2 Colonial HistoryEarliest inhabitants arrived at least 14,000 years ago from Asia.Europeans began arriving 500 years ago: first Spanish, then English and French.
3 Colonial HistoryIn the early 1600’s the British set up 13 colonies along North America’s east coastA colony is a territory controlled by people from another landOther early settlers included Dutch and GermansAround 1619 Europeans began bringing enslaved Africans to the coloniesTraveling overland was difficult in early coloniesWater transportation was the colonists’ main link to the outside world
4 Colonial HistoryNearly all colonial settlements were ports located on natural harbors or navigable riversNew settlers migrated by sea to growing coastal towns and inland trading posts on riversAmerican colonies had regional economiesSouthern colonies had climates and soils that were excellent for farming tobacco and cottonNorthern colonies had less fertile land and farming was less productiveThe northern colonies became centers for trade, shipbuilding, and fishingForests were very important for shipbuilding
5 Early coloniesLate 1500s, Europeans came to North America and settled along the east coast.They came primarily from Spain, England, and France.French came primarily for the fur trade and traveled along the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers.British settled along the Atlantic Coast and Hudson BayNorth ~ rocky soil, so they depended on fishing, shipbuilding, and trade.Middle ~ fertile soil so they grew cash crops.South ~ open land which led to the development of plantations that used slave labor.Spanish in Florida and a large area west of the Mississippi.Brought Catholicism with them to convert the natives.Set up farms and cattle ranches.
6 Gaining Independence from the Colonies The thirteen colonies started to become unhappy with how they were being treated by the BritishEventually the American colonists revolted against the British and successfully gained their independence
7 Independence and Westward Expansion After independence, the United States set up a federal system of governmentUnder the U.S. federal system power is divided between national, state, and local governmentsPower rest with the peopleDuring the 1800’s many Americans and immigrants moved westward in search of more and better farmlandBy 1830, settlers had crossed the Mississippi River and settled as far south as Texas
8 Westward ExpansionSome moved to California around 1848 when gold was discoveredFew people settled in the deserts and mountains of the western U.S. or in the plains between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi RiverBy the mid 1800’s the country stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceanIn order to promote living in the west the government sold land cheapHowever, westward expansion caused conflicts between American Indians and the new settlers.
9 Economic DevelopmentBy the 1830 the northeastern U.S. was industrializing, while the south’s economy was based on crops like tobacco and cottonFarmers grew these crops on plantations or large farms that produce one major cropsMany southern plantations used the labor of enslaved AfricansExpansion, slavery, and the different types of economies eventually led to the Civil War
10 The Civil War The war lasted from 1861 to 1865 The Civil War ended with the defeat of the confederate statesThe federal government then moved to end slavery throughout the country
11 Improvements in Technology After the Civil War, improvements in technology encouraged rapid westward migrationTranscontinental Railroad completed in 1869Allowed people and goods to move across the countryRailroads also allowed major cities to develop far from navigable waterwaysNew Agricultural machinery helped farms produce more food using fewer peopleIrrigation and better plows allowed farmers to grow crops in the Great American DesertAllowed people to move to place that were once thought not livable
12 Development of Industries The development of Industries attracted more people to the country’s growing citiesSome came from rural areas but the majority were immigrants mostly from EuropeMost European immigrants settled in Industrial cities of the NortheastBy 1920 more Americans lived in cities rather than rural areas
13 The 1900’sIn the 1900’s the United States experienced major social, economic, and technological changeWorld War I (1917 and 1918)Great Depression (1930’s)World War II ( )Ever since the World War II the U.S. has been one of the richest and most powerful countries in the world.After World War II the Cold War beganWhen the Soviet Union has collapsed in 1991 they have had friendlier relations
14 CultureBecause of the United States long history of immigration, American culture include traditions, foods, and beliefs from places all over the worldIs one the most diverse countries in the worldIs known as a cultural melting pot
15 The Arts, Customs, and Traditions Americans have many different traditions and customsIn the arts, American writers, artists, musicians, filmmakers, and sculptors are internationally famousU.S. helped pioneer motion pictures, American movies are shown all over the worldThe U.S. was one of the first to build skyscrapersThe style has now diffused throughout the world
16 MusicMany ethnic and cultural groups came to the United States and brought their own musical stylesAfricans brought the rhythms of Western African musicEuropeans brought instruments and harmonies from their native landsAs African Americans migrated to cities in the early 1900’s the musical traditions of Africans and Europeans blended together to form jazzOther music styles formed in U.S. are:Blues, Rock & Roll, and Rap
17 HolidaysAmericans celebrate Christmas and Easter, which reflect America’s Christian religious heritageMany American celebrate other religious holidaysJuly 4= Fireworks, cookouts, and other thingsMany local town celebrate local historical events and personalities
18 Sports Baseball Basketball Football Golf Compete in the Olympics Baseball and Basketball have diffused throughout the world and helped spread American culture
19 PeopleMore than 99 percent of Americans are either immigrants or the descendants of immigrantsAmerican Indians make up less than one percent of the populationMost Americans are of European descentBritain, Germany, France, and other European countriesTwelve Percent of Americans trace their origins to AfricaSlightly more people identify themselves as HispanicsHispanics and Asians are the most rapidly growing part of the population
20 LanguagesSince colonial times, English has been the main language, but the U.S. has no official languageThe second most widely spoken language is Spanish, and is particularly common the U.S.- Mexico borderMany Spanish speakers are bilingualNew Mexico is bilingualHundreds of other languages are spoken in the U.S, particularly in large cities
21 Religion There are more than 1,200 religious groups in the country Immigrants introduce many of these religionsOther religions were found in the U.S.Christianity is the major religion in the countryMore than half of all Americans are Protestant ChristiansProtestant groups include Baptists, Lutherans, and MethodistsAbout 25% of Americans are Roman Catholic ChristiansAbout 6 million Jewish Americans live in the U.S.-more than live in IsraelImmigration has increased the numbers of people who practice Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam
22 Economy U.S. relies on a global economy. We have a deficit of around $16 trillion and growing.We borrow money from foreign banks which mean we are not indebted to them.NAFTA is pushing jobs out of the U.S. because of the need for cheap labor.
