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1 Presentation Date and Location
Preschool Learning Foundations in Social-Emotional Development: with a Focus on Self-Regulation Session is approximately 3 hours. Time: 30 seconds Play music as participants enter room. Content Information: Provide any housekeeping information needed such as restroom location, etc. Presentation Date and Location 1

2 Welcome! Insert Names of Presenters (Regional Leads) Time: 1 minute
Content Information: Introduce trainers. Present overview of CPIN region. If time permits - participants introduce themselves at table groups or to the entire group and share one goal they have for their participation in the session. Review materials/handouts; information on future trainings; etc. 2

3 Norms Begin on time and end on time Turn cell phones to vibrate
Help the group stay on task Listen to thoughts and ideas of others Contribute your thoughts and ideas Time: 1 minute Content Information: Refer to Poster of Norms. Review the norms on the slide. 3

4 Session Outcomes Become familiar with the preschool learning foundations in social-emotional development with a focus on the self-regulation substrand. Become familiar with current research on social-emotional development. Connect the foundations to effective strategies that build positive relationships and support the development of self-regulation skills. Time: 2 minutes Read the slide. 4

5 California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1
Social-Emotional Development Language and Literacy English-Language Development Mathematics Visual and Performing Arts Physical Development Health History-Social Science Science Time: 2 minutes Ask participants to take out the publication and follow along. Content Information: Point out the icons on the spine of the cover. Point out the words Volume 1 on the cover. Explain that this volume contains the first four domains (the first four icons reading from the top of the page). (Click to reveal domain names for Volume 1) Point out the icon for Social-emotional development (circled above). (Click to reveal domain names for Volume 2) Explain that Volume 2 will contain the next three domains (visual and performing arts, physical development, and health). (Click to reveal domain names for volume 3) Volume 3 will contain the last two domains (history and social science and science). Point out that the icons and their colors are used to identify domain sections inside of the book. Ask participants to locate the social-emotional development section in the book they are using at their table.

6 Preschool Learning Foundations Central Assumption
“School readiness consists of social-emotional competencies as well as cognitive and motivational ones.” Source: California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume I, CDE Press, 2008, pg 1. Time: 2 minutes Content Information: If we close the school readiness gap in the early years, we will narrow the achievement gap down the road. Central assumption is well supported by developmental and educational research. The National Education Goals Panel (1996) recognizes that children must be ready to learn (e.g. possess pre-requisite skills for learning in order to meet school success. Information from PLF pp ). Beginning in early childhood, children exhibit significant differences in the enthusiasm, motivation and self-confidence in new learning situations. Children’s learning styles influence their initiative in learning and their persistence when faced with difficult challenges. These learning differences can be influenced by the kinds of reactions that parents and teachers give to children’s achievement successes and failures that emphasize the child’s intrinsic ability and strong effort. Performance Orientation – focuses on efforts in learning situations that elicit positive evaluations for others and avoid negative judgments. As a consequence children may avoid situations that are likely to result in failure and they many not persist in circumstances in which they are unlikely to succeed. Learned helplessness is when children give up because they do not have confidence in their ability to succeed. Learning or Mastery Orientation –focuses on efforts that increase ability. These children will be more likely to persist until they are successful. This is the kind of learning orientation that best predicts classroom achievement. 6

7 Foundations in Social- Emotional Development
Time: 30 seconds One way of defining school readiness is to consider the qualities that parents or kindergarten teachers view as essential. For details, see Activity Sheet Slide 7-8: Learning and Growing. Identify important social and emotional competencies for school readiness. 7

