3 ECG Rhythm StripElectrocardiogram or ECG is used to measure the activity of the heartECG is used to represent the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria to the ventriclesECG is used to characterize rhythms and conduction abnormalities of the heart
4 ECG Waveforms P Wave PR Segment QRS Complex ST Segment T Wave U Wave Electrical activation (depolarization) of the right then left atrium due to discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) nodePR SegmentPassage of the impulse through the atrioventricular (AV) node and bundle of HISQRS ComplexElectrical depolarization of the ventriclesST SegmentPlateau phaseT WaveRepolarization of the ventricleU WaveRepolarization of the HIS-Purkinje system
9 Asystole Asystole is a cardiac standstill, i.e., flatline Asystole is the absence of electrical activity in the venticlesAsystole usually results from a prolonged period of cardiac arrest without resuscitationAsystole usually means the patient’s life has ended
11 BradycardiaBradycardia is when the heart is < 60 beats/minute or when the heart rate is slower than expectedSinus bradycardia usually occurs as a response to a reduced demand for blood flowSigns and symptoms might include:Chest pain, shortness of breathHypotension, pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure
13 Ventricular Fibrillation Ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurs as a result of electrical impulses coming from multiple ectopic pacemaker in the ventriclesVF results in no cardiac output as a result of producing no effective ventricular contractionsWith VF the ventricular muscle quivers instead of contracting
15 Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a result of 3 or more ventricular contractions occur earlier than expected resulting in a ventricular rate of >10 beats/minuteVT usually preceeds VFCauses of VT include myocardial ischemia, heart failure, drug toxicity from procainamide, quinidine, or cocainePulseless VT refers to the fact that the heart has electrical activity but is not pumping blood to the extremities
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