3How do brass instruments like a trumpet or tuba produce sound? Vibrating air
4How do woodwind instruments like a clarinet produce sound? Vibrating reed
5How do percussion instruments like drums or a piano produce sound? Vibrating surface
6How do string instruments like a guitar or violin produce sound? Vibrating strings
7Matter can be made of three different things. Name them. Solids, liquids, and gases
8Type of matter too small to be seen. What are molecules?Type of matter too small to be seen.
9What has to happen to make sound travel? (pg. F51) Sound is caused by vibrations. When something vibrates, molecules in the air crowd together, then spread apart, causing sound waves to travel away from the vibrating object.
10Which part of the sound wave has molecules that are tightly packed together? compression
11Which part of the sound wave has molecules that are spread apart? rarefaction
12Can you hear sounds in a vacuum? Why or why not? No. A vacuum is a place where there is no matter.
13How high or low a sound is. What is pitch?How high or low a sound is.
14How can you change the sound that a rubber band makes? Shortening or stretching the rubber band tighter
15How can you change the pitch of your voice? Tightening and relaxing vocal cords
16How can changing the rate of vibration vary the pitch of the sound? Faster vibrations causes higher pitchesSlower vibrations causes lower pitches
17What is an oscilloscope? Makes a “picture” of sound wavesAllows you to compare the waves of sounds that have different pitches
18What is the difference between frequency and pitch? Frequency is the number of times an object vibrates per second.
19How is pitch related to frequency? Higher Frequency=Higher PitchLower Frequency=Lower Pitch
20What is frequency measured in? What is the abbreviation? HertzHz
21A frequency of one vibration per second is equal to __________. 1 Hz
22Sounds too high to be heard by humans, but not by some animals. What is ultrasonic?Sounds too high to be heard by humans, but not by some animals.
23Arrange these organisms (human, bat, dog, and dolphin) in order of range of hearing, from greatest to least.Dolphin, bat, dog, human
24Makes the molecules of gas in the air vibrate. What is a sound wave?Makes the molecules of gas in the air vibrate.
26Who was the first person to record sound? What year? Thomas Alva Edison 1877
27Describe how a microphone works? Diaphragm in microphone vibrates.Then coil of wire vibrates.Electric current is sent to amplifier.
28What are the three steps to record sound? Sound waves are translated into code of 1s and 0s.Tells laser beam where to cut pits into disc’s surfaceLight is reflected onto disc’s surface and changed into sound
29A bouncing of a sound wave off a surface. What is reflection?A bouncing of a sound wave off a surface.
30Name some items that reflect sound. Wall, lockers, door
31Name some items that absorb sound Blankets, towels, sheets
32Name some items that transmit sound. Transmit means make sound.
33What happens when the sound waves disappear? Absorption
34What happens to sound when it hits a hard, smooth surface such as a wall? Reflection
35What happens to sound when it hits a soft, textured surface such as a towel? Absorption
36Do more sound waves bounce from hard, smooth surfaces or soft, textured surfaces?
37What happens when there is too much reflection in a concert hall? Empty, hollow sound
38What happens when there is too much absorption in a concert hall? Deadens the music
39What effect did the billowy gowns and long coats have on the concert hall? Absorbed the sound
40A sound wave reflecting off of something How are echoes made?A sound wave reflecting off of something
41At room temperature, how fast does sound waves travel? 343 meters per second
42Put solids, liquids, and gases in order of the greatest speed of sound waves to the least. Solids, liquids, gases
43Will sound travel faster through air or steel? Why? Steel because sound travels faster through solids than gases
44Summer because sound travels more quickly when temperature increase. Would you hear the same sound from the same distance faster in winter or in the summer? Why?Summer because sound travels more quickly when temperature increase.
45What is sonar?Sound navigation or ranging that uses sound waves to detect objects far away
46How do whales and dolphins use echolocation? Bounce sound waves off objects to find out how far they are away.
47How do bats use echolocation? Use to navigate and catch prey
48How can sound be used to find the depth of the ocean? Sound waves are sent to the ocean floor. The time is measured for the sound waves to return and then calculated.
49Higher Pitch=Increases frequency As an approaching police car comes at you, will the pitch get higher or lower, and will the frequency increase or decrease?Higher Pitch=Increases frequency
50Lower pitch=decreases frequency As the police car moves away from you, will the pitch get higher or lower, and will the frequency increase or decrease?Lower pitch=decreases frequency
51What is the Doppler Effect use for? By cops to detect speeding vehicles
52Describe what quality is. Is what makes a sound different from another sound
53Why is fundamental frequency important in designing buildings? the vibrations build up, which can cause a building to collapse.
54What two things create a sound’s own quality? Fundamental frequency and overtones
55A unique blend of the fundamental frequency and its overtones. What is resonance?A unique blend of the fundamental frequency and its overtones.
56How can resonance cause great damage to buildings and bridges? Resonance can make a building rattle and sway. These buildings could collapse.
57Why are some sounds louder than others? More energy was used to make the sounds.
58What is a medium? Matter that carries sound waves. Sound waves can’t travel without a medium.
59There must be matter to carry it. What is necessary for sound energy to travel from one place to another?There must be matter to carry it.
60Can sound travel in outer space? Why or why not? No, because there is no matter in space to vibrate.
61What does the speed of sound depend on? The medium through which the sound passes
62Does the loudness or pitch of a sound change the speed at which it travels? NO
63Do all animals “hear” in the same way that humans do? No, some only feel vibrations.