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Check-In Questions?

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Check-In Questions? Comments about conversationgenerally good rate of postings but need more integration of readings and your own personal experiences

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Process-Product Research on Successful Teachers Data collected by the Research and Development Institute at the University of Texas over a decade in multiple classrooms Used teacher coding instruments such as those developed by Good and Brophy (1991)

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Coding Categories for Question-answer-feedback Sequence Student Response + RightTeacher accepts the students response ± Part RightThe teacher considers the students response to be partially correct or complete -WrongThe teacher considers the students response to be incorrect Teacher Response ++ PraiseThe teacher praises student in words or by expressing verbal affirmation in a notably warm, joyous or excited manner. + AffirmTeacher simply affirms that the students response is correct. 0 No reaction The teacher makes no responsesimply goes onto something else.

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Student Responses Teacher Responses +± Giv es An s. As k Ot her Ot her Cal ls Re pe at Clu e

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Process-Product Research on Effective Teachers Data collected over multiple three decades in multiple classrooms by multiple researchers Used teacher coding instruments such as those developed by Good and Brophy (1991) Correlated with student outcomes including classroom tests, student projects, oral performances, portfolio assessments, and standardized tests.

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Five Key Behaviors 1.Lesson clarity 2.Instructional variety 3.Teacher task orientation 4.Engagement in the learning process 5.Student success rate

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Lesson Clarity Effective teachers… Make their points clear to learners at all levels Provide step-by-step logic in explanations of concepts Have a direct, audible, non-distracting delivery

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Lesson Clarity Indicators 1.Informs learner of lesson objectives 2.Provides learners with advance organizer 3.Checks for task-relevant prior learning at the beginning of the lesson 4.Give directives slowly and distinctly 5.Knows ability levels and teaches slightly above 6.Uses examples, illustrations, and demonstrations to explain and clarify 7.Provides review or summary at end of each lesson

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Instructional Variety Asking questions Varying question type –Fact –Process –Convergent –Divergent Using learning materials, equipment, displays, and space

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Instructional Variety Indicators 1.Uses attention-gaining devices 2.Shows enthusiasm and animation through variation in eye contact, voice, and gestures 3.Varies mode of presentation 4.Uses a mix of rewards and reinforcers 5.Incorporates student ideas or participation 6.Varies types of questions

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Teacher Task Orientation Learning tasks –Getting students ready to learn –Presenting, asking questions, encouraging independent thinking –Assessing Procedural tasks –Taking attendance –Distributing handouts –Collecting homework –Checking for materials

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Teacher Task Orientation Indicators 1.Develops unit and lesson plans that reflect most salient features of curriculum guide or adopted texts 2.Has efficient routines for administrative and clerical interruptions 3.Has efficient routine for stopping misbehavior 4.Aligns instructional choices with content 5.Builds to unit outcomes with clearly defined events

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Engagement in the Learning Process High student engagement rate promoted through: 1.Routines that allow students to attend to personal needs without permission 2.Active monitoring 3.Interesting, worthwhile, and do-able independent assignments 4.Writing daily schedule on the board 5.Abundant use of resources and activities slightly above current level of understanding 6.Lack of timing errors

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Student Success Rate High success: The student understands the subject matter taught and makes only occasional errors Moderate success: The student has partial understanding but makes some substantive errors Low success: The student has little or no understanding of the subject matter Students who spend ~60-70% of their time on high success activities have higher achievement, better attention, and more positive attitudes toward school than average students

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Student Success Rate Indicators 1.Establishes unit and lesson content that reflects prior learning 2.Administers correctives immediately after initial response 3.Divides instructional stimuli into small chunks 4.Plans transitions to new material in easy-to- grasp steps 5.Varies the pace at which stimuli are presented; builds toward climax or key event

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Problem: Process-Product Research findings did not transform teaching in the US. Teachers are not automatonsthey think, reinterpret, adapt, filter out recommendations that contradict their private theories about teaching

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More Educational Research Is any of it valid? –Experimental Psychology (Theory) –Research in Classrooms (Practice) –Paradigm problem? Studying teachers versus chess players Robustness of experimental psychology research versus classroom research Classroom Instruction that Works

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New Idea: Successful Teaching is Theory-Driven

