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FOOD DETERIORATION AND FOOD SAFETY 1.CHEMICAL 2.ENZYMATIC 3.PHYSICAL 4. MICROBIOLOGICAL A. THE GOOD B. THE BAD C. AND THE UGLY.

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Presentation on theme: "FOOD DETERIORATION AND FOOD SAFETY 1.CHEMICAL 2.ENZYMATIC 3.PHYSICAL 4. MICROBIOLOGICAL A. THE GOOD B. THE BAD C. AND THE UGLY."— Presentation transcript:

1 FOOD DETERIORATION AND FOOD SAFETY 1.CHEMICAL 2.ENZYMATIC 3.PHYSICAL 4. MICROBIOLOGICAL A. THE GOOD B. THE BAD C. AND THE UGLY

2 FOOD SPOILAGE – PROCESS THAT MAKES FOOD INEDIBLE FOOD FERMENTATION – PROCESS THAT CHANGES THE FOODS SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS AND INCREASES THE SHELF–LIFE OF THE ORIGINAL FOOD

3 FOOD BORNE ILLNESS – INFECTIONS OR POISONING DUE TO THESE MICROORGANISMS MICROORGANISMS – SMALL ORGANISMS INVISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE.

4 MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH IS DEPENDENT UPON SEVERAL FACTORS. 1. pH – MEASURE OF ACIDITY ACIDIC ALKALINE GROWTH BETTER NEAR NEUTRALITY

5 2. MOISTURE CONTENT – Aw MEASURE OF FREE WATER. MORE DRY <1.00(MAX) GROW BETTER NEAR TEMPERATURE – MOST ORGANISMS GROW BEST AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES (60 0 – 80 0 F)

6 4. PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF OXYGEN WITH O 2 – AEROBIC. WITHOUT O 2 – ANAEROBIC.

7 TYPES 1. BACTERIA – A VARIETY OF UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS THAT GROW UNDER A VARIETY OF CONDITIONS TYPICALLY FAST GROWERS UNDER THE RIGHT CONDITIONS.

8 NOT ALL ARE SPOILAGE AND DISEASE ORGANISMS i.e. FERMENTATION DISEASE PRODUCING ORGANISMS TYPICALLY MORE SENSITIVE TO ADVERSE GROWTH CONDITIONS

9 WIDE VARIETY 1. SOME BACTERIA GROW AT: REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURES (PSYCHROPHILES) 45 0 F (7.2 0 C) TO 86 0 F (30 0 C); PSYCHROTROPHS

10 SOME BACTERIA GROW AT (cont.): ROOM TEMPERATURE (MESOPHILES); 68 0 F (20 0 C) – F ( C) HIGHER TEMPERATURES (THERMOPHILES;113 0 C – C)

11 2. SOME FORM SPORES THAT CAN SURVIVE ADVERSE CONDITIONS 3. SOME CAN GROW IN HIGH ACID FOODS

12 FOOD INFECTIONS INGESTED BACTERIA CAUSING ILLNESS

13 FOOD INFECTIONS 1. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS – FORMS SPORES AND ANAEROBIC. SYMPTOMS: DIARRHEA, ABDOMINAL PAIN, HEADACHE, 8 TO 24 HRS INCUBATION. SOURCES: MEATS AND GRAVIES. PREVENTION: PROPER COOLING OF FOOD.

14 2. E.COLI – ALL TYPES OF FOOD. AVOID PRACTICES WHICH CAN CONTAMINATE FOOD. DIARRHEA, VOMITING. 18–24 HRS. RENAL FAILURE IN CHILDREN (0157:H7). PROPER COOKING OF GROUND BEEF, APPLE CIDER, PREVENTION OF CROSS CONTAMINATION (RAW FOOD AND FOOD HANDLERS).

15 3. SALMONELLA – SALMONELLOSIS SYMPTOMS: DIARRHEA, ABDOMINAL CRAMPS, VOMITING, FEVER. CAN LAST TWO OR THREE DAYS. INCUBATION, 12 TO 36 HRS. SOURCES: EGGS (2.6–7%) AND MEATS (30% POULTRY ESTIMATED). MILK. CARRIERS (REMEMBER TYPHOID MARY).

16 PREVENTION: REFRIGERATION, PROPER FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES, AVOID FOOD CONTACT WITH PESTS. HEATING FOODS (POULTRY, STUFFING, ETC.) TO AT LEAST F ( C). PASTEURIZE EGGS F (60 0 C) FOR 3–4 MIN. PRIOR TO FREEZING OR DRYING. COOK ALL EGGS (WHITES AND YOLKS SHOULD BE SOLID: USDA). SALMONELLA–FREE PETS. GOOD PERSONAL HYGIENE.

