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Foundations in Language and Literacy

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1 Foundations in Language and Literacy
A Focus on Phonological Awareness Welcome participants. Take a brief survey to determine the participants’ familiarity with a) the foundations and b) phonological awareness. This information will be useful in anticipating questions and meeting participants’ needs.

2