8 Learning and Growing Activity
Individually record your thoughts. In table groups, discuss the social and emotional competencies identified. On chart paper draw a child and write the competencies (behaviors and skills) identified by your group. Time: 10 minutes Ask participants to take out Activity Sheet Slide 7-8: Learning and Growing. PROCESS: Ask participants to think about important social-emotional behaviors and skills that are important for children to develop. One way of defining school readiness is to consider the qualities that parents or kindergarten teachers view as essential. Have participants individually record their thoughts. Ask table groups to discuss the social and emotional competencies identified. Have each group draw a child on chart paper and write the competencies (behaviors and skills) identified by their group. Have whole group share or go on a Gallery Walk. SUMMARY POINTS: Participants can identify many of the skills that are predictive of school and academic success, but they may not be using the language of the foundations. Trainer verbally summaries the information on the charts in the language of the foundations. Self: Self-awareness; Self-Regulation; Social and Emotional Understanding; Empathy and Caring; and Initiative in Learning Social Interactions: Interactions with Familiar Adults; Interactions with Peers; Group Participation; and Cooperation with Responsibility Relationships: Attachment to Parents; Close Relationships with Teachers and Caregivers; and Friendships The next activity will connect what they already know to the language in the social-emotional foundations. Later in the session, participants will add DRDP measures to the chart as well. 8

9 Foundations in Social-Emotional Development Chapter
Introduction (pp. 1-5) The Foundations (pp. 6-20) Bibliographic notes (pp ) Glossary (p. 35) References and Source Material (pp ) Time: 2 minutes As you present each bullet, explain and ask the participant to tab the sections. Content Information: Introduction: It is important to realize that the introduction contains valuable information about the domain. There is a summary list of the social-emotional development foundations in the Appendix.

10 Map of the Foundations Social-Emotional Development Self
Domain Strand Substrand Age Foundation Foundation description Time: 3 minutes Ask participants to take Handout 1a and 1b from the folder. There are two versions of the map for the social-emotional foundations terminology handout; one with the labels, and one without labels. Select the one that works best for your group. Content Information: This slide illustrates the way the foundations are organized. This example is the Self strand of the social-emotional domain. Use a laser pointer to draw participants’ eyes to each part of the page. Point out: The name of the domain (social-emotional development) The name of the strand at the top of the table (in this case, Self) The name of the sub-strand (Self-Regulation) - note that substrands always end in “.0” The two age levels (at around 48 months and at around 60 months). Remind participants that the foundation describes typical behaviors at around 48 months and at around 60 months. The foundations—note that there are TWO foundations on this page, one for each age level The foundation description (this is unique to the social-emotional domain) The examples (reminder that these are only a few of the ways that children may demonstrate the foundation) Note: This map can be used later on as participants navigate through the document when they begin planning. Handout 1 Examples

11 Foundations in Social-Emotional Development
Self Social Interaction Relationships Self-Awareness Interaction with Familiar Adults Attachment to Parents Self-Regulation Interaction with Peers Close Relationships with Teachers and Caregivers Social and Emotional Understanding Group Participation Friendships Empathy and Caring Cooperation and Responsibility Initiative in Learning Time: 3 minutes Optional: Ask participants to turn to pages of the foundations. Content Information: The domain focuses on children’s understanding of themselves and others and their ability to function in the school setting. Self: Preschoolers are capable of significantly greater depth and psychological insight into their conceptions of themselves (PLF p. 21). Self-awareness helps to shape early school success because young children’s self-confidence shapes their interest, motivation, and persistence in academic work. Success in the classroom reciprocally influences their sense of pride and accomplishment. (PLF p.21) Social Interactions and skills: “Children who show greater cooperative compliance with their teachers are capable of getting along better in the classroom and achieve more than do children who are less cooperative.” (PLF p. 30) Relationships: “Many studies have found that the quality of the parent-child (primary family attachment figures) relationships in the preschool years, especially its quality in terms of warmth and support to the child, predicts children’s subsequent academic success in kindergarten and early primary grades as well as their social competence in the classroom.” (PLF p. 31) What is the difference between the last two strands? Social Interactions = sociability with other people to whom the child does not have a close relationship Relationships = close relationships children create with adults and peers At first glance, the Relationships strand may look very similar to the Social Interactions strand. The main difference between the two strands is that Relationships addresses children’s relationships with close people in their inner circle such as family members and family friends, while Social Interactions addresses sociability with people who are not as close to the child, such as teachers and classmates. Source: California Preschool Learning Foundations, CDE Press, 2008. 11