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Module 3 Applying theory to practice for behaviorism: 1.Identify content that is suitable for behaviorism: Transmission of existing knowledge base Lends itself to very short segments of instruction followed by learner exhibition of behavior and immediate feedback on right/wrong behavior Learner can move through material at own pace Feedback on behavior provides primary reward/motivation to continue to learn 2.Develop instructional vehicle for content segmented delivery of instruction with immediate feedback and learner self-pacing 3.Develop sequence for instruction

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Module 3 Applying theory to practice for information processing theory: 1.Identify content that is suitable for IP theory Ties to existing knowledge Relevance Ability to use information to solve problems 2.Develop sequence for instruction: Advance organizer Presentation of new material; tips on how to remember, chunking of information, mnemonics, rehearsal Sample problems Practice with feedback Independent practice Evaluation

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Module 3 Applying theory to practice for constructivism (human model): 1.Find suitable problems 2.Choose suitable pedagogy including appropriate technology (idea of match between content and pedagogy briefly introduced in article referenced in Module 3 overview) 3.Sequence learning events Typically a learning cycleexplore, term/concept introduction, application

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Sample Lesson--Constructivism Desired learning: 1.Improve students ability to communicate scientific phenomenon through graphing. 2.The student will be able to interpret dashes made by dot cars moving with both constant and accelerated motions both qualitatively and in the construction of graphs that visualize position versus time, velocity versus time, and acceleration versus time.

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Sample Lesson Events 0: Review or introduction to various types of graphs including bar, pie, and scatter. 1: Instructions on how to use the dot car 2: Do a run with the red car (fast, constant motion). What do you observe? 3: Do a run with the blue car (slow, constant motion). What do you observe? 4: Generate claims and evidence statements Evidence: The dashes made by the red car are longer and are farther apart than the dashes made by the blue car. Claim: The red car was moving faster than the blue car. Evidence: The dashes made by the red car are the same length throughout the run. Claim: The red car was moving with constant velocity. Etc.

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Sample Lesson Events 5: Question: How could you visualize or communicate the differences in velocities? Graph them both on the same graph What kind of graph should I use? [Scatter] Why? [Continuous variablesposition & time] Students graph position versus time for the two cars. They note that the red (faster) car has a steeper slope and both lines are straight. 6: Start both cars at the same time heading towards each other. How would you communicate this situation graphically? 7: Start one car in the middle one at the end of the paper, both moving the same direction. How would you communicate this situation graphically?

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Sample Lesson Events 8: Continue with various constant velocity scenarios having students graph each scenario and discuss the graphs. 9: What are inferences you can make about the graphs? Students recite prior claims and evidence statements and others. 10: The position versus time graphs do not demonstrate constant velocityhow could we do that? [Graph velocity versus time] Introduce the idea of average velocity as the change in position during a given time period and demonstrate how to graph average velocity for each time interval on the position versus time graph.

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Sample Lesson Events 11: Move onto accelerated motion by rolling the dot car down a ramp. What do you observe? [As the car moves down the ramp, it picks up speed, the dashes get longer and farther apart] 12: Continue spiraling ability to interpret both the experimental data and graphs of the experimental data by making increasingly sophisticated scenarios. 13: Introduce idea of acceleration as the change of velocity in a time period. Demonstrate how to graph.

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Teaching science through interactive experiences: Scientific Thinking Types Type 1: Finding patterns in observations/data. Observations can be student-generated or archived Type 2: Constructing and testing hypotheses from patterns found in observations/data [i.e., hypotheses are founded on experience] Type 3: Constructing models (mental, physical, or mathematical) to understand, explain or communicate scientific phenomenon

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Teaching math through interactive experiences: Mathematical Thinking Types Type 1: Finding patterns [In advanced mathematics, patterns typically take the form of theorems] Type 2: Constructing and testing hypotheses from patterns found in observations/data [i.e., hypotheses are founded on experience] Type 3: Constructing a proof or model to justify, understand, explain or communicate patterns

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Constructing an effective lesson based on Constructivism 1.Identify a problem that would be: –Interesting to your student population –Would teach content at the heart of the discipline –Could be learned through one of the science or mathematic thinking types 2.Identify 1-5 general statements of learning for the lesson 3.Choose a lesson sequence that allows for spiraling: –Learner explores and develops tentative explanations –Teacher facilitates learner construction of knowledge through Socratic questioning or targeted and brief lecture –Deliver brief and appropriate formative assessments to check learner progress toward meeting objectives –Repeat sequence until all statements of learning have been taught

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