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Discovery consists of looking at the same thing as everyone else and thinking something different. A.Szent-Gyorgyi.

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Presentation on theme: "Discovery consists of looking at the same thing as everyone else and thinking something different. A.Szent-Gyorgyi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovery consists of looking at the same thing as everyone else and thinking something different. A.Szent-Gyorgyi

2 What do people want? What are we preparing people for To learn the skills necessary to get: To learn the skills necessary to get: Meaningful Day Activities (Jobs) Meaningful Day Activities (Jobs) To Live with People They Want (Housing) To Live with People They Want (Housing) To Be Able to Get Around (Transportation) To Be Able to Get Around (Transportation) Lots of Friends (Social Capital) Lots of Friends (Social Capital)

3 How have we done? 75% of people w/disabilities are unemployed or underemployed or idle 75% of people w/disabilities are unemployed or underemployed or idle Only 7% own their own home (as compared to 71% of typical adults) Only 7% own their own home (as compared to 71% of typical adults) Most communities have no or very limited public transportation options Most communities have no or very limited public transportation options Average Social Capital for people w/ disabilities is about 30 (150 is typical) Average Social Capital for people w/ disabilities is about 30 (150 is typical)

4 Why Havent We Done Better? How Can We Do Better?

5 We Use A Flawed Paradigm

6 Paradigms A paradigm is a set of rules and regulations that: 1) Defines boundaries 2) Tells you what to do to be successful within those boundaries Joel Barker

7 History of Paradigms Moral Era – punishment from God Moral Era – punishment from God Economic Era – productivity/value Economic Era – productivity/value Institutional Era – medical exclusion Institutional Era – medical exclusion

8 Medical/Clinical Paradigm Looks at deficits or deficiencies Looks at deficits or deficiencies Separates and congregates Separates and congregates Relies on Experts to make decisions Relies on Experts to make decisions Attempts to fix the person Attempts to fix the person

9 Detailed Medical Paradigm The person is the problem The person is the problem The problem is in the person The problem is in the person The person is labeled The person is labeled The label leads to separation The label leads to separation The experts do an assessment The experts do an assessment The person gets a treatment plan The person gets a treatment plan The program attempts to fix the problem The program attempts to fix the problem

10 Difference Model Identifies and highlights the difference Identifies and highlights the difference The difference is identified in stereotypes The difference is identified in stereotypes The stereotypes separates the person The stereotypes separates the person The person is then avoided/stigmatized The person is then avoided/stigmatized

11 Effects of Difference Person is Misunderstood Person is Misunderstood Person is Avoided Person is Avoided Person is Not Welcomed Person is Not Welcomed Person is Banned Person is Banned Person is Banished Person is Banished Person is Isolated Person is Isolated Person Dies Sooner Person Dies Sooner

12 IS THIS AS GOOD AS IT GETS?

13 Destiny is not a matter of chance, it is a matter of choice W.J. Bryan

14 The Magic Wand If you could wish for 3 things for yourself or someone you love, what would they be?

15 Quality of Life Indicators Healthfulness Healthfulness Happiness Happiness Longevity Longevity

16 Research Shows Healthfulness Healthfulness Happiness Happiness Longevity Longevity ARE ALL TIED TO SOCIAL CAPITAL ARE ALL TIED TO SOCIAL CAPITAL

17 Research Also Shows That Social Capital is related to: People getting jobs People getting jobs People finding others to live with People finding others to live with People finding rides/transportation People finding rides/transportation People being more tolerant, respectful, kind, helpful and the like People being more tolerant, respectful, kind, helpful and the like That pro-social behaviors increase That pro-social behaviors increase

18 What is Social Capital? It is nothing more than relationships and friendships that people have in their lives It is nothing more than relationships and friendships that people have in their lives It leads to people being more tolerant, cooperative and reciprocal It leads to people being more tolerant, cooperative and reciprocal It leads to people resolving problems more easily It leads to people resolving problems more easily It enhances physiological/psychological functioning It enhances physiological/psychological functioning

19 Why is Social Capital Important? Benefits and potential have interested researchers from a variety of backgrounds and perspectives Education Health Social capital is a universal concept, its benefits and potential affect EVERYONE Social capital is a universal concept, its benefits and potential affect EVERYONE

20 Social Capital and Health In a series of carefully controlled experiments, Dr. Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues exposed subjects to a virus known to cause the common cold.