17 4. LISTERIA – (LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES) WIDELY DISTRIBUTED IN NATURE. GROWS AT REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURES ONLY 100 TO 1000 CELLS REQUIRED.

18 (LISTERIA cont.) SYMPTOMS: WIDE VARIETY OF ILLNESSES, 1 DAY TO WEEKS AFTER INGESTION. MILD FLU–LIKE FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE. ELDERLY, PREGNANT WOMEN, INFANTS, IMMUNOCOMPRIOMISED: MENINGITIS, MISCARRIAGE, PERINATAL SEPTICEMIA.

19 (LISTERIA cont.) SOURCES: COLESLAW, RAW MILK, SOFT CHEESE ($66 MILLION), SEAFOOD, MEATS. PREVENTION: ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION, PROPER PASTEURIZATION, CHLORINATED WATER, CONTROL AIRFLOW THROUGH PLANTS. USDA INSPECTION/REPORTING PROGRAM.

20 5. CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI. SYMPTOMS: IN 2–5 DAYS NAUSEA, CRAMS, HEADACHE, DIARRHEA FEVER: COMPLICATIONS MENINGITIS, SYSTEMIC INFECTION

21 (CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI cont.) SOURCES: FECAL MATERIAL, RAW MILK, EGGS, POULTRY, MEAT, CAKE ICING. PREVENTION: THROUGH COOKING AND PROPER HANDLING OF RAW PRODUCTS. CAN'T GROW <30 0 C

22 6. YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITIA. - GROWS AT REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURES. SYMPTOMS: 1–2 DAYS DIARRHEA, FEVER, and SEVERE ABDOMINAL PAIN IN LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT (SIMILAR TO APPENDICITIS)

23 SOURCES: WIDELY DISTRIBUTED IN NATURE. MILK CONTAMINATED BY CHOCOLATE SYRUP AFTER PASTEURIZATION, CONTAMINATED SPRING WATER, AND MEAT. PREVENTION: PASTEURIZATION, WATER TREATMENT (CHLORINATE), ACIDIFY FOODS 5%.

24 FOOD POISONINGS (INTOXICATIONS) INGESTED TOXIN LEFT IN FOOD BY ORGANISM.

25 1. BOTULISM – CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. FORMS SPORES AND ANAEROBIC. TYPE A, B, AND E AFFECT HUMANS. TYPE E CAN GROW AT REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURES [38 0 F (3.3 0 C)] ANTITOXIN TREATMENT AVAILABLE. INFANT BOTULISM NOT CONSIDERED A FOODBORNE DISEASE.

26 SYMPTOMS: NEUROTOXIN CAUSING MUSCLE PARALYSIS AND DEATH. INABILITY TO TALK, DIFFICULTY IN SWALLOWING, DOUBLE VISION, NAUSEA, VOMITING, DIARRHEA, CONSTIPATION IN EARLY STAGES. SYMPTOMS START 12 – 36 HRS AFTER EATING. DEATH IN AROUND 7 DAYS (20% NOW; TURN OF THE CENTURY – 50 TO 60%).

27 SOURCE: SEEN TYPICALLY IN LOW ACID (LOW ACID) HOME CANNED FOODS (pH > 4.5), SALMON, TUNA, MUSHROOMS, POTATO SOUP, BEEF STEW, UNREFRIGERATED BAKED POTATOES, GARLIC IN OIL, AND SOME SMOKED FISH.

28 PREVENTION: CAN LOW ACID FOODS PROPERLY (HIGH TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE), ACIDIFY, COOK SUSPECTED FOODS PROPERLY [212 0 F(100 0 C)]. STORE FISH BELOW 38 0 F.

29 2. STAPHYLOCCOCAL – STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TOXIN IS HEAT STABLE (WITHSTANDS BOILING 20–60 MINUTES. GROWS 44 0 F (6.7 0 C) F ( C)

30 SYMPTOMS: VOMITING AND DIARRHEA FROM 1 TO 6 HRS AFTER EATING. SOURCES: HAM (SALT TOLERANT –10%; HAMS USUALLY 2–3% SALT), CREAM OR CUSTARD FILLED BAKED PRODUCTS, POTATO SALAD, HUMANS (40%) NASAL PASSAGES, WOUNDS, COWS WITH MASTITIS, 1989 CHINESE CANNED MUSHROOMS.

31 PREVENTION: PROPER HANDLING PRACTICES, REFRIGERATION BELOW 4 0 F (4.4 0 C), ELIMINATE MILK FROM COWS WITH MASTITIS FROM HUMAN CONSUMPTION.