12 Foundations in Social-Emotional Development
Activity Find the envelope on the table labeled Social-Emotional Development. Divide the foundations among the participants at the table and read them aloud. Discuss how the foundations are related to the competencies placed on the chart. Place the foundations on the chart. Time: 10 minutes Refer to Activity Sheet Slide 12: Foundations in Social-Emotional Development for details. PROCESS: Ask participants at each table to divide the 17 social-emotional foundations among themselves. Have participants read the foundations out loud to the group and discuss how they relate to the competencies they put on the chart earlier. Ask participants to place the foundations next to the competencies that best matches those posted on the chart. Looking at the foundations examples may help to define a match. Point out the examples are useful in defining the foundations, but are not inclusive or used as an assessment check list. If they do not identify a match between the foundation and one of the competencies listed on their chart, they can post the foundation anywhere on the chart. SUMMARY POINTS: Summarize what is posted on the charts, and connect to the foundations. 12

13 Assumption “Young children have access to the appropriate kinds of social interactions, experiences, and environments that normally support healthy development.” Source: California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume I, CDE Press, 2008, p. 1. Time: 1 minute Content Information: PLF describe the behaviors typical of children at around 48 and 60 months of age. “In order for these foundations to be useful they must describe what can typically be expected of young children growing up in conditions appropriate for healthy development.” PLF pg. 2 Some ..”young children grow up in markedly deprived settings experience greater challenges to healthy development because they are more likely to lack those supports; consequently, their readiness to begin school is hindered.” (PLF p.2) Added content (optional for trainer): Reference Ross Thompson’s slide: Social and emotional problems can impair early learning and competence. Roughly 10% of children in kindergarten show disruptive emotional or behavioral problems. For low-income children, the prevalence is double or triple this estimate. Head Start teachers report that their children exhibit signs of serious emotional distress, including depression, withdrawal, and problems with aggression and antisocial behavior. Early childhood mental health disorders like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and conduct disorders are being identified as early as age two and at surprisingly high prevalence. Children who are disruptive, have emotional or behavioral problems, or are absent are at risk for academic success. 13

14 Assumption “The purpose of these foundations is to describe typical development rather than to articulate aspirational expectations for children’s behavior under the best possible conditions or for the behaviors to be instilled in children.” Source: California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume I, CDE Press, 2008, pg 2. Time: 1 minute Content Information: “One should not expect extensive changes in the behavior of preschool children during a 12-month period. “(PLF p2) “Children are a remarkable diverse population, even when children of comparable ages are considered. They vary in their temperamental qualities and personality, family background, cultural heritage and values, and other features that make the application of these foundations (and the behavioral examples included in each) a challenging task.” (PLF pp. 2-3) Examples are for illustrative purposes only. There is great variability in children. “Children in California are particularly diverse in their cultural origin. Culture is associated with family values and practices, language, and other characteristics that are directly related to the meaning of these foundations and the application to individual children, especially children who are from underrepresented groups, English learners, or from special populations.” (PLF p. 3) “The lack of adequate research literature on the social-emotional development of preschoolers who are English learners or from backgrounds other than European-American should be considered when using these foundations because they may be uncertain applicability to such children.” (PLF p. 3) “Culture influences every aspect of human development and is reflected in childrearing beliefs and practices designed to promote healthy adaptations.’ (From Neurons to Neighborhoods, p. 25 core concept 2) (Further information on culture as an influence can be found in Chapter 3 of Neurons to Neighborhoods.) 14

15 Assumption “These foundations, especially the behavioral examples for each foundation, are not meant to be assessment items; rather, they are meant to be guidelines and teaching tools.” Source: California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume I, CDE Press, 2008, pg 2. Time: 1 minute Content Information: “Those who use the foundations should not try to measure the children they observe against the specific examples included in each domain.” (PLF p. 2) “..there are some consistent themes that run throughout the social-emotional domain. Compared with younger children, for example, children at around 60 months of age are more behaviorally competent and take greater active initiative in social interactions and learning; they have an enhanced psychological awareness of themselves and others; they have a greater capacity for self-control; and their social relationships are more reciprocal in quality.” (PLF p. 2) The examples given are meant to be general illustrations that the competencies describe rather than essential criteria for age appropriate development. PLF, pg. 2 15

