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The United States.

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1 The United States

2 Colonial History Earliest inhabitants arrived at least 14,000 years ago from Asia. Europeans began arriving 500 years ago: first Spanish, then English and French.

3 Colonial History In the early 1600’s the British set up 13 colonies along North America’s east coast A colony is a territory controlled by people from another land Other early settlers included Dutch and Germans Around 1619 Europeans began bringing enslaved Africans to the colonies Traveling overland was difficult in early colonies Water transportation was the colonists’ main link to the outside world

4 Colonial History Nearly all colonial settlements were ports located on natural harbors or navigable rivers New settlers migrated by sea to growing coastal towns and inland trading posts on rivers American colonies had regional economies Southern colonies had climates and soils that were excellent for farming tobacco and cotton Northern colonies had less fertile land and farming was less productive The northern colonies became centers for trade, shipbuilding, and fishing Forests were very important for shipbuilding

5 Early colonies Late 1500s, Europeans came to North America and settled along the east coast. They came primarily from Spain, England, and France. French came primarily for the fur trade and traveled along the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers. British settled along the Atlantic Coast and Hudson Bay North ~ rocky soil, so they depended on fishing, shipbuilding, and trade. Middle ~ fertile soil so they grew cash crops. South ~ open land which led to the development of plantations that used slave labor. Spanish in Florida and a large area west of the Mississippi. Brought Catholicism with them to convert the natives. Set up farms and cattle ranches.

6 Gaining Independence from the Colonies
The thirteen colonies started to become unhappy with how they were being treated by the British Eventually the American colonists revolted against the British and successfully gained their independence

7 Independence and Westward Expansion
After independence, the United States set up a federal system of government Under the U.S. federal system power is divided between national, state, and local governments Power rest with the people During the 1800’s many Americans and immigrants moved westward in search of more and better farmland By 1830, settlers had crossed the Mississippi River and settled as far south as Texas

8 Westward Expansion Some moved to California around 1848 when gold was discovered Few people settled in the deserts and mountains of the western U.S. or in the plains between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River By the mid 1800’s the country stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean In order to promote living in the west the government sold land cheap However, westward expansion caused conflicts between American Indians and the new settlers.

9 Economic Development By the 1830 the northeastern U.S. was industrializing, while the south’s economy was based on crops like tobacco and cotton Farmers grew these crops on plantations or large farms that produce one major crops Many southern plantations used the labor of enslaved Africans Expansion, slavery, and the different types of economies eventually led to the Civil War

10 The Civil War The war lasted from 1861 to 1865
The Civil War ended with the defeat of the confederate states The federal government then moved to end slavery throughout the country

11 Improvements in Technology
After the Civil War, improvements in technology encouraged rapid westward migration Transcontinental Railroad completed in 1869 Allowed people and goods to move across the country Railroads also allowed major cities to develop far from navigable waterways New Agricultural machinery helped farms produce more food using fewer people Irrigation and better plows allowed farmers to grow crops in the Great American Desert Allowed people to move to place that were once thought not livable

12 Development of Industries
The development of Industries attracted more people to the country’s growing cities Some came from rural areas but the majority were immigrants mostly from Europe Most European immigrants settled in Industrial cities of the Northeast By 1920 more Americans lived in cities rather than rural areas

13 The 1900’s In the 1900’s the United States experienced major social, economic, and technological change World War I (1917 and 1918) Great Depression (1930’s) World War II ( ) Ever since the World War II the U.S. has been one of the richest and most powerful countries in the world. After World War II the Cold War began When the Soviet Union has collapsed in 1991 they have had friendlier relations

14 Culture Because of the United States long history of immigration, American culture include traditions, foods, and beliefs from places all over the world Is one the most diverse countries in the world Is known as a cultural melting pot

15 The Arts, Customs, and Traditions
Americans have many different traditions and customs In the arts, American writers, artists, musicians, filmmakers, and sculptors are internationally famous U.S. helped pioneer motion pictures, American movies are shown all over the world The U.S. was one of the first to build skyscrapers The style has now diffused throughout the world

16 Music Many ethnic and cultural groups came to the United States and brought their own musical styles Africans brought the rhythms of Western African music Europeans brought instruments and harmonies from their native lands As African Americans migrated to cities in the early 1900’s the musical traditions of Africans and Europeans blended together to form jazz Other music styles formed in U.S. are: Blues, Rock & Roll, and Rap

17 Holidays Americans celebrate Christmas and Easter, which reflect America’s Christian religious heritage Many American celebrate other religious holidays July 4= Fireworks, cookouts, and other things Many local town celebrate local historical events and personalities

18 Sports Baseball Basketball Football Golf Compete in the Olympics
Baseball and Basketball have diffused throughout the world and helped spread American culture

19 People More than 99 percent of Americans are either immigrants or the descendants of immigrants American Indians make up less than one percent of the population Most Americans are of European descent Britain, Germany, France, and other European countries Twelve Percent of Americans trace their origins to Africa Slightly more people identify themselves as Hispanics Hispanics and Asians are the most rapidly growing part of the population