32 3. BACILLUS CEREUS – SPORE FORMER SYMPTOMS: ABDOMINAL CRAMPS, WATERY DIARRHEA, SOME VOMITING. SOURCES: IMPROPERLY COOLED FOODS, HOLDING TEMPERATURES AND IMPROPERLY REHEATED FOODS (RICE) PREVENTION: PROPER COOLING AND RE-HEATING [165 0 F ( C)].

33 MISCELLANEOUS OTHERS: TUBERCULOSIS – CORYNEBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS (UNDULANT FEVER) RAW MILK. VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS – FOUND IN OCEANS. REQUIRES 24% SALT. WITH OR WITHOUT OXYGEN OPTIMUM 86–104 0 F ( C)

34 SYMPTOMS: 15–17 HOURS AFTER INGESTION. DURATION 1–2 DAYS ABDOMINAL PAIN, NAUSEA, VOMITING WITH DIARRHEA, OCCASIONAL BLOOD AND MUCUS IN FECES. FEVER (1–2 0 F IN 60-70% OF THE CASES).

35 SOURCES: RAW FISH, MOLLUSKS AND SHELLFISH. PREVENTION: COOKING, SANITATION, ABSTAIN FROM EATING RAW SQUID, OCTOPUS, CLAMS AND OYSTERS IN JULY, AUGUST, SEPTEMBER OR TIMES THAT COASTAL WATERS ARE WARM.

36 DISEASES FROM OTHER MICROORGANISMS 1. TRICHINOSIS – ROUNDWORM SYMPTOMS: NAUSEA, VOMITING, DIARRHEA IN 1–4 DAYS IF HIGH DOSE. IF LOW DOSE NO SYMPTOMS UNTIL 7TH DAY. LARVAE CAN MIGRATE FROM THE INTESTINES INTO MUSCLES CAUSING HIGH FEVER [104 0 F(40 0 C] AND SWELLING.

37 SOURCE: TYPICALLY TRANSMITTED THROUGH EATING PORK,(BEAR, PORK/DEER, UNDER COOKED SAUSAGE) PREVENTION: COOK PORK TO INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF AT LEAST 137 F ( C), NO PINK COLOR,(NATIONAL LIVESTOCK AND MEAT BOARD – 77 0 C (170 0 F), FRESH FROZEN PORK 52 0 F (–15 TO C) FOR A PERIOD OF 6–30 DAYS, ETC., CONTROL AND COOK FEED GIVEN TO HOGS.

38 2. HEPATITIS TYPE A – VIRUS. CONTROL BY PROPER HANDLING PRACTICES. NORWALK VIRUS – VOMITING

39 YEAST 1. LARGER THAN BACTERIA 2. MORE ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGICALLY 3. CAN GROW UNDER MORE ADVERSE CONDITIONS 4. TYPICALLY SPOILAGE OR FERMENTATIVE ORGANISMS 5. VERY HEAT SENSITIVE

40 MOLDS 1. ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGICALLY – CAN BE MULTICELLULAR 2. PRODUCE SPORES THAT ARE LESS HEAT RESISTANT THAN BACTERIAL SPORES 3. NEED OXYGEN TO GROW

41 MOLDS (cont.) 4. CAN GROW UNDER THE MOST ADVERSE CONDITIONS – SLOW GROWTH 5. CAN BE SPOILAGE OR PATHOGENIC OR DESIRABLE (BLUE CHEESE) – TOXIN PRODUCTION (MYCOTOXINS)

42 AFLATOXIN – MOLD POISONING PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS TYPICALLY FOUND ON CEREAL GRAINS AT THE PROPER MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE – CORN – PEANUTS

43 AFLATOXIN (cont.) FATAL AT LARGE DOSES, TYPICALLY LIVER DAMAGE. CARCINOGENIC AT LOW DOSES YEAST AND MOLD INHIBITORS PROPIONATES, PHOSPHATES, SORBATES

44 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS CONTROL 1. PERSONNEL STANDARDS – HAND WASHING – HEALTHY – HAIR COVERING, GLOVES – CLOTHING

45 2. INGREDIENT CONTROL (SENSITIVE) – PRODUCTS FROM ANIMALS – SPICES – PRODUCTS THAT ARE IN CONTACT WITH THE SOIL

46 3. PLANT CLEANNESS CLEAN: REMOVE POTENTIAL FOOD AND HIDING PLACES FOR MICROORGANISMS AND PLACES FOR VECTORS SANITIZE: KILL MOST OR ALL OF THE ORGANISMS ON SURFACES

47 4. PLANT AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN – PREVENT POTENTIAL PLACES FOR MICROBIAL GROWTH AND MICROBIAL VECTORS. 5. FOODS MUST BE PROPERLY REFRIGERATED.