16 Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Development are Deeply Interdependent in the Early Years
Emotional health and social competence are a strong foundation for emerging cognitive abilities. Ross A. Thompson, CPIN Research Institute, 2008. Time: 3 minutes Show the book, Neurons to Neighborhoods. Content Information: “The early childhood years lay a foundation that influences the effectiveness of subsequent educational effort.” (Neurons to Neighborhoods) Cognitive, social and emotional development occurs in five different areas of the brain. Given this knowledge, teachers have to be especially mindful of a balanced approach to teaching. Direct instruction of skills "is" necessary, but needs to be balanced with active, playful learning experiences (Ross A. Thompson, CPIN Research Institute, 2008) The research on social-emotional development is fascinating. For example, a few interesting items are: PLF Bibliographic Notes Young children who are more competent in understanding others’ feelings have been found, for example, to become more academically competent in the primary years. Found on page 23 of the Social-emotional Development Foundations. (Izard 2002; Izard and others 2001; see also Dowsett and Huston 2005; Raver 2002; Raver and Knitzer 2002). (PLF p. 23) 16

17 The Importance of the Early Years
This developing brain architecture is rooted in the context of experience and is the foundation for cognitive, social and emotional development. Brain development is dependent on experience. Brain development is rapid in the early years and continuous throughout adulthood. Neurons to Neighborhoods Time: 3 minutes Content Information: Source: Neurons to Neighborhoods Bullet 2: Brain development is dependent on experience, both positive and negative. Unhealthy experiences such as chronic stress, violence, and impoverished environments impact neurological pathways. However, positive healthy experiences also have the potential to impact the neurological pathway development. Healthy experiences include attachment bonds with caregivers, healthy relationships with caregivers, healthy parent-child and teacher-child interactions and conversations, and a stimulating environment. Later in the training, we will discuss strategies for increasing children’s healthy experiences. It is important to remember we, as care providers, do have a large influence on children’s daily experiences and thus on brain development. Bullet 3: Experiences in early childhood are integral to brain development. As you will see in the next slide, our brains develop and synapses increase at a rapid pace during infancy. Synapse growth has been correlated with learning. We continue to learn and develop synapses until the day we die. We are life long learners. Take home message, "You can teach an old dog new tricks.”

18 Brain growth in the early years
Time: 2 minutes Content Information: Brain growth occurs in response to experiences. This slide shows the density of synapses increasing over the first year of life. After synapse growth peaks, excess synapses are gradually weeded out over time. Synapse growth has been linked to learning. Each child’s brain is different due to different social and emotional experiences. For example, researchers experimented with kittens’ visual system to determine the importance of early experiences on brain development. The researchers covered one eye. When the eye was uncovered the area of the brain used for depth perception was underdeveloped. The kittens did not have the ability to use both eyes.

19 Early brain development
Amygdala Prefrontal Cortex Hippocampus Time: 3 minutes Content Information: Brain development, cognitive development and social-emotional development are all interrelated. Brain structures guide appraisal of emotional information, processing emotions, emotional memory and emotional response. Each of these processes is relevant for cognitive and social-emotional development. (Source: Dr. Bruce Perry, Child Trauma 2002) Developing emotional competencies is dependent on developing brain structures and the developing synapses within these brain structures. As we have discussed these brain structures develop through experiences. They are influenced by the environment through both healthy and unhealthy experiences. (click to reveal) Hippocampus: involved in processing emotions and memory, specifically for emotional memory (click to reveal) Amygdala: involved in appraisal of simple emotional information, fear response, and emotional response (click to reveal) Prefrontal Cortex: involved in executive function which include appraisal of complex stimuli, mediating conflicting thoughts, self-regulation and emotion-regulation These structures communicate closely with one another in order to accurately appraise and process emotional and social information.