23 Free Market EconomyAllows people the freedom to own, operate, and profit from their own businesses. Developed nations with a high standard of living.Highly developed infrastructure.Sustained economic growth.Highly urbanized.Highly diversified economy.Abundant service industriesHigh literacy rates.Post-industrial economies focusing on technology and service industries.
24 Manufacturing 20% of economy and workforce. Midwest produces automobiles.Rust Belt ~ once for heavy industry, but are no longer used. Chicago to New YorkServices 75% of the workforce ~ biotechnology, high- tech industries.
25 Agriculture 1 billion acres to agriculture. 2% of Americans farm ~ few workers for same reasons as Canada.Cattle are mostly in the western , southern, Midwestern, and north central states because they have the land needed for it.Dairy spread to the south because of the new breeds needing less space.Once the Dairy Belt spread from New York to Minnesota, known as “America’s Dairy land.”Wheat Belt is in the Great Plains.Corn Belt from Nebraska to Ohio.
26 Trade Exports and Imports The U.S. is second only to the European Union in exports.U.S. exports chemicals, manufactured goods, and raw materials such as cotton, iron ore, and agricultural goods.Trade deficit/surplusThe U.S. has a trade deficit because we import more than we export because:High tariffs raise pricesGrowing population needs resourcesIndustries require energy resourcesWe may have a trade deficit, but look at our GDP, quality of life, and we still have a strong economy.
27 Trade Overall Economic Characteristics Major exporter of technology, consumer goods, information systems, and foods.Highly developed infrastructuresHighly diversified economy.Rich supply of mineral, energy, and forest resources.Multinational corporations.Center of world finance markets (NYSE.)Sustained economic growth.Widening gap between rich and poor.Export of U.S. culture ~ McDonald’s, jean, Coke, music
28 Education Basic Education is free and is required of all citizens Nearly all children complete elementary school, and more than 80 percent graduate from high schoolMany go to colleges and universitiesThe U.S. has one of the largest and best systems of educationMore than 3,000 colleges and universities are located in the countryTens of thousands of students from all over the world come to study at universities in the U.S.
29 Settlement and Land Use The population of the United States is concentrated in the Northeast, and the first large U.S. cities were located thereThe majority of the population still lives in the Northeast, however the country’s population has been moving south and westThis reflects the decline of the nation industrial region or the Rust BeltAlso the warmer areas have attracted more people to the South and the West, known as the Sun BeltMost densely populated region include the urban areas in the Northeast, Midwest, and Pacific CoastLess densely populated regions are rich farmlands and ranch areas of the Midwest and WestThe smallest populations live in the desert and mountain regions of the west
30 Cultural Landscape of the United States Golden Gate Bridge (San Francisco, California)Independence Hall (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)St. Louis Gateway Arch (Missouri)Wheat fields of the Great PlainsSkyscrapersShopping mallsU.S. Capitol Building (Washington, DC)
31 Regions of The United States NortheastMidwestSouthWest
32 NortheastIs the smallest most densely populated region in the United StatesIncludes Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Washington D.C. and some consider VirginiaMost of the population is concentrated in a urban corridor such as this known as a MegalopolisMegalopolis is a group of cities that have built up into one large areaExample Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington D.C. all have roads and railways, and air routes that link these areas
33 NortheastIs the political and financial center and most industrialized region of the U.S.The country’s first industries developed hereEarly industries used running water from rivers to power machinery and produce textiles, or cloth productsGood transportation connections were very important to independent growth in the NortheastIn late 1900’s manufacturing in the Northeast declinedCheaper labor in other areas forced factories to closeBecause of the decline in industry this area became known as the “rust belt”
34 Culture of the Northeast Is the home of many different cultures and up until the 1960’s most immigrants came from EuropeAs a result some of these regions have large Greek, Irish, and Italian neighborhoodsIn recent decades immigrants have came from Latin America and Asia
35 Cities of the Northeast New York City is the largest metropolitan area in the U.S.More than 20 million people live in the New York areaNew York’s natural harbor at the mouth of the Hudson River makes it an ideal location for a port and trading centerNew York is America’s leading center of commerce, banking, advertising, fashion, and media
36 Cities of the Northeast Boston and Philadelphia date back to colonial timesBaltimore is on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, was founded on the fall lineBaltimore became a major port because of its rail connections to interior coal mines, steel mills, and farming areasWashington D.C. is unique because it was built to serve as the country’s capitalConstruction began in late 1700’sGovernment employment is the largest source of income today, followed by tourism.
