2 Historical Background 1.Early history:1) In 1542, Christopher Columbus found the new continent called America.2) In 1607, Captain John Smith led some Englishmen across the ocean.3) In 1620, 102 passengers sailed on the ship Mayflower across the sea and settled on the new continent “New England”.What do you know about American early history?
3 Historical Background 2. People:native inhabitants: IndiansImmigrants mostly from Europe: Spanish; Dutch; FrenchEnglish immigrants, Jamestown, Virginia, 1607a group of religious peoplePuritansadvocated religious &moral principles
4 Historical Background 3. Belief---PuritanismPuritans wanted to “purify the church” to its original state, because they thought the church was corrupted and had too many ritualsa code of values a philosophy of life a point of viewCalviniststook roots in the New World
5 Doctrines of Puritans taking religion as the most important thing; living for glorifying God;believing predestination, original sin, total depravi, & limited atonement
6 American Puritanism Features of American Puritan idealist dream they would build the new land to an Eden on earth.more practical, tougherthe severe conditionsstruggle for survivalpreoccupied with business and profits
7 went into the making of American literature American PuritanismEnduring shaping influence on literature①Basis of American literaturewent into the making of American literaturedreamed of living under a perfect order worked with courage hoped to build an Eden of Garden on earth faced the worst of life with optimismAll literature is based on a myth – garden of Eden.
8 American Puritanism②Contributing to the development of Symbolism: a technique, widely usedSymbolism means using symbols in literary works. The symbol means something that represents or stands for abstract deep meaning.Puritans thought that all the simple objects existing in the world connoted deep meaning.
9 American Puritanism③Influencing the style of literature: simple, fresh and direct (just as the style of the Authorized Version of Holy Bible)Without understanding of Puritanism, there can be no good understanding of American culture and literature.
10 Brief Outline of American Literature 1. Colonial period and Revolutionary period5. After the WWII4. The Modern period2.Romanticism3.The age of Realism
11 Colonial period and Revolutionary period Time:the settlement of North America1607the Independence War1783Major topic:American Puritanism
12 Colonial period and Revolutionary period Jonathan EdwardsBenjamin Franklin
13 Romanticism Time: the Independence War 1783 possible & inevitable the Civil War1861American ideal of democracy & equality, industrialization, westward expansion, foreign influencesliterary expansion & expression
14 Romanticism ( )Washington IrvingJames Fenimore Cooper
15 Summit of Romanticism-Transcendentalism (American Renaissance) Henry DavidThoreauRalph Waldo Emerson
16 Late Romanticismnot optimisticNathaniel HawthorneHerman Melville
22 ConclusionIrving Franklin Cooper Emerson Hawthorne Poe Whitman Dickenson Twain James Dreiser Melville ThoreauColonial period and Revolutionary periodEarly RomanticismpoetsTranscendentalismLate RomanticismThe age of Realism