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1 Alterations of Digestive Function in Children Chapter 40
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 2 Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Cleft lip and cleft palate are developmental anomalies of the first brachial arch Both disorders are caused by multiple gene- environment interactions Maternal alcohol and tobacco use, maternal diabetes mellitus, and variations in the transforming growth factor- alpha gene These factors reduce the amount of neural crest mesenchyme that migrates into the area that will develop into the face of the embryo
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 3 Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Cleft lip Caused by the incomplete fusion of the nasomedial or intermaxillary process during the second month of development Commonly occurs under one lip, but the defect can be bilateral and symmetric or asymmetric
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 4 Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Cleft palate Commonly associated with cleft lip, but can occur without it Results from an incomplete fusion of the primary palatal shelves during the third month of gestation Infant feeding difficulties and upper respiratory infections are associated with cleft palate
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 5 Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 6 Esophageal Malformations Esophageal atresia Condition in which the esophagus ends in a blind pouch Tracheoesophageal fistula Abnormal connection between the trachea and the esophagus Various forms
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 7 Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 8 Pyloric Stenosis Obstruction of the pylorus because of hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter muscle More frequent in full-term and Down babies Increased risk with high levels of gastric secretion in the mother and a genetic predisposition
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 9 Pyloric Stenosis Child begins projectile vomiting (3-4 feet) at 2 to 3 weeks of age Vomiting causes weight loss, electrolyte imbalances, and dehydration On examination, the hypertrophic pylorus is palpable in the RUQ Surgery and fluid administration are often necessary for treatment
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 10 Malrotation During embryonic development, the developing ileum and cecum normally rotate, so the cecum is in the right lower quadrant and fixed to the abdomen by the mesentery Malrotation Condition in which normal rotation does not occur Periduodenal band The malrotated intestine can easily twist due to a poor connection
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 11 Meconium Ileus Meconium is a substance that fills the intestine before birth Meconium is a collection of intestinal gland secretions and amniotic fluid A meconium ileus is a meconium-caused intestinal obstruction in a newborn Usually caused by a lack of digestive enzymes during fetal life Common in CF newborns (10%-15%) Usually treated with hyperosmolar enemas done using fluoroscopy
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 12 Distal Intestinal Obstruction Syndrome Fomerly called meconium ileus equivalent With the syndrome, intestinal contents become abnormally thick and impact the intestinal lumen Impactions frequently occur after periods of dehydration and lack of pancreatic enzymes
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 13 Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon Also referred to as Hirschsprung disease Caused by the failure of the parasympathetic nervous system to form intramural ganglion cells in the enteric nerve plexuses The aganglionic section of colon is immotile and an obstruction will likely occur The intestinal segment proximal to the segment lacking ganglion cells is dilated and hypertrophied
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 14 Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 15 Anorectal Malformations Anal or rectal agenesis, atresia, and fistula 40% of infants born with anorectal malformations have other developmental anomalies Down syndrome, congenital heart disease, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, esophageal atresia, spine malformations
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 16 Anorectal Malformations
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 17 Intussusception Intussusception is a telescoping or invagination of one part of the intestine to another, which causes an obstruction of the intestine The most common scenario is the ileum invaginating into the cecum 80% to 90% of intestinal obstructions in infants and children are intussusception Similar to megacolon, the blockage can cause an obstruction of blood and lymphatic flow
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 18 Intussusception
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 19 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Related to dilation of the esophagus and reflux of stomach contents In newborns, reflux is normal because neuromuscular control of the gastroesophageal sphincter is not fully developed Newborns with GERD vomit excessively
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 20 Cystic Fibrosis Autosomal recessive disease that involves many organs In the digestive tract it causes a deficiency of pancreatic enzymes Triad Pancreatic enzyme deficiency Overproduction of mucus in the respiratory tract Abnormally elevated sodium and chloride concentrations
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 21 Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy (Celiac Disease) Gluten is the protein component in cereal grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats, malt) The patient loses villous epithelium in the intestinal tract. Gluten protein acts as a toxin. The disease appears to be caused by dietary, genetic, and immunologic factors
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 22 Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy (Celiac Disease) Children will fail to grow and thrive. Patients will also exhibit malabsorption symptoms (rickets, bleeding, or anemia) Confirmation is done by performing a tissue biopsy The patient is put on a restrictive diet, and vitamin D, iron, and folic acid supplements are given Celiac crisis results in severe diarrhea, dehydration, malabsorption, and protein loss
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 23 Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy (Celiac Disease)
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 24 Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Both are types of malnutrition associated with long- term starvation Kwashiorkor and marasmus are known collectively as protein energy malnutrition (PEM) Kwashiorkor is a severe protein deficiency Marasmus is a deficiency of all nutrients Stunted physical and mental development of children
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 25 Kwashiorkor and Marasmus In kwashiorkor, the lack of proteins causes the liver to swell due to the inability to produce lipoproteins for cholesterol synthesis In marasmus, liver function still continues, but the overall caloric intake is too low to support cellular protein synthesis The presence of subcutaneous fat, hepatomegaly, and a fatty liver (kwashiorkor) differentiates kwashiorkor from marasmus
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 26 Failure to Thrive (FTT) Failure to thrive characterized by inadequate physical development of an infant or child Deceleration in weight gain, low weight/height ratio, or low weight/height/head circumference ratio Organic FTT Inorganic FTT
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 27 Necrotizing Enterocolitis Most common gastrointestinal emergency of the newborn The cause of necrotizing enterocolitis is thought to be reduced mucosal blood flow Ischemia leads to inflammation and necrosis of the intestinal segments Contributing factors Infections, immature immunity, maternal age >35 years, perinatal stress, and the effects of medications and feeding practices
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 28 Diarrhea Prolonged diarrhea in children is very dangerous Children have lower fluid reserves than adults Infant diarrhea Infectious diarrhea Acute diarrhea Rotavirus Chronic diarrhea
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 29 Primary Lactose Intolerance The inability to digest milk sugar It is caused by the inadequate production of lactase, the enzyme that catabolizes lactose Malabsorbed lactose causes osmotic diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and flatulence
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 30 Physiologic Jaundice of the Newborn A benign, transient icterus that occurs during the first week of life in otherwise healthy, full-term infants Mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia Kernicterus Usually treated by phototherapy
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 31 Biliary Atresia Congenital malformation characterized by the absence or obstruction of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts Plugging, inflammation, and fibrosis of the bile canaliculi, and extrahepatic biliary tree Jaundice is the primary clinical manifestation
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 32 Biliary Atresia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 33 Hepatitis Hepatitis A One third of hepatitis A infections occur in children Hepatitis B 90% of newborns infected with hepatitis B from their mothers develop chronic hepatitis and become carriers Hepatitis C Associated primarily with blood transfusions Chronic hepatitis
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 34 Cirrhosis Chronic liver diseases in children can progress to cirrhosis, but it is infrequent The complications for cirrhosis in children are the same as adults Children may also experience growth failure, nutritional deficits, and developmental delay
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 35 Portal Hypertension Extrahepatic portal hypertension Intrahepatic portal hypertension Splenomegaly Hepatic encephalopathy
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 36 Wilson Disease Autosomal recessive defect of copper metabolism; causes toxic levels of copper to accumulate in the liver, brain, kidneys, and corneas Abnormalities Diminished biliary excretion Failure to insert copper in to ceruloplasmin
Alterations of Digestive Function in Children Chapter 40 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Alterations of the Digestive Function in Children.
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