guide to thinking about contentAfter reading, students can transfer their notes/Post-its to the pre-map as a guide to mapping the entire reading
33Concept mapping as a learning tool Let’s collaboratively pre-map a bookUse one of the given books, or use a book you’ve brought with youSkim the table of contents, chapter subheadings, index, forward, pictures, charts, graphs, introductions, summaries, back cover, etc.As you begin to map, thinkWhat appear to be the “big ideas” in the book?What does it appear that the authors want you to learn?How do the main topics appear to be related?How is the book structured?Does the order of topics matter?How are examples introduced?
34Assessing and evaluating concept maps Summative assessmentsPeriodic assessments designed to determine what students do an do not knowStandardized exams, quizzes, formal essay, midterms, finals, etc.Formative assessmentsInformal assessments designed to check on students’ progressObservations, in-class discussion, reflection papers, practice problems, etc.
35Assessing and evaluating concept maps Any of the given exercises so far could be used as a summative assessment, but the following examples work particularly well:Have students create a map given a list of key concepts: “Below are seven concepts associated with [insert topic]. Use them to construct a map.”You could supply a longer list (with some commonly used misconception concepts) and have them select a smaller amount of concepts to use.The following slide is an example of a students’ map on a mid-term exam in the course Theory and Methods of EducationThe instructor gave students a list of thirty concepts to use and the instructions to add additional concepts as needed to complete their map
37Assessing and evaluating concept maps Alternative examples of summative assessment questions:Have students create a map without a given set of concepts. This will allow you to see what the students thought was importantGive students a map of what you would like to assess and have them write an essay “telling the story” of the given mapNote that in any assessment you do not want to ask students to recall from a memorized map—this will not promote meaningful learning!
38Assessing and evaluating concept maps Again, any of the given exercises so far could be used as a formative assessment, but the following exercises work particularly well (have students turn these in or look at them during class):Have students map the previously assigned readingsHave students map their small-group discussions of a given topicHave students map a summary of a given set of class periodsHave students map topics that they would like more information on or do not understand (these maps can then be addressed directly in small- or large-group discussions
39Assessing and evaluating concept maps In analyzing students’ maps during a formative assessment, you can see what are students’ basic understandings of a topic
40Assessing and evaluating concept maps And you can see which students have a more advanced understanding of a topic
41Assessing and evaluating concept maps Concept maps are commonly graded or evaluated using rubricsRubrics are scoring tools that use a predetermined set of standards to assess criteria that are complex and subjectiveThey articulate in writing the criteria and standards that an instructor will be using to evaluate student workRubrics can help link graded criteria to learning objectives, can help relate assignments to course content, and can help make grading criteria transparentFor these reasons, it is often a good idea to share your rubric with your students
42Assessing and evaluating concept maps High ScoreCharacteristicsMedium ScoreLow score“A” paperAdequately states and defends argumentAppropriate citationsCounterarguments are identified and adequately answered“B” paperHas an argument with some weakly defended pointsMostly appropriate citationsNot all counterarguments are answered“C” paperIncorrect factual statementsMostly non-scholarly citationsNo counterargumentsTraitHigh scoreCriteriaMedium scoreLow scoreSpelling10 pointsPaper has no spelling errors8 pointsPaper has 1 spelling error5 pointsPaper has two or more spelling errors
43Assessing and evaluating concept maps What do you think belongs in a rubric of a concept map?Look at some of these example rubricsWhat do you like and not like about them?What make them easier to use?What makes them more difficult to use?What other things are important to you to add?Use one of these rubrics (or an adaption) to evaluate the given ANIMALS mapHow does using one or another rubric change the evaluation of the map?
44Concept maps as a planning tool Lesson preparationMap your plan for a lecture or use a map to integrate several lecturesDistribute a simplified version of the lesson map to students as an outline of the day’s lecture notesUse a map of students’ background knowledge so that you can plan to build on what they already know
45Concept maps as a planning tool Lecture NotesA concept map can be a useful tool to ensure you don’t forget any of the important points in a lectureLesson maps can help you to decide in which areas to abbreviate if you are running short on timeLesson maps can be useful visual aids for yourself and for your students to follow along
46Concept maps as a planning tool Lesson evaluationPeriodically collect students’ maps of your lecture to make sure you’re emphasizing the points you want to makeHave a colleague attend and map your lecture for comparison and feedbackCreate a set of classroom rules with your students using concept mapsTime managementUseful for planning your week, your day, classroom pacing, classroom goals, etc.Possible branches include things to remember, things of urgency, things needed to prepare, etc.
47Concept maps as a planning tool Concept maps are now commonly used to plan and evaluate curriculaMapping can be applied to several levels of curricula—program, course, chapter, topic, etc.—to ensure that an overall organization existsMapping curricular units can help with pacing and spacingIf one branch seems to crowded, spilt it into separate branches. If your assignments are too clustered, restructure the homework
48Concept maps as a planning tool The following is the classic template for curricular planning:
49Concept maps as a planning tool Concept maps can even be used to plan workshops!