20 Stress and Brain Development
Positive stress—short lived, typical daily challenges, builds coping skills Tolerable stress—short term intense stress, buffered by supportive adults Toxic stress—prolonged intense stress in the absence of protection by supportive adults, disrupts brain structure, increased risk of physical and mental illness Ross A. Thompson, CPIN Research Institute, 2008 Time: 2 minutes Content Information: Stressful experiences are particularly salient in developing brain architecture. Stress is one type of experience that can be healthy and unhealthy. Both healthy and unhealthy experiences are written into our brain organization. This changes how we process information and may cause higher reactivity to emotional stimuli and either increase or decrease self-regulation. Positive stress is moderate short-lived stress. This may include meeting new people, dealing with frustration. It is an important healthy component of development and helps children develop emotional competencies. Tolerable Stress is generally temporary and has an end. It may be an experience such as a death or loss in the family. Tolerable stress may interrupt brain architecture but can be buffered by relationships and coping mechanisms. (click to reveal sample buffers) Briefly point out three or four of the buffers. (Click to erase buffers) Toxic Stress: is a strong and prolonged disruption of bodily systems without the support of relationships, adult support, or coping mechanisms. This may be prolonged physical or emotional abuse, extreme poverty, or chronic and serious neglect. This can lead to stress management issues that respond to lower stress thresholds and may lead to stress-related health and mental illness. It is hard to learn when you are experiencing emotional problems. These emotional problems may be due to exposure to toxic stress. Friends Music Nature Water Play with a pet Take a walk Read Meditate Play a game Laughter Cup of tea Family Sunshine Exercise Watch a fish tank Stretch Alone time Snuggle Art Rocking chair Shoot baskets Cook Talk Get a hug

21 Stressors and Buffers Handout 2
Use the activity sheet and write down one stressor that you may experience in your life. On the activity sheet write down strategies and resources (buffers) that you have to help you cope with this stressor. What buffers do children in your group use to help themselves cope with stress? How might you enhance the buffers available to children in your classroom? Time: 6 minutes Ask participants to take Handout 2 from their folders. Refer to Activity Sheet Slide 21: Stressors and Buffers for details. PROCESS: Using the activity sheet, have participants write down one stressor that they may experience in their lives. In the space provided, have participants write down strategies and resources (buffers) that they have to help them cope with this stressor. After participants have completed this part of the activity, click to reveal the final steps. Ask participants to record the buffers children use in their group to help themselves cope with stress. Have participants share out at their tables. Guide participants to record any new ideas on their handouts. SUMMARY POINTS: One of the powerful ways we can support children is to ensure that we provide people, places, and things that children need to buffer the stressors of their daily lives. Handout 2

22 Plasticity Brain architecture has great plasticity and continues to change throughout life. Emotional competencies that may not have been developed naturally can be taught through purposeful teaching and strategic planning. Time: 1 minute Content Information: Bullet 1: Providing healthy, positive school environments can change the development of brain architecture. This change does not happen overnight. It may take years. Bullet 2: Teachers, service providers, and caregivers have a great influence on the development of emotional competencies. Some children do not develop the emotional competencies such as self-regulation as quickly or naturally as other children. This does not mean they are incapable of developing these competencies. Teachers must observe and plan strategies to teach children these competencies. As you have seen, we continue to develop synapses until the day we die. This demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and the ability to continue developing and learning throughout life.

23 Quality Relationships
Time: 1 minute Content Information: Relationships with teachers is addressed in substrand 2.0 of the Relationships strand. The substrand is Close Relationships with Teachers and Caregivers. The quality and type of interaction relates to learning across domains and is a high-quality program indicator for school readiness. Healthy adult-child relationships are the basis for all social-emotional development.

24 Getting to Know You Handout 3 Time: 7 minutes
Ask participants to take out Handout 3 from their folders. Refer to Activity Sheet Slide 24: Getting to Know You video activity from their folders for more details. PROCESS: Ask participants to take Handout 3 from their folders. Give participants a minute or two to look over the page. Have participants record observed teacher behaviors by placing tick marks next to the corresponding behavior. At the end of the video, ask participants for their general comments about what they observed. SUMMARY POINTS: It is essential to gain an understanding of children's interests, preferences, and background, and to share your background and interests as well. Handout 3

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27 It Takes a Lot of Love Time: 3 minutes Content Information:
Adults need to devote extensive effort to relationship building. How is the caregiver in this video using words, visual strategies, and comforting body language to help the child in distress? What do you notice about the demeanor of the caregiver? Some possible responses include: gets down to child's level, offers to help child with shirt, offers child toy, helps child learn how to sign for help, responds to child's body language request for hug, hugs and pats child's back.

