Presentation on theme: "Teacher Efficacy in Zimbabwe: Stamina & Sacrifice"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teacher Efficacy in Zimbabwe: Stamina & Sacrifice Judy K. Dunham, Ph.D.Daniel Song’ony, Ph.D.51st Annual ConferenceComparative & International Education SocietyBaltimore, MDMarch 1, 2007
2 Overview Type of Research Background of Zimbabwe Self-efficacy Teacher EfficacyMethodsResultsLimitationsImplicationsConclusion
3 Fast Facts Zimbabwe Independence in 1980… During the 1990s… GDP per capita was $600Most well-developed economies in AfricaDuring the 1990s…Became one of 19 WEI* countriesPolitically motivated crisisWhite farms confiscated by governmentWeakening of economic & political institutions*World Education Indicators – Middle Income Countries
4 Current situation… In July, 2006… GDP $200 Economy fallen by 2/3 since independenceFood shortagesNear collapse of tourism$700 (2003) to $70 million (2006)Inflation is nearly 1000% (2006)HIV/AIDS rate is 24.6%Life expectancy is 39 yearsChild mortality is 29/1,000In July, 2006…
5 Education Literacy in adult population 62.5% Primary enrollment 65-90% Primary to secondary transition 70%Secondary enrollment 24-30% (est.)Literacy in adult population 62.5%UNESCO UIS 2004
6 These political, economic, and societal crises have led to the near collapse of all institutions. Thousands of professionals have left Zimbabwe, yet there are those who remain….Buckle, 2004; CIA Fact Book 2007; Hill, 2006; International Crisis Group, 2006;Lindow (2006); UNESCO 2007; World Bank, 2006; Zimbabwe: An Opposition Strategy, 2006; Zimbabwe Situation, 2004
7 Self-Efficacy Rotter’s (1966) Social Learning Theory Two TheoriesRotter’s (1966) Social Learning TheoryInternal vs. External Locus of ControlBandura’s (1986) Social Cognitive TheoryReciprocal Determinism
8 “Beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1986, p.3).
9 Efficacy is EnablingConvictionEstimateBandura (1977)
12 Benefits of Teacher Efficacy Linked to student achievementOpen to new ideasAllow for student autonomyAttention to high needs studentsBuild student self-confidenceSet goalsPersist when students fail(Hoy & Spero, 2005)
13 Research in countries where teachers experience difficult environmental conditions could reveal additional insights about the construct of teacher efficacy.
15 OSTES Items How much can you do to get through to the most difficult students?To what extent can you craft good questionsfor your students?How well can you calm a student who is disruptive or noisy?
16 Subjects 23 educators from 9 rural schools Sanyati West Schools Catchment
17 ResultsRQ1: What are the levels of teacher efficacy of educators who work in a catchment of rural schools in Sanyati, Zimbabwe?87.3% of responses in highest 3 levelsof 9-point Likert scale (7-9)10.2% of responses in the mid-levels(6-8)Only 2.5% in lowest 3 levels
18 Means23/24 items had mean score of 7.0 or above
19 Only 1 item resulted in 1/3 of the responses in low-mid levels
20 It was not possible to conduct a factor analysis RQ2: Are the three primary factors in the OSTES - - instructional strategies, classroom management,and student engagement – generally found in the responses of American teachers also present in the responses of the Zimbabwean teachers?It was not possible to conduct a factor analysisdue to the small sample size. For a factoranalysis to be reliable, 300 subjects isrecommended.(Tabschnick & Fidell, 2006, cited in Mertler & Vannatta, 2005)
21 RQ3: In this sample of teachers, are there significant differences between the 3 underlying structures generally found in previous research using the OSTES?Means and Standard Deviations for Three FactorsFactors Mean SDFactor 1Instructional StrategiesFactor 2Classroom ManagementFactor 3Student Engagement
22 RQ4: Are there significant differences in the level of teacher efficacy for years of experience? Low = 0-5 yrs.Med = 6-12 yrs.High = yrs.Analysis of Variance for Years of Experience –____________________________________________________Source SS df MS F Between GroupsYears of ExpTotal__________________________________________________________
23 Discussion Possibility of cultural bias OSTES measures personal rather than general teaching efficacyOSTES does not include adequate # items related to environment
26 Implications Conduct confirmatory analysis of the OSTES in Zimbabwe with larger sample of teachersCollect comparative data from another countryin sub-Saharan AfricaRedesign OSTES to include external, general factorsUse qualitative methods to study contextual variablesResources & facilities (Hoy & Spero, 2005)Socio-cultural dimensions(Sorrells, Schaller, & Yang, 200)Culturally-specific teaching responsibilitiesHo & Hau (2004)
27 “In the world of human thought…the most fruitful concepts are those to which it is impossible to attach a well-defined meaning.”Lewis (1991) A Question of Values
28 ReferencesBandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Buckle, C. (July 5, 2004). School dropout. New Republic, 231(1/2) Retrieved on December 13, 2006, from EBSCOhost.CIA – The World Factbook. (2007). Zimbabwe. Retrieved on February 22, 2007, fromCollins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap…and others don’t. New York: HarperBusiness.Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2),Hill, C. W. L. (2006). Global Business Today. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Hinton, P. R., Brownlow, C., McMurray, I., & Cozens, B. (2004). SPSS explained. New York: Routledge.Ho, I. T., & Hau, K. (2004). Austrailian and Chinese teacher efficacy: Similarities and differences in personal instruction, discipline, guidance efficacy and beliefs in external determinants. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20,Hoy, A.W. (2004). What do teachers need to know about self-efficacy? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Eduational Research Association, San Diego, CA.
29 References, cont.Hoy, A. W. & Burke-Spero, R (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teacher and Teacher Education, 21,International Crisis Group. (2006, August, 2). Zimbabwe: An opposition strategy. Retrieved February 22, 2007, fromLindow, Megan. (June 23, 2006). Enemies of the State. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(42). Retrieved on December 13, 2006, from EDSCOhost. Academic Search PremierMertler, C. A. & Vannatta, R. A. (2005). Advanced and multivariate statistical methods: Practical application and interpretation (3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.Mji, A. & Kiviet, A. M. (2003). Psychometric characteristics of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Inventory in South Africa. Psychological Reports, 92,Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 22 (3), ppRotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28.Selaledi, D. K. (1999). Teacher efficacy in the Free State province of South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 19(4),Tschannen-Moran, M. & Hoy, A. W (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17,Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2),
30 References, cont.Wheatley, K. F. (2005). The case for reconceptualizing teacher efficacy research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21,Woolfolk, A. E., & Hoy, W. K. (1990). Prospective teachers’ sense of efficacy and beliefs about control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82,World Bank. (2007). Zimbabwe Data Profile. Retrieved February 23, 2007, fromZimbabwe Situation. (2004, May 7). The rise and fall of Zimbabwe’s schools. BBC News. Message posted to