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The Stone Age SOL 8.2.

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Presentation on theme: "The Stone Age SOL 8.2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Stone Age SOL 8.2

2 Objectives 1. Define archeologists along with methods for analyzing past culture 2.  Choose the proper routes of early human migrations from beginnings to places reached 3. Identify characteristics for the Paleolithic Era 4. Identify characteristics for the Neolithic Era 5. Identify specific archeological sites including their locations

3 Section 1- Paleolithic Age
Discovery of Early Humans in Africa

4 Study of History History began with the invention of writing- 5,500 years ago Time period before writing developed- Prehistory Human beings and the humanlike creatures that preceded them belonged to the hominids

5 1.1 Study of History Archaeologists investigate prehistoric life by unearthing and interpreting the objects left behind by prehistoric people Artifacts are objects that were shaped by human hands- tools, pots, and beads

6 1.1 How do we know all this? Archaeologists apply scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils and artifacts. Culture=WAY OF LIFE Includes knowledge people have, language they speak, ways they eat and dress, religious beliefs, achievement in art and music

7 1.1 Methods to Study History
Problems arise in assigning a definite age to fossil bones, tools, and other remains Radiocarbon Dating- used for organic matter that is less than 50,000 years old Researchers can date older remains- up to 26 billion years ago

8 Divisions of the Stone Age
Historians have divided the Stone Age into 3 different period. 1. Paleolithic Age – Old Stone Age Lasted from 2 million BCE to around 8,000 BCE. 2. Mesolithic Age – Middle Stone Age Lasted from 8,000 BCE to 6,000 BCE. 3. Neolithic Age – New Stone Age Lasted from 6,000 BCE to 3,500 BCE. First “humans” appeared 2,000,000 years ago.

9 1.2 Paleolithic Era to the Agricultural Revolution
Homo Sapiens emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago. Homo Sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas.

10 According to the map, which continent did humans reach last?


12 Discovery of Lucy Donald C. Johnson and Tom Gray uncovered the 3.2 million year old skeleton of a hominid nicknamed “Lucy” Hers was the most nearly complete skeleton of any erect-walking pre-human found up to that time 1994- assembled first almost complete skull of Lucy- proving that males and females were different sizes Replica of Lucy

13 Early Humans Homo habilis- person with ability
Homo= human (Latin) Scientists divided homo into three groups that arose at different times in pre-history Homo habilis- person with ability Homo erectus- person who walks upright Homo sapiens- person who thinks

14 What do you think is a simple tool?
1.3 Paleolithic Era Early humans were hunters and gatherers whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals. These people were nomadic – they migrated from place to place in search of food, water, and shelter. They invented the first tools and simple weapons from stone. Learned how to make fire What do you think is a simple tool?

15 Prehistoric Tools



18 Why would oral language be important in the development of early man?
1.3 Paleolithic Era Lived in clans Clans are small groups of people who join together for a purpose. In the case of early humans, it was survival. Developed oral language. Created “cave art”. Why would oral language be important in the development of early man?





23 Cro-Magnon Neanderthals
People who lived about 230,000 years ago at the end of the Paleolithic Age. Made tools and used tusks to create needles to sew “clothing”. Had strong family ties and even buried their dead. Cro-Magnon were people who lived about 38,000 years ago. They replaced Neanderthals. With Cro-Magnon, technology improved.

24 Cro-Magnon Modern Homo Sapiens

25 Section 2- Neolithic Age
The Appearance of Homo Sapiens

26 1.4 Neolithic Age 6,000 – 3,500 BCE Neolithic Revolution= Development of Agriculture Learned how to plant seeds and grow food. Agriculture freed people from hunting and gathering and “towns” began to form and grow. The beginning of settled agriculture was a major step in the advance of civilization.

27 1.4 Neolithic Age Raised and domesticated animals Used advanced tools
Made pottery Developed weaving skills First wheels and axels were used. First forms of government were established. To protect themselves and food supplies.

28 Bronze Age The discovery of copper about 4,000 BCE changed the New Stone Age. Copper is better than stone, but very soft. Copper mixed with tin forms bronze Harder and more durable. Tool making moved from stone to bronze to iron. Smelting – removing metal from ore. Allowed for more metals for tools and weapons



31 1.5 First Villages Villages began to develop where soil was fertile and water abundant Jericho- modern Israel West Bank- 8,000 BCE Aleppo- example of modern city in Fertile Crescent Çatalhoyük- Turkey- 7,000-6,300 BCE Largest Neolithic village that has been discovered Çatal Hüyük Excavation site

32 1.5 Stonehenge Example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic Age and completed during the Bronze Age. From study of these archaeological sites we have learned about the Stone Age.






38 Name two ways that archaeologists work to study past cultures…
1. Locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts 2. Applying scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils and artifacts

39 What is one example of an archaeological site found in England
What is one example of an archaeological site found in England? What was this site’s time period? 1. Stonehenge 2. Stonehenge was begun during the Neolithic period and completed during the Bronze Age

40 Questions for Understanding
1. What was a most important step in the advancement of civilization during the Neolithic Era? Permanent settlements that included agriculture and the domestication of animals 2. In what era was fire discovered? The Paleolithic Era

41 Questions for Understanding
3. The first use of advanced tools was a part of what era? The Neolithic Era 4. What is Eurasia? Asia and Europe together make up Eurasia. They are both separate continents though.

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