21 Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Hypothesis Hypothesis More social connections will be associated with decreased susceptibility to the common cold More social connections will be associated with decreased susceptibility to the common coldSubjects 125 males; 151 females 125 males; 151 females 18 to 55 years old 18 to 55 years oldData Health/medical data and historys Health/medical data and historys Measures of social networks Measures of social networks Demographic Info Demographic Info S. Cohen, W.J. Dolye, D.P. Skoner, B.S. Rabin, and J.M. Gwaltney. (1997) Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. JAMA, 277 (24) )

22 Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Method Initial data (mentioned above) collected during first visit Initial data (mentioned above) collected during first visit Subject returned and where quarantined for 1 week Subject returned and where quarantined for 1 week Exposed to a rhinovirus nasal twice during the first 24 hours Exposed to a rhinovirus nasal twice during the first 24 hours Nasal secretion and blood samples taken periodically Nasal secretion and blood samples taken periodically Observed for signs and symptoms of cold Observed for signs and symptoms of cold S. Cohen, W.J. Dolye, D.P. Skoner, B.S. Rabin, and J.M. Gwaltney. (1997) Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. JAMA, 277 (24) )

23 Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Results People who participate in more types of social relationships have less susceptibility to rhinovirus- induced colds. People who participate in more types of social relationships have less susceptibility to rhinovirus- induced colds. Relationship held when controlling for size of social network… indicating it is diversity of network (having multiple types of relationships) that matters not [just] the sheer number of network members Relationship held when controlling for size of social network… indicating it is diversity of network (having multiple types of relationships) that matters not [just] the sheer number of network members S. Cohen, W.J. Dolye, D.P. Skoner, B.S. Rabin, and J.M. Gwaltney. (1997) Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. JAMA, 277 (24) )

24 Social Capital and Education Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital James Coleman Both social capital in the family and social capital outside it, in the adult community surrounding the school showed evidence of considerable value in reducing the probability of dropping out (pg. 119) Both social capital in the family and social capital outside it, in the adult community surrounding the school showed evidence of considerable value in reducing the probability of dropping out (pg. 119)

25 Social Capital and Education In a recent study of social capital and achievement in urban public schools, Leana and Pil (2006) found that students mathematic and reading scores were influenced by: Relations among teachers (internal/bonding social capital), and Relations between the principal and the community stakeholders (external/bridging social capital)

26 Simply Stated The more social capital you have, the healthier you are, the happier you are, the longer you live and the better the outcomes are in your life.

27 To think is to differ C. Darrow

28 Building Social Capital We need to stop thinking clinically and focus our attention on the community We need to stop thinking clinically and focus our attention on the community We must understand how community operates We must understand how community operates We must find ways to reverse institutionalization and the medical model We must find ways to reverse institutionalization and the medical model We must listen to people and allow them to decide We must listen to people and allow them to decide We must help people build social capital We must help people build social capital

29 Social problems stem not from individual differences or deficits, but from the failure of society to meet the needs of all its members L. Gutierez

30 Community Community is a network of different people who come together on a regular basis for some common cause or celebration Community is a network of different people who come together on a regular basis for some common cause or celebration Key Ingredients of Community are: Key Ingredients of Community are:CommonalityDifferenceRegularity

31 Similarities vs. Differences When people first meet they are drawn by their similarities, but differences can (and do) push us apart. What mitigates this struggle are two critical ingredients: Regularity/Frequency of exchange Regularity/Frequency of exchange More Similarity that people find More Similarity that people find

32

33 Sociogram Measures the relationships in your life People you see and know People you see and know People you know and do things with People you know and do things with People you love and care deeply for People you love and care deeply for Most people have about 150 people

34 Building Social Capital Identify our key areas of interest Identify our key areas of interest Find the matching group or community Find the matching group or community Understand how communities behave Understand how communities behave Finding a gatekeeper to acceptance Finding a gatekeeper to acceptance

35 The Gatekeeper Someone already in the community who has some influence or authority over the other members. They can have formal or informal influence, and can affect how people react to new things in either positive or negative ways.