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30 Making Deposits Handout 4 Time: 3 minutes
Refer to Activity Sheet Slide 30: Making Deposits for more details. PROCESS: Before showing the clip, comment, “Teachers must make prior efforts to "make deposits" in a child's relationship piggy bank as the children we find the most difficult to build positive relationships with are the ones who most need them. How does the teacher in this clip show her positive regard to the child?” At the end of the video, ask participants to take Handout 4 from their folders. Give participants a minute or two to look over the page. Ask participants to generate five alternatives to “Good job” that the teacher might have used as positive feedback to the child. This can be done as elbow partners, at tables, or in the large group. SUMMARY POINTS: Positive, descriptive feedback is a valuable way to build relationship and to recognize children’s positive behaviors, efforts, and achievements. Handout 4

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33 For More Information about Building Relationships
Handout 5: Building Positive Relationships with Young Children is a summary and extension of what we have discussed here today. This handout comes from the Center for Evidence-Based Practices for Early Learning. Time: 3 minutes Ask participants to locate Handout 5 in their folders. Give them about three minutes to skim the article. Handout 5

34 The Self-Regulation Strand of the Social-Emotional Domain
The growth of self-regulation is a cornerstone of early childhood development that cuts across all domains of behavior. Neurons to Neighborhoods Time: 1 minutes Content Information: Several research teams have found that differences in aspects of self regulation predicts young children’s reading and mathematics achievement. Found on page 22 of the Social-emotional Development Foundations (Alexander, Entwisle, and Dauber 1993; Howse and others 2003; NICHD Early Child Care Research Network 2003a). (PLF p. 22)

35 Self-Regulation Includes the Skills to:
Cooperate Focus attention Manage transitions Follow routines Manage strong emotions Share things and space Wait and take turns Adapted from the California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, p. 7 Time: 2 minutes Content Information: It is important to remember that preschool-aged children are at the early stages of being able to self-regulate, and often need substantial adult support and guidance. There are many strategies that teachers can incorporate to help young children develop the self-regulation skills they will need to be successful in school and in life.

36 A Few Ways Adults Can Help Children Learn to Self-Regulate
Tell children what to do, not what not to do. Help children use words to regulate their actions and thinking. Model self-control and consideration for others. Balance active and quiet periods, individual and group activities. Break up complex behaviors into smaller parts (see next slide). Ross A. Thompson, CPIN Research Institute, 2008 Time: 3 minutes Content Information: Tell children what to do, not what not to do. For example: “Sand in the sandbox stays low,” instead of “Don’t throw sand.” Help children use words to regulate their actions and thinking. For example: “It can be frustrating to wait your turn. Sometimes I count to 10, take a few breaths, or sing a song when I have to wait.” Model self-control and consideration for others. For example, “I can see Sy Dang needs help putting away all those blocks he took out at choice time. I’ll help him.” Balance active and quiet periods, individual and group activities. Break up complex behaviors into smaller parts (see next slide).

37 Hand Washing Routine Go to the sink. Turn on the water.
Put soap on your hands. Lather hands for 20 seconds. Rinse hands under water. Dry hands with paper towel. Turn off faucet with paper towel. Put paper towel in trash. Time: 2 minutes Content Information: This is a lot for a three or four-year-old to do. Ask the group, “How can you support a child so that they can move successfully through all eight steps?” Possible answers include, give only two or three steps at a time, make a picture board, or turn it into a song or chant. Participants may come up with additional strategies.

38 Teacher Strategies to Support Social-Emotional Focus
Time: 15 minutes Option 1: Activity Sheet Slide 38: Jigsaw-Option 1; Jigsaw the article “Recommended Practices; Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children: Effective Practices,” by P. Alter & M. Conroy, from the Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior. Option 2: Present slides Option 1: Activity Sheet Slide 38: Jigsaw-Option 1. PROCESS: Ask participants to take Handout 6 from their folders. Have participants jigsaw the article using one of the following strategies or a strategy of your own. Have each participant at the table read a portion of the article, after which each participant in turn shares what they learned with the others at their table. Assign each table one section of the article to read and discuss. Either have a spokesperson from each table share important points with the whole group or have the group record important points on chart paper and do a Wall Walk to review all charts. SUMMARY POINTS: Helping children to self-regulate can prevent many challenging behaviors. Classroom teachers can help children self-regulate through environmental strategies, scheduling strategies, and the use of rules, rituals, and routines. Handout 6 38

39 Strategies for Preventing Challenging Behaviors
Effective Classroom Environments Predictable Daily Schedule Rules, Rituals, and Routines “Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children: Effective Practices” by P. Alter & M. Conroy, Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior Option 2 (Information on the next five slides comes from article cited above.) Content Information: There is no universal panacea for preventing challenging behavior. Researchers suggest using broad-based early intervention strategies as a way to prevent such behaviors. Optional: Share sample daily schedules and/or sample classroom rules being used in classrooms.

40 Effective Classroom Environments
Physical arrangement Adults can visually monitor children. Limit the number of children in centers. Materials are organized wisely on shelves. Toys are accessible, appropriate to age level, plentiful. Lighting, noise level and temperature are monitored. “Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children: Effective Practices” by P. Alter & M. Conroy, Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior Option 2 Content Information: “Effective classroom environments begin with a well-organized and engaging classroom that includes developmentally appropriate practices (DAP), interesting activities and materials . . that are neither too hard nor too easy.”

41 Effective Classroom Environments
2. Interpersonal climate Activities are engaging and developmentally appropriate. Teachers provide assistance as children need help. Positive attention and feedback are given to appropriate behaviors. “Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children: Effective Practices” by P. Alter & M. Conroy, Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior Option 2 Content Information: “Developing a positive interpersonal climate begins with implementing engaging activities that are developmentally and individually appropriate for all children.” “When teachers attend to children’s appropriate behaviors and provide assistance as they need help, children are less likely to engage in challenging behaviors.” “Remember to ‘catch them being good’ and acknowledge them for it.”

42 Predictable Daily Schedule
Use picture schedules that provide concrete cues of activities and routines. Rotate small and large group activities. Vary active and quiet activities. Put more difficult activity at a time when children are most alert and attentive. “Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children: Effective Practices” by P. Alter & M. Conroy, Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior Option 2 Content Information: Most children like and need predictability. It can give them a sense of order and security knowing what’s going to happen during the day.

43 Predictable Daily Schedule
Complex activities are discussed and broken down by what happens first, next and so forth, so children know what to expect. Children are given choices within the schedule (center time activities, outdoor areas). “Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children: Effective Practices” by P. Alter & M. Conroy, Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior Option 2 Read slide.

44 Rules, Rituals, and Routines
Rules provide a structure in which to teach preschoolers which behaviors are appropriate and inappropriate. Rituals and routines such as songs, rhymes, games, and kinesthetic movement can foster community-building and can remind children of appropriate behaviors. “Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children: Effective Practices” by P. Alter & M. Conroy, Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior Option 2 Content Information: Rules are more appropriate for preschoolers. Rituals and routines are more applicable to younger children. Rituals: a ritual may be a song, rhyme, game, kinesthetic movement or other activity that is used in a predictable and repeated pattern over time. They can serve to remind children of behavioral expectation. Rituals can be an effective way to ease transitions which can reduce the occurrence of challenging behaviors that often occur during transitions. (It might be interesting to ask teachers to count the number of transitions they have during the day. Can they reduce this by one or two?) Teach rules and routines in small steps, using positive, specific feedback as children learn the steps. Refer participants to Handout 6: Recommended Practices in their folders. This is the original source for the information just presented.

45 Additional Resources Handout 7: Guidelines
Handout 8: Strategies for Responding Handout 9: Policy Brief: Children with special needs Handout 10 and 11: Quick reminders Time: 4 minutes Ask participants to locate these five additional resources in their folders. Handout 7: Guidelines. The information for this handout comes from the Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines. It is a useful checklist to evaluate the imbedded social- emotional curriculum of a classroom. Handout 8: Strategies for Responding introduces 12 teaching strategies to support our children learning English as a second language. This bilingual resource summarizes these strategies. Handout 9: This policy brief, Promoting Social, Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes of Children Served Under IDEA, provides useful information about supporting the social development of children with special needs. Handouts 10 and 11: Posters for staff and parents. You may find these resources valuable for our final activity today. Handouts 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

46 DRDP-R and Foundations
Time: 15 minutes See Activity Sheet Slide 46: DRDP Measures. Click to reveal arrow as you explain the process. PROCESS: Explain that the preschool learning foundations tell us about the knowledge and skills that children, in general, typically attain at around 48 and 60 months of age with appropriate support. The Desired Results Developmental Profile helps teachers look specifically at where individual children are on a developmental continuum (Exploring, Building, Developing, Integrating). Currently, the DRDP-R is being more closely aligned with the foundations, although alignment does not mean there will be a one-to-one match between DRDP measures and the foundations. In this activity, we will explore the connections between the assessment tool and the social-emotional foundations. Have participants continue with the opening activity by sorting the DRDP measure strips to match up with what they already have on their charts. Discuss and debate any questions or concerns arising from this activity. SUMMARY POINTS: There are no “right” answers to this activity. Participants may find overlaps, omissions and duplicates. This is fine.

47 From Theory to Practice
Transition slide

48 From Theory to Practice
Bringing your handouts with you, have your group begin at one of the tables. Take 10 minutes to read the problem and chart suggested strategies. After 10 minutes, move to the next table. Read the problem and strategies developed by the previous group, and add additional strategies. You have six minutes for this turn. At the signal, move again to the next table and repeat the process. Time: 30 minutes See Activity Sheet Slide 48: Theory to Practice. PROCESS: Put chart paper and one scenario (either classroom or child) on each table along with markers. Create the same number of participant groups as there are chart paper scenarios. Have each group begin at one of the tables. Groups should bring their handout resources. Give groups 10 minutes to read the problem and chart suggested strategies. After 10 minutes, have participants move to the next table, read the problem and strategies developed by the previous group, and add additional strategies. Give groups six minutes for this task. Repeat the process as many times as time permits. SUMMARY POINTS: When there are behavior challenges, it is often useful to begin at the classroom level to ensure that all environmental strategies, scheduling strategies, and rules, rituals, and routines are in place to create an optimal overall setting for children to self-regulate and develop needed social and emotional skills. If an individual child is still struggling after universal strategies have been in place for awhile, extra strategies and support can be implemented for the individual child.

49 Q & A Time: 3 minutes

50 CDE Web Site At the Web address, the underlined Preschool Learning Foundations link takes you to the publication. There you will find easy access to the chapters and sections within the 192 page publication. The Appendix, on pages , provides a summary list of the foundations. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are posted on the Web site. Questions can be sent to Time: 30 seconds Share the information in the first bullet. Provide the Web handout. On page in the Appendix, please find a summary list of the foundations, excluding the examples and other material. Hold one up to show it is only a few pages. Remind participants that the preschool foundation’s address on the following page is also on the CDE Web site. Many questions were asked during the extensive public review process. CDE has developed a set of Frequently Asked Questions to provide the answers to those questions. The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) document is a living document. Over time, new questions will be added and existing responses may be clarified as needed.

51 The entire document is online at the California Department of Education Web site.
Time: 30 seconds The entire document is online at the California Department of Education’s Web site. You can look at a specific section or download the entire document. This slide shows the way the Web page is designed. The Appendix contains a summary list of the foundations, excluding the examples and other material. The foundations are also available for purchase through CDE press.

52 To Purchase Preschool Learning Foundations Book
The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, publication is available for purchase from the CDE Press for $19.95 plus shipping and handling. Ordering information can be found at the CDE Web site or by calling Time: 30 seconds Remind participants that there is a handout or brochure in their folder with ordering information.

53 To Purchase PEL Guide Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy and Learning publication is available for purchase from the CDE Press for $15.95. Ordering information can be found at the CDE Web site or by calling Appendix A has been translated into Chinese, Hmong, Korean, Spanish, Tagalog, and Vietnamese, and is available on the CDE Web site. NOW in Spanish! Time: 30 seconds

54 Please Complete an Evaluation Form
Fill-in the bubbles completely. Use pencil, black, or blue ink. Time: 4 minutes 54

55 Thank you for coming! Insert Local Information Here Time: 1 minute
This is a slide that can be used to advertise your next Network Meeting, professional development session, or PEL Guide training. 55


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