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English Language Development Summary of comments from the ELD Panel Linda Espinosa, Ph.D. Dina C. Castro, Ph.D. Judith K. Bernhard, Ph.D. California Preschool.

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Presentation on theme: "English Language Development Summary of comments from the ELD Panel Linda Espinosa, Ph.D. Dina C. Castro, Ph.D. Judith K. Bernhard, Ph.D. California Preschool."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Language Development Summary of comments from the ELD Panel Linda Espinosa, Ph.D. Dina C. Castro, Ph.D. Judith K. Bernhard, Ph.D. California Preschool Instructional Network March 28, 2007 Costa Mesa, California

2 What Does the Research Say About Language and Literacy for Young Dual Language Learners? By Linda M. Espinosa, Ph.D. University of Missouri-Columbia CPIN Research Panel, March 28, 2007

3 At birth: ALL infants have the innate capacity to learn more than 1 language: …what we see in the crib is the greatest mind that has ever existed, the most powerful learning machine in the universe. …The crumpled ears take a buzz of incomprehensible noise and flawlessly turn it into meaningful language. The wide eyes that sometimes seem to peer into your very soul actually do just that, deciphering your deepest feelings. The downy head surrounds a brain that is forming millions of new connections every day. That, at least, is what thirty years of scientific research have told us. At birth: ALL infants have the innate capacity to learn more than 1 language: …what we see in the crib is the greatest mind that has ever existed, the most powerful learning machine in the universe. …The crumpled ears take a buzz of incomprehensible noise and flawlessly turn it into meaningful language. The wide eyes that sometimes seem to peer into your very soul actually do just that, deciphering your deepest feelings. The downy head surrounds a brain that is forming millions of new connections every day. That, at least, is what thirty years of scientific research have told us. Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. N., & Kuhl, P. K. (2000). The scientist in the crib: What early learning tells us about the mind.

4 Evidence Debunks Myth! Learning a second language will confuse infants, toddlers, and preschoolers Learning a second language will confuse infants, toddlers, and preschoolers More and earlier immersion in the second language (L2) is the best way to acquire English More and earlier immersion in the second language (L2) is the best way to acquire English

5 Who are our Dual Language/English Learners? Children whose home language is not English are considered English Learners Children whose home language is not English are considered English Learners Also linguistic minority students and linguistically diverse Also linguistic minority students and linguistically diverse : 28% children in Head Start did not speak English as their home language; 2006 >30% : 28% children in Head Start did not speak English as their home language; 2006 >30% Of these, vast majority are from Spanish-speaking homes (>80%) with 139 other language groups also reported. Of these, vast majority are from Spanish-speaking homes (>80%) with 139 other language groups also reported. ~25% births (2006) are Hispanic~75% use Spanish at home; 34% of children (0-5) in poverty are Latino ~25% births (2006) are Hispanic~75% use Spanish at home; 34% of children (0-5) in poverty are Latino Most are Sequential Second Language Learners Most are Sequential Second Language Learners

6 Sequential Second Language Learners Children who begin to learn an additional language after the first language is established (1-2 years old).

7 What do we know? ELL children are at-risk for school failure ELL children are at-risk for school failure Early bilingualism confers cognitive/linguistic advantages Early bilingualism confers cognitive/linguistic advantages Home language (non-English) fragile Home language (non-English) fragile Instruction in native language promotes higher achievement in English Instruction in native language promotes higher achievement in English Many preschool programs are limited by staffing, materials, testing policies, state regulations Many preschool programs are limited by staffing, materials, testing policies, state regulations

8 Recommended Practices Include: Supports for Home Language Supports for Home Language Rich Linguistic Environment; High Quality Instruction Rich Linguistic Environment; High Quality Instruction Second Language (English) Acquisition for Bilingualism Second Language (English) Acquisition for Bilingualism

9 Early Language & Literacy of Preschool English Learners: The Nuestros Niño's Program Dina C. Castro, Ph.D. FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-Chapel Hill

10 Characteristics of High Quality Early Education Programs for Preschool English Learners Teacher characteristics Teacher characteristics Curriculum Curriculum Classroom environment Classroom environment Family involvement Family involvement

11 Principles of Nuestros Niño's Program Diversity is inherent in all aspects of teaching young children. Diversity is inherent in all aspects of teaching young children. Family involvement builds cultural and linguistic continuity and consistency in the early language and literacy teaching of English learners. Family involvement builds cultural and linguistic continuity and consistency in the early language and literacy teaching of English learners. Social interaction fosters childrens motivation and ability to use language and literacy in fulfilling and productive ways. Social interaction fosters childrens motivation and ability to use language and literacy in fulfilling and productive ways.

12 Remember that teaching needs to be intentional. Remember that teaching needs to be intentional. Provide as many possibilities as possible for active participation. Provide as many possibilities as possible for active participation. Assessment is an ongoing process. Assessment is an ongoing process. Adapted from Neuman, S. B. (1998). How can we enable all children to achieve? In S. B. Neuman & K. Roskos (Eds.), Children achieving: Best practices in early literacy (pp. 5-19). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Adapted from Neuman, S. B. (1998). How can we enable all children to achieve? In S. B. Neuman & K. Roskos (Eds.), Children achieving: Best practices in early literacy (pp. 5-19). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

13 Reading Aloud to Preschool English learners

14 Why Read Aloud? Reading aloud is one of the key activities to promote literacy development in young children. Reading aloud is one of the key activities to promote literacy development in young children. It can also promote understanding and respect for values and experiences of children and families from diverse backgrounds. It can also promote understanding and respect for values and experiences of children and families from diverse backgrounds. Research evidence supports the idea of using the childrens home language when reading stories to young English learners (Hancock, 2002). Research evidence supports the idea of using the childrens home language when reading stories to young English learners (Hancock, 2002).

15 Why Read Aloud? (continued) It supports components of oral language: It supports components of oral language: Phonology Pronunciation of sounds Phonology Pronunciation of sounds Syntax Grammatical structures Syntax Grammatical structures VocabularyNew words and meanings VocabularyNew words and meanings Decontextualized language Language of books Decontextualized language Language of books And early literacy: And early literacy: Print knowledge Handling of books Print knowledge Handling of books Phonological awareness Attending to the sounds of language Phonological awareness Attending to the sounds of language Alphabetic knowledge Letter identification Alphabetic knowledge Letter identification

16 How To Read Aloud How to read aloud is as important as how frequently the teacher reads to the children How to read aloud is as important as how frequently the teacher reads to the children Teachers reading style can have an effect on childrens language skills (Dickinson & Smith, 1994) Teachers reading style can have an effect on childrens language skills (Dickinson & Smith, 1994) When reading to English learners, maximize childrens opportunities to comprehend text When reading to English learners, maximize childrens opportunities to comprehend text

17 How to Read Aloud: Before Reading Identify core vocabulary and chunks of language Identify core vocabulary and chunks of language Plan how to present the book to a class that includes English learners: Plan how to present the book to a class that includes English learners: Picture walk Picture walk Props (puppets, toys), flannel board Props (puppets, toys), flannel board Use of centers Use of centers Practice reading the book using props and other visual aids Practice reading the book using props and other visual aids Read the story in childrens home language Read the story in childrens home language

18 How To Read Aloud: During reading Hold book in a way that children can see text and illustrations Hold book in a way that children can see text and illustrations Use dramatic abilities to make the story come alive. Use dramatic abilities to make the story come alive. Use gestures and props as scaffolds to aid comprehension Use gestures and props as scaffolds to aid comprehension

19 How to Read Aloud: During Reading Promote childrens participation (Whitehurst, 2004): Promote childrens participation (Whitehurst, 2004): Ask questions about the story. Ask questions about the story. Rephrase and expand childrens responses Rephrase and expand childrens responses Analyze childrens responses to determine understanding of story Analyze childrens responses to determine understanding of story Pause at the end of a sentence, leave a blank and ask children to fill in the missing piece. Pause at the end of a sentence, leave a blank and ask children to fill in the missing piece. For English learners, responses will depend on phase of second language acquisition. For English learners, responses will depend on phase of second language acquisition.

20 How To Read Aloud: After Reading Talk about the story Talk about the story Re-read the story Re-read the story Implement extension activities: book bags, dramatization of the story, art activities Implement extension activities: book bags, dramatization of the story, art activities Use graphic organizers: story road maps Use graphic organizers: story road maps Ask children to repeat rhyming words, finding words that begin with a specific letter, identify long and short words Ask children to repeat rhyming words, finding words that begin with a specific letter, identify long and short words Create letter and word identification games Create letter and word identification games

21 Removing Barriers & Improving Outcomes for ELL Children Judith K. Bernhard, Ph.D. Program Director MA program in Early Childhood Studies Ryerson University California Preschool Instructional Network March 28, 2007

22 Start with yourself Tell a story about yourself: Who you are, where you come from? Who gave you the confidence that you could be a good learner? Describe a smart, imaginative, and creative child you know. What are key word descriptors?

23 Goal: Find practical, effective, research-based strategies to support young EL children Canadian Parenting Circles Canadian Parenting Circles The Early Authors Program The Early Authors Program

24 Who were the participants? Parents of young children Parents of young children Parents whose home language is Spanish – only 1/5 spoke the language of their childrens school Parents whose home language is Spanish – only 1/5 spoke the language of their childrens school Newcomers to Canada Newcomers to Canada 90% had incomes below the Low- Income cut-off 90% had incomes below the Low- Income cut-off

25 Impacts of migration on parenting Promoting childrens social development Supporting readiness for school Building relationships with child care and schools Overview of school systems School behavior policies Childrens rights and child protection Special education What topics did the workshops address?

26 Full report of evaluation pdf/hoen_fullreport.pdf Executive summary pdf/hoen_reportexec.pdf What were the outcomes?

27 What did we learn? Participants had limited support for their parenting. Participants had limited support for their parenting. Extended families left behind Extended families left behind ¼ were single parents ¼ were single parents Nearly ½ reported no help with their children Nearly ½ reported no help with their children Few opportunities to talk about parenting issues Few opportunities to talk about parenting issues

28 How can we enhance our relationships with newcomers? Learn more about the history, geography, and cultures of the world Learn more about the history, geography, and cultures of the world Recognize the difficulties experienced by all newcomers Recognize the difficulties experienced by all newcomers Adapt teaching methods to suit individual children Adapt teaching methods to suit individual children Reach out to newcomer parents Reach out to newcomer parents

29 The Early Authors Program: Transformation Through the Creation of Identity Texts bilingual1.html bilingual1.html

30 Identity texts Students see themselves in their identity texts Students see themselves in their identity texts Once produced, these texts hold a mirror up to the student in which his or her identity is reflected back in a positive light. Once produced, these texts hold a mirror up to the student in which his or her identity is reflected back in a positive light. Develop affective bond to literacy Develop affective bond to literacy Increased cognitive engagement Increased cognitive engagement

31 Miami-Dade Munroe County 3,282 books authored

32 Miami Dade Poverty Miami-Dade County is the most populated county in the state of Florida (2.2 million). Represents 13% of Florida's total population. 20% of all Florida's children under six years of age live in poverty. 50% of Floridas adults with incomes below poverty levels cannot read at an 8th grade level.

33 Personnel Equipment for each home/center Computer Printer Digital camera Laminating machine Training Assessment and documentation of results Materials and Support That Programs Received:

34 And also… Singing songs in childrens home language Using childrens oral folklore Promoting childrens interaction with print materials Reading to and with the children

35 Conclusion Even in an English-medium instructional context, teachers can create an environment that acknowledges, communicates respect for, and promotes linguistic and cultural capital.

36 Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning – A Resource Guide California Department of Education 2007

37 Recommended Early Literacy Practices Providing children many opportunities to listen and speak gives the children an important foundation for reading and writing. Providing children many opportunities to listen and speak gives the children an important foundation for reading and writing. Koralek and Collins, 1997 Koralek and Collins, 1997

38 The benefits of creating positive and meaningful language and literacy experiences in English and the home language for young bilingual children are far-reaching. The benefits of creating positive and meaningful language and literacy experiences in English and the home language for young bilingual children are far-reaching.

39 Writing as a Part of Early Literacy Opportunities to write, together with opportunities to read is another important strategy for encouraging second-language learners. Opportunities to write, together with opportunities to read is another important strategy for encouraging second-language learners.

40 Making Stories Come Alive A key literacy practice for instructing English learners is to provide multiple ways for children to revisit the same text in other areas of the classroom or in other activities. A key literacy practice for instructing English learners is to provide multiple ways for children to revisit the same text in other areas of the classroom or in other activities.

41 Literacy Strategies for English Learners with Special Needs Introduce language and literacy experience through concrete, multi-sensory approaches Introduce language and literacy experience through concrete, multi-sensory approaches Short books with limited vocabulary can be of benefit Short books with limited vocabulary can be of benefit Children with Down syndrome benefit from sight- word recognition games along with attention to phonological awareness, Children with Down syndrome benefit from sight- word recognition games along with attention to phonological awareness, vocabulary development vocabulary development and comprehension. and comprehension. (Al Otaiba and Hosp 2004)(Al Otaiba and Hosp 2004)

42 Children With Mild to Moderate Disabilities Can Benefit from a Literacy Program that: Exposes children to letters, concepts of print and basic phonological awareness skills Exposes children to letters, concepts of print and basic phonological awareness skills Engages children and teachers in extended conversations Engages children and teachers in extended conversations Provides a flexible application of comprehension strategies Provides a flexible application of comprehension strategies Offers children opportunities to look through or be read a variety of books and stories. Offers children opportunities to look through or be read a variety of books and stories. Palinscar and Klenk 1992; Ruiz, Vargas and Beltran 2002Palinscar and Klenk 1992; Ruiz, Vargas and Beltran 2002

43 References Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement and the National Institute for Literacy Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read. Washington, D.C.: Partnership for Reading. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement and the National Institute for Literacy Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read. Washington, D.C.: Partnership for Reading. Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children A joint position statement of the International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. The Reading Teacher, Vol. 52, No. 2, Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children A joint position statement of the International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. The Reading Teacher, Vol. 52, No. 2,

44 References (continued) Lindholm-Leary, K Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual language Acquisition. Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Lindholm-Leary, K Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual language Acquisition. Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Report of the National Reading Panel Teaching Children to Read. Rockville, Md.: NICHD Clearinghouse. Telephone y.cfm Report of the National Reading Panel Teaching Children to Read. Rockville, Md.: NICHD Clearinghouse. Telephone y.cfm y.cfm y.cfm


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