46 The MidwestThe Midwest is the country’s major farming region and a leading producer of industrial goodsThe region includes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and MissouriThe combined population of these states is slightly smaller than the NortheastThe Great Lakes and Mississippi River link the major cities of the Midwest to other regions
47 Migration to the Midwest Settlers moved to the Midwest in the 1800’s when transportation routes developed from the east coastBetween 1915 thru 1930 hundreds of thousands African American migrated to cities in the region in order to find work in cities like Chicago and Detroit
48 Agriculture in the Midwest Most of the land is arableSome areas specialize in certain cropsOne such region is the “Corn Belt” which stretches from Nebraska to OhioWithin the “Corn Belt” Illinois and Iowa are the country’s leading producers of cornMost of this corn is used to feed livestock such as beef cattle and hogsThe U.S is largest exporter of corn in the worldSoy beans are another important Corn Belt cropSoy beans are used to make margarine, vegetable oil, and tofu.
49 Agriculture in the Midwest The “Dairy Belt” is located north of the Corn BeltThe Dairy Belt includes Wisconsin and most of Minnesota, and MichiganWisconsin is known as “America’s Dairyland”- produces more butter and cheese than any other stateThese products are sold to the rest of the country
50 Cities of the MidwestChicago is the largest city in the Midwest and third largest U.S. metropolitan areaThe city has a port on Lake Michigan and is the country’s most important railroad hubChicago’s O'Hare airport is one of the busiest in the worldOther cities along the shores of the Great Lakes are Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, and ToledoThese location give cities access to coal from Appalachians and iron ore from upper MichiganEach is a major manufacturing center
51 Cities of the MidwestThe twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul are located on the upper Mississippi RiverMajor distribution centers for the agricultural product of the upper MidwestSt. Louis, Missouri, is located near the area where the Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois Rivers flow togetherSt. Louis is a major port city known as the gateway to the West
52 The SouthThe region includes Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, Louisiana and TexasHome of 30 percent of country’s populationSouth was mainly rural and agriculturalMajority of population lived on farms
53 Changes in the South: shift away from rural farm economy growth of industry, prompted by low wages, cheap land, lawssubstantial immigration from Latin Americaurbanization
54 Cities in the SouthThe Dallas- Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in the regionAtlanta, Miami, and New Orleans are also transportation and commercial areas
55 The WestThe West is the largest and most sparsely populated region in the U.S.About a quarter of the population lives in this areaEnvironmental conditions have played a major role in the history of the WestMuch of the areas consists of dry plateaus, deserts, and high mountainsEarly pioneers found the region difficult to travel across and inhospitable to live in.The transcontinental railroad and aqueducts and irrigation systems opened up more areas for settlement and farming
56 The interior WestRaising livestock has been a major economic activity in the interior west and is combined with wheat farmingThe wheat belt stretches across the Dakotas, Montana, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and TexasMining is key economic activity in the Rocky MountainsToday Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah are leading copper- producing statesNevada is leading gold-mining stateTourism is also important for places like Aspen, Colorado and for national parks such as the Grand Canyon in Arizona
58 The Pacific States Most people in the West live in the Pacific states. California is home to some 34 million people, more than any other stateBefore WWII the economy was based on farming, forestry, and the film industry in Los AngelesDuring WWII, the growth of military bases began to boost the economyIn the late 1900’s the development of computer technologies brought new industries to the Pacific statesMany software companies are located in San Francisco Bay and Seattle areas
59 Cities of the WestLos Angeles is the largest metropolitan area of the West and the second largest in the countrySmog often hangs over the city because of the number of automobiles and factoriesOther major cities are San Francisco, Seattle, San Diego, Phoenix, and Denver
60 Alaska and HawaiiThese states depend heavily on their locations, natural resources, and sceneryThe U.S. bought Alaska from Russia in 1867Alaska is largest and least populated state in the USEconomy based on fishing but the North Slope oil deposits were discoveredHawaii also became a state in 1959Hawaii is home to many military facilitiesGrow crops such as pineapples and sugarcaneTourism is a major industry
61 Environmental issues: huge energy consumptiongreat waste and pollutionpopulation growth and economic development add to problems (e.g., acid rain)fertilizer runoff harms marine lifedams and competition for scarce water—key issues in West
62 Natural hazards earthquakes on west coast flooding in many areas tornadoes in Midwest and Southhurricanes along east coast and Gulf of Mexico
63 Cities and Population Changes shift of population and business from center cities to suburbssome gentrification in inner cities, forcing out low- income residentsmajor impact of immigration on ethnic and cultural mix, notably in West and South