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Teacher Efficacy in Zimbabwe: Stamina & Sacrifice Judy K. Dunham, Ph.D. Daniel Songony, Ph.D. 51 st Annual Conference Comparative & International Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher Efficacy in Zimbabwe: Stamina & Sacrifice Judy K. Dunham, Ph.D. Daniel Songony, Ph.D. 51 st Annual Conference Comparative & International Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher Efficacy in Zimbabwe: Stamina & Sacrifice Judy K. Dunham, Ph.D. Daniel Songony, Ph.D. 51 st Annual Conference Comparative & International Education Society Baltimore, MD March 1, 2007

2 Overview Type of Research Background of Zimbabwe Self-efficacy Teacher Efficacy Methods Results Limitations Implications Conclusion

3 Fast Facts Zimbabwe Independence in 1980… –GDP per capita was $600 –Most well-developed economies in Africa During the 1990s… –Became one of 19 WEI* countries –Politically motivated crisis White farms confiscated by government Weakening of economic & political institutions *World Education Indicators – Middle Income Countries

4 Current situation… –GDP $200 –Economy fallen by 2/3 since independence –Food shortages –Near collapse of tourism $700 (2003) to $70 million (2006) –Inflation is nearly 1000% (2006) –HIV/AIDS rate is 24.6% –Life expectancy is 39 years –Child mortality is 29/1,000 In July, 2006…

5 Education Primary enrollment 65-90% Primary to secondary transition 70% Secondary enrollment 24-30% (est.) Literacy in adult population 62.5% UNESCO UIS 2004

6 These political, economic, and societal crises have led to the near collapse of all institutions. Thousands of professionals have left Zimbabwe, yet there are those who remain…. Buckle, 2004; CIA Fact Book 2007; Hill, 2006; International Crisis Group, 2006;Lindow (2006); UNESCO 2007; World Bank, 2006; Zimbabwe: An Opposition Strategy, 2006; Zimbabwe Situation, 2004

7 Self-Efficacy Two Theories –Rotters (1966) Social Learning Theory Internal vs. External Locus of Control –Banduras (1986) Social Cognitive Theory Reciprocal Determinism

8 Beliefs in ones capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments (Bandura, 1986, p.3).

9 Efficacy is Enabling Conviction Estimate Bandura (1977)

10 Expend – Persist - Rebound Woolfolk & Hoy (1990), Tschannen-Moran & Hoy (2001)

11 Teacher Efficacy

12 Benefits of Teacher Efficacy Linked to student achievement Open to new ideas Allow for student autonomy Attention to high needs students Build student self-confidence Set goals Persist when students fail (Hoy & Spero, 2005)

13 Research in countries where teachers experience difficult environmental conditions could reveal additional insights about the construct of teacher efficacy.

14 Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale Long Form Efficacy for Instructional Strategies Efficacy for Classroom Management Efficacy for Student Engagement Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy (2001)

15 OSTES Items How much can you do to get through to the most difficult students? To what extent can you craft good questions for your students? How well can you calm a student who is disruptive or noisy?

16 Subjects 23 educators from 9 rural schools Sanyati West Schools Catchment

17 Results RQ1: What are the levels of teacher efficacy of educators who work in a catchment of rural schools in Sanyati, Zimbabwe? 87.3% of responses in highest 3 levels of 9-point Likert scale (7-9) 10.2% of responses in the mid-levels (6-8) Only 2.5% in lowest 3 levels

18 Means 23/24 items had mean score of 7.0 or above

19 Only 1 item resulted in 1/3 of the responses in low-mid levels

20 RQ2: Are the three primary factors in the OSTES - - instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement – generally found in the responses of American teachers also present in the responses of the Zimbabwean teachers? It was not possible to conduct a factor analysis due to the small sample size. For a factor analysis to be reliable, 300 subjects is recommended. (Tabschnick & Fidell, 2006, cited in Mertler & Vannatta, 2005)

21 RQ3: In this sample of teachers, are there significant differences between the 3 underlying structures generally found in previous research using the OSTES? Means and Standard Deviations for Three Factors FactorsMeanSD Factor 1 Instructional Strategies8.0651.227875 Factor 2 Classroom Management7.983751.500875 Factor 3 Student Engagement7.89251.388875

22 RQ4: Are there significant differences in the level of teacher efficacy for years of experience? Low = 0-5 yrs. Med = 6-12 yrs. High = 13-35 yrs. Analysis of Variance for Years of Experience – ____________________________________________________ SourceSSdfMSF Between Groups228.323 2114.161 Years of Exp228.320 2114.161.594.562 Total 844665.00023 __________________________________________________________

23 Discussion Possibility of cultural bias OSTES measures personal rather than general teaching efficacy OSTES does not include adequate # items related to environment

24 Personal Teaching Efficacy

25 Limitations Sample size Funding Time

26 Implications Conduct confirmatory analysis of the OSTES in Zimbabwe with larger sample of teachers Collect comparative data from another country in sub-Saharan Africa Redesign OSTES to include external, general factors Use qualitative methods to study contextual variables –Resources & facilities (Hoy & Spero, 2005) –Socio-cultural dimensions (Sorrells, Schaller, & Yang, 200) –Culturally-specific teaching responsibilities Ho & Hau (2004)

27 In the world of human thought…the most fruitful concepts are those to which it is impossible to attach a well-defined meaning. Lewis (1991) A Question of Values

28 References Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Buckle, C. (July 5, 2004). School dropout. New Republic, 231(1/2) Retrieved on December 13, 2006, from EBSCOhost. CIA – The World Factbook. (2007). Zimbabwe. Retrieved on February 22, 2007, from Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap…and others dont. New York: HarperBusiness. Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 479-507. Hill, C. W. L. (2006). Global Business Today. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Hinton, P. R., Brownlow, C., McMurray, I., & Cozens, B. (2004). SPSS explained. New York: Routledge. Ho, I. T., & Hau, K. (2004). Austrailian and Chinese teacher efficacy: Similarities and differences in personal instruction, discipline, guidance efficacy and beliefs in external determinants. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 313-323. Hoy, A.W. (2004). What do teachers need to know about self-efficacy? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Eduational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

29 References, cont. Hoy, A. W. & Burke-Spero, R (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teacher and Teacher Education, 21, 343- 356. International Crisis Group. (2006, August, 2). Zimbabwe: An opposition strategy. Retrieved February 22, 2007, from Lindow, Megan. (June 23, 2006). Enemies of the State. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(42). Retrieved on December 13, 2006, from EDSCOhost. Academic Search Premier Mertler, C. A. & Vannatta, R. A. (2005). Advanced and multivariate statistical methods: Practical application and interpretation (3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. Mji, A. & Kiviet, A. M. (2003). Psychometric characteristics of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Inventory in South Africa. Psychological Reports, 92, 325-332. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 22 (3), pp. 307-332. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28. Selaledi, D. K. (1999). Teacher efficacy in the Free State province of South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 19(4), 266-271. Tschannen-Moran, M. & Hoy, A. W (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805. Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202-248.

30 References, cont. Wheatley, K. F. (2005). The case for reconceptualizing teacher efficacy research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 747-766. Woolfolk, A. E., & Hoy, W. K. (1990). Prospective teachers sense of efficacy and beliefs about control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 81-91. World Bank. (2007). Zimbabwe Data Profile. Retrieved February 23, 2007, from Zimbabwe Situation. (2004, May 7). The rise and fall of Zimbabwes schools. BBC News. Message posted to

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