48 6. FOODS MUST BE ADEQUATELY PROCESSED AND PROTECTED FROM RECONTAMINATION (CROSS–CONTAMINATION). 7. THE MANAGEMENT MUST STRESS PRODUCT SAFETY AND QUALITY.

49 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHFs) Foods that contains in whole or in part of the following: –Milk or milk products –Shell eggs –Meats –Poultry –Fish

50 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHFs) –Shellfish –Edible crustaceans (shrimp, lobster, etc.) –Baked or boiled potatoes –Tofu or other soy products including textured soy proteins –Plant foods that have been treated (beans)

51 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHFs) –Raw seed sprouts –Sliced melons –Unpasteurized fruit juices (apple)

52 FOOD SAFETY – YOU DONT WANT A RECALL Regulatory agencies can issue public warnings. Recalls and seizures are not uncommon. They occur at a rate of about 400/year. It is one of the major responsibilities of all food processors to produce safe and wholesome food for the consuming public.

53 Procedures to Help Reduce Food-borne Illnesses Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCPs) Management Support

54 Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 110 Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding Human Food (CGMP or GMP) See Appendix 1 for more detailed examples.

55 Good Manufacturing Practices Personal Hygiene Quality Raw ingredients Sanitary Storage Processing Packaging Areas

56 Outside the Plant Parking and roads paved and graded to drain. Building constructed to prevent pest entry.

57 Receiving Truck dock entries constructed to prevent bird nests other pests from entering plant. Trucks clean inside, good condition, and tightly constructed and refrigerated if appropriate.

58 Processing Time-temperature, pH, a w processing controls maintained in good condition and calibrated regularly with records retained. Proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and surrounding areas. Cleaning supplies stored in a separate area.

59 Packaging Good sanitation and housekeeping in the area. Cleanliness of packaging equipment. Packaging materials protected from contamination. Metal detectors in place.

60 FOOD SAFETY – YOU DONT WANT A RECALL Regulatory agencies can issue public warnings. Recalls and seizures are not uncommon. They occur at a rate of about 400/year. It is one of the major responsibilities of all food processors to produce safe and wholesome food for the consuming public.

61 Procedures to Help Reduce Food-borne Illnesses Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCPs) Management Support

62 Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 110 Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding Human Food (CGMP or GMP) See Appendix 1 for more detailed examples.

63 Good Manufacturing Practices Personal Hygiene Quality Raw ingredients Sanitary Storage Processing Packaging Areas

64 Outside the Plant Parking and roads paved and graded to drain. Building constructed to prevent pest entry.

65 Receiving Truck dock entries constructed to prevent bird nests other pests from entering plant. Trucks clean inside, good condition, and tightly constructed and refrigerated if appropriate.

66 Processing Time-temperature, pH, a w processing controls maintained in good condition and calibrated regularly with records retained. Proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and surrounding areas. Cleaning supplies stored in a separate area.

67 Packaging Good sanitation and housekeeping in the area. Cleanliness of packaging equipment. Packaging materials protected from contamination. Metal detectors in place.

68 Food Product Storage Clean storage area with good housekeeping. Rotation control (First In First Out) Temperature and humidity control. Rodent and insect control. Protect food packages against physical, chemical and microbial contamination and package deterioration.

69 Personnel and Training A worker with a health problem that could contaminate food or food equipment shall be excluded from working with food. Wash hand thoroughly prior to contact with food or sanitized equipment. Protect food against contamination from hair, perspiration, objects, cosmetics, tobacco, chemicals and medicines applied to the skin. Appropriate training and evaluation

70 Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) Sanitation SOPs are important and useful for the following reasons: Outline proper procedures. Train personnel. Provide consistency. Document what is being done.

71 HACCP & FOOD SAFETY Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Prevention Programs Consists of seven steps Application to the Soyfood Industry (encouraged) Soymilk Tofu

72 HACCP & FOOD SAFETY The Basis of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOPs)

73 Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points Systems (HACCP) Assessing the hazards –Sensitive ingredients (products from animals, spices, products that are in contact with the soil) Determine the critical control points (CCPs)

74 Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points Systems (HACCP) Establish procedures to monitor CCPS. Establish the control limits for each CCP Establish corrective action to be taken if a deviation is identified at a CCP.

75 Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points Systems (HACCP) Establish effective record-keeping systems that document the HACCP plan. Establish procedures for verification that the HACCP system is working correctly.