36 Research on Gatekeepers They tend to be positive people They tend to be positive people They reach out to people They reach out to people They are willing to take risks They are willing to take risks They are usually flexible They are usually flexible Often they are right brain thinkers Often they are right brain thinkers More often than naught they are female More often than naught they are female

37 Magic of Community When Similarities Override Differences

38 He who would be a leader, let him first become a bridge.

39 The Bridgebuilder An old man going a lone highway, came at the evening cold and gray, to a chasm vast deep and wide; the old man crossed in the twilight dim, the sullen stream held no fear for him, but he turned when safe on the other side and built a bridge to span the tide.

40 Old man said a fellow pilgrim near, you are wasting your time with building here, you never again will pass this way, your journey will end with the close of the day, you have crossed the chasm deep and wide, why build you this bridge at even tide?

41 The builder lifted his old gray head. Good friend, in the way that Ive come, he said. There follows after me this day, a youth whose feet must pass this way. This stream which has been nothing to me, to the fair haired youth might a pitfall be. Yes he too must cross in the twilight dim; Good friend, I am building this bridge – for him.

42 We must become the change we wish to create. Gandhi

43 In a new sense, all life is interrelated. All persons are caught up in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied to a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. I can never be what I ought to be, and you can never be what you ought to be, until I am what I ought to be. This is the interrelated structure of reality. Martin Luther King, Jr.

44 References Berkman, L. F., & Kawachi, I.K., Ed. (2000). Social Epidemiology. New York, Okford University Press, Inc. Berkman, L. F., & Kawachi, I.K., Ed. (2000). Social Epidemiology. New York, Okford University Press, Inc. Cohen, S., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., Rabin, B.S., & Gwaltney, J.M. (1997). "Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold." JAMA 277(24): Cohen, S., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., Rabin, B.S., & Gwaltney, J.M. (1997). "Social Ties and Susceptibility to the Common Cold." JAMA 277(24): Condeluci, A. (2002). Cultural Shifting. St. Augustine, FL, Training Resource Network, Inc. Condeluci, A. (2002). Cultural Shifting. St. Augustine, FL, Training Resource Network, Inc. Condeluci, A., Burke, K., Gooden-Ledbetter, M., Evans McGuirk, M.A. & Ortman, D. (2004). Together is Better: A guide to fostering community inclusion for individuals with disabilities.. Pittsburgh, UCP Press. Condeluci, A., Burke, K., Gooden-Ledbetter, M., Evans McGuirk, M.A. & Ortman, D. (2004). Together is Better: A guide to fostering community inclusion for individuals with disabilities.. Pittsburgh, UCP Press. Coleman, J.C., (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. The American Journal of Sociology 94: Coleman, J.C., (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. The American Journal of Sociology 94: Halpern, D. (2005). Social Capital. Malden, MA, Polity Press Halpern, D. (2005). Social Capital. Malden, MA, Polity Press Leana, C. R., & Pil, F.K. (2006). "Social Capital and Organizational Performance: Evidence from Urban Public Schools." Organization Science 17(3): Leana, C. R., & Pil, F.K. (2006). "Social Capital and Organizational Performance: Evidence from Urban Public Schools." Organization Science 17(3):

45 UCP of Pittsburgh/CLASS Dr. Al Condeluci, PhD. Jeffrey Fromknecht 4638 Centre Avenue Pittsburgh, PA x fax


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