20 Languages Since colonial times, English has been the main language, but the U.S. has no official language The second most widely spoken language is Spanish, and is particularly common the U.S.- Mexico border Many Spanish speakers are bilingual New Mexico is bilingual Hundreds of other languages are spoken in the U.S, particularly in large cities

21 Religion There are more than 1,200 religious groups in the country
Immigrants introduce many of these religions Other religions were found in the U.S. Christianity is the major religion in the country More than half of all Americans are Protestant Christians Protestant groups include Baptists, Lutherans, and Methodists About 25% of Americans are Roman Catholic Christians About 6 million Jewish Americans live in the U.S.-more than live in Israel Immigration has increased the numbers of people who practice Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam

22 Economy U.S. relies on a global economy.
We have a deficit of around $16 trillion and growing. We borrow money from foreign banks which mean we are not indebted to them. NAFTA is pushing jobs out of the U.S. because of the need for cheap labor.

23 Free Market Economy Allows people the freedom to own, operate, and profit from their own businesses.  Developed nations with a high standard of living. Highly developed infrastructure. Sustained economic growth. Highly urbanized. Highly diversified economy. Abundant service industries High literacy rates. Post-industrial economies focusing on technology and service industries.

24 Manufacturing 20% of economy and workforce.
Midwest produces automobiles. Rust Belt ~ once for heavy industry, but are no longer used. Chicago to New York Services 75% of the workforce ~ biotechnology, high- tech industries.

25 Agriculture 1 billion acres to agriculture.
2% of Americans farm ~ few workers for same reasons as Canada. Cattle are mostly in the western , southern, Midwestern, and north central states because they have the land needed for it. Dairy spread to the south because of the new breeds needing less space. Once the Dairy Belt spread from New York to Minnesota, known as “America’s Dairy land.” Wheat Belt is in the Great Plains. Corn Belt from Nebraska to Ohio.

26 Trade Exports and Imports
The U.S. is second only to the European Union in exports. U.S. exports chemicals, manufactured goods, and raw materials such as cotton, iron ore, and agricultural goods. Trade deficit/surplus The U.S. has a trade deficit because we import more than we export because: High tariffs raise prices Growing population needs resources Industries require energy resources We may have a trade deficit, but look at our GDP, quality of life, and we still have a strong economy.

27 Trade Overall Economic Characteristics
Major exporter of technology, consumer goods, information systems, and foods. Highly developed infrastructures Highly diversified economy. Rich supply of mineral, energy, and forest resources. Multinational corporations. Center of world finance markets (NYSE.) Sustained economic growth. Widening gap between rich and poor. Export of U.S. culture ~ McDonald’s, jean, Coke, music

28 Education Basic Education is free and is required of all citizens
Nearly all children complete elementary school, and more than 80 percent graduate from high school Many go to colleges and universities The U.S. has one of the largest and best systems of education More than 3,000 colleges and universities are located in the country Tens of thousands of students from all over the world come to study at universities in the U.S.

29 Settlement and Land Use
The population of the United States is concentrated in the Northeast, and the first large U.S. cities were located there The majority of the population still lives in the Northeast, however the country’s population has been moving south and west This reflects the decline of the nation industrial region or the Rust Belt Also the warmer areas have attracted more people to the South and the West, known as the Sun Belt Most densely populated region include the urban areas in the Northeast, Midwest, and Pacific Coast Less densely populated regions are rich farmlands and ranch areas of the Midwest and West The smallest populations live in the desert and mountain regions of the west

30 Cultural Landscape of the United States
Golden Gate Bridge (San Francisco, California) Independence Hall (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) St. Louis Gateway Arch (Missouri) Wheat fields of the Great Plains Skyscrapers Shopping malls U.S. Capitol Building (Washington, DC)

31 Regions of The United States
Northeast Midwest South West

32 Northeast Is the smallest most densely populated region in the United States Includes Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Washington D.C. and some consider Virginia Most of the population is concentrated in a urban corridor such as this known as a Megalopolis Megalopolis is a group of cities that have built up into one large area Example Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington D.C. all have roads and railways, and air routes that link these areas

33 Northeast Is the political and financial center and most industrialized region of the U.S. The country’s first industries developed here Early industries used running water from rivers to power machinery and produce textiles, or cloth products Good transportation connections were very important to independent growth in the Northeast In late 1900’s manufacturing in the Northeast declined Cheaper labor in other areas forced factories to close Because of the decline in industry this area became known as the “rust belt”

34 Culture of the Northeast
Is the home of many different cultures and up until the 1960’s most immigrants came from Europe As a result some of these regions have large Greek, Irish, and Italian neighborhoods In recent decades immigrants have came from Latin America and Asia

35 Cities of the Northeast
New York City is the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. More than 20 million people live in the New York area New York’s natural harbor at the mouth of the Hudson River makes it an ideal location for a port and trading center New York is America’s leading center of commerce, banking, advertising, fashion, and media

36 Cities of the Northeast
Boston and Philadelphia date back to colonial times Baltimore is on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, was founded on the fall line Baltimore became a major port because of its rail connections to interior coal mines, steel mills, and farming areas Washington D.C. is unique because it was built to serve as the country’s capital Construction began in late 1700’s Government employment is the largest source of income today, followed by tourism.

37 New York City

38 Statue of Liberty

39 Philadelphia

40 Philadelphia

41 Boston

42 Baltimore

43 Washington D.C. Capitol Building

44 Washington D.C. Washington Monument

45 Washington D.C. White House

46 The Midwest The Midwest is the country’s major farming region and a leading producer of industrial goods The region includes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Missouri The combined population of these states is slightly smaller than the Northeast The Great Lakes and Mississippi River link the major cities of the Midwest to other regions

47 Migration to the Midwest
Settlers moved to the Midwest in the 1800’s when transportation routes developed from the east coast Between 1915 thru 1930 hundreds of thousands African American migrated to cities in the region in order to find work in cities like Chicago and Detroit

48 Agriculture in the Midwest
Most of the land is arable Some areas specialize in certain crops One such region is the “Corn Belt” which stretches from Nebraska to Ohio Within the “Corn Belt” Illinois and Iowa are the country’s leading producers of corn Most of this corn is used to feed livestock such as beef cattle and hogs The U.S is largest exporter of corn in the world Soy beans are another important Corn Belt crop Soy beans are used to make margarine, vegetable oil, and tofu.

49 Agriculture in the Midwest
The “Dairy Belt” is located north of the Corn Belt The Dairy Belt includes Wisconsin and most of Minnesota, and Michigan Wisconsin is known as “America’s Dairyland”- produces more butter and cheese than any other state These products are sold to the rest of the country

50 Cities of the Midwest Chicago is the largest city in the Midwest and third largest U.S. metropolitan area The city has a port on Lake Michigan and is the country’s most important railroad hub Chicago’s O'Hare airport is one of the busiest in the world Other cities along the shores of the Great Lakes are Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, and Toledo These location give cities access to coal from Appalachians and iron ore from upper Michigan Each is a major manufacturing center

51 Cities of the Midwest The twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul are located on the upper Mississippi River Major distribution centers for the agricultural product of the upper Midwest St. Louis, Missouri, is located near the area where the Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois Rivers flow together St. Louis is a major port city known as the gateway to the West

52 The South The region includes Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas Home of 30 percent of country’s population South was mainly rural and agricultural Majority of population lived on farms

53 Changes in the South: shift away from rural farm economy
growth of industry, prompted by low wages, cheap land, laws substantial immigration from Latin America urbanization

54 Cities in the South The Dallas- Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in the region Atlanta, Miami, and New Orleans are also transportation and commercial areas

55 The West The West is the largest and most sparsely populated region in the U.S. About a quarter of the population lives in this area Environmental conditions have played a major role in the history of the West Much of the areas consists of dry plateaus, deserts, and high mountains Early pioneers found the region difficult to travel across and inhospitable to live in. The transcontinental railroad and aqueducts and irrigation systems opened up more areas for settlement and farming

56 The interior West Raising livestock has been a major economic activity in the interior west and is combined with wheat farming The wheat belt stretches across the Dakotas, Montana, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Texas Mining is key economic activity in the Rocky Mountains Today Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah are leading copper- producing states Nevada is leading gold-mining state Tourism is also important for places like Aspen, Colorado and for national parks such as the Grand Canyon in Arizona

57 The Grand Canyon

58 The Pacific States Most people in the West live in the Pacific states.
California is home to some 34 million people, more than any other state Before WWII the economy was based on farming, forestry, and the film industry in Los Angeles During WWII, the growth of military bases began to boost the economy In the late 1900’s the development of computer technologies brought new industries to the Pacific states Many software companies are located in San Francisco Bay and Seattle areas

59 Cities of the West Los Angeles is the largest metropolitan area of the West and the second largest in the country Smog often hangs over the city because of the number of automobiles and factories Other major cities are San Francisco, Seattle, San Diego, Phoenix, and Denver

60 Alaska and Hawaii These states depend heavily on their locations, natural resources, and scenery The U.S. bought Alaska from Russia in 1867 Alaska is largest and least populated state in the US Economy based on fishing but the North Slope oil deposits were discovered Hawaii also became a state in 1959 Hawaii is home to many military facilities Grow crops such as pineapples and sugarcane Tourism is a major industry

61 Environmental issues:
huge energy consumption great waste and pollution population growth and economic development add to problems (e.g., acid rain) fertilizer runoff harms marine life dams and competition for scarce water—key issues in West

62 Natural hazards earthquakes on west coast flooding in many areas
tornadoes in Midwest and South hurricanes along east coast and Gulf of Mexico

63 Cities and Population Changes
shift of population and business from center cities to suburbs some gentrification in inner cities, forcing out low- income residents major impact of immigration on ethnic and cultural mix, notably in West and South

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