76 Fitting HACCP into the Company QA System Specifications - Very complete all safety, quality criteria and the CCPs. Safety analysis - Hazard Analysis - Basis for establishing CCPs Purchase requirements - Approved suppliers – ingredients and equipment. H H. Bauman Cereal Foods World 36: H H. Bauman Cereal Foods World 36:

77 Application of HACCP to Soymilk and Tofu Manufacturing Raw Materials Heat Processes Packaging Storage

78 Application of HACCP HACCP systems should focus on particulars –Each production line for each product in each plant Developing and validating a HACCP plan must be at the plant site. Generic HACCP systems can not be mandated by Federal Agencies and be expected to be effective.

79

80 HACCP & FOOD SAFETY Food Safety –Recalls and Loss of Consumer Confidence –Recent Interest in Food Safety –Soyfoods and Food Safety

81 HACCP & FOOD SAFETY The Basis of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) –Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) –Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) –Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOPs)

82 HACCP & FOOD SAFETY Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) –What it can or can not do –The seven steps (general) –Application to the Soyfood Industry Soymilk Tofu

83 FOOD SAFETY – YOU DONT WANT A RECALL Regulatory agencies can issue public warnings. Recalls and seizures are not uncommon. They occur at a rate of about 400 / year. It is one of the major responsibilities of all food processors to produce safe and wholesome food for the consuming public.

84 Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 110 CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD (CGMP or GMP) –Outside the Plant –Receiving –Storage –Processing –Packaging –Food Product Storage –Personnel and Training

85 Good Manufacturing Practices Personal Hygiene Quality Raw Ingredients Sanitary Storage, Processing and Packaging Areas Sanitary Processing and Packaging Equipment Food Quality Equipment Process Control

86 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS CONTROL Personnel Standards –Hand Washing –Healthy –Hair Covering, Gloves –Clothing Ingredient Control (Sensitive) –Products from the Soil or Animals –Spices –Geographic Locations

87 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS CONTROL Plant Cleanliness –Clean: Remove Potential Food And Hiding Places for Microorganisms, and Places for Vectors to Hide. –Sanitize: Kill Most or All of the Organisms on Surfaces.

88 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS CONTROL Plant and Equipment Design –Prevent Potential Places for Microbial Growth and Microbial Vectors –Foods Must Be Properly Refrigerated, Temperature, Small Containers

89 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS CONTROL Foods Must Be Adequately Processed and Protected from Recontamination (Cross- Contamination). The Management Must Stress Product Safety and Quality.

90 Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) Sanitation SOPs are important and useful for the following reasons: –Outline proper procedures. –Train personnel. –Provide consistency. –Document what is being done.

91 HAZARD ANALYSIS & CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS SYSTEMS (HACCP) ASSESSING THE HAZARDS DETERMINE THE CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (CCPs) ESTABLISH THE CONTROL LIMITS FOR EACH CCP. ESTABLISH PROCEDURES TO MONITOR CCPs

92 HAZARD ANALYSIS & CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS SYSTEMS (HACCP) ESTABLISH CORRECTIVE ACTION TO BE TAKEN IF A DEVIATION IS IDENTIFIED AT A CCP. ESTABLISH EFFECTIVE RECORD- KEEPING SYSTEMS THAT DOCUMENTTHE HACCP PLAN ESTABLISH PROCEDURES FOR VERIFICATION THAT THE HACCP SYSTEM ISWORKING CORRECTLY.

93 FITTING HACCP INTO THE COMPANY QA SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS - Very complete all safety, quality criteria and the CCPs. SAFETY ANALYSIS - Hazard Analysis - Basis for establishing CCPs PURCHASE REQUIREMENTS -Approved suppliers – ingredients and equipment. H. Bauman Cereal Foods World 36: H. Bauman Cereal Foods World 36:

94 FITTING HACCP INTO THE COMPANY QA SYSTEM GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMPs) - INCORPORATED PHYSICAL SYSTEMS HAZARD CONTROL (PSHC) RECALL SYSTEM

95 FITTING HACCP INTO THE COMPANY QA SYSTEM FACILITY AUDITING - PERIODIC BASIS. CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS INCIDENT REPORTING

96 OVERVIEW OF MONITORING ACTIVITIES LOT TESTING PRECERTIFICATION AND SPOT TESTING (VERIFICATION) CONTINUOUS RECORDING OF CRITICAL FACTORS

97 OVERVIEW OF MONITORING ACTIVITIES VISUAL INSPECTION OF CCP'S WHERE THIS IS EFFECTIVE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL, OR PHYSICAL TESTING FOR DIRECTOR INDIRECT MONITORING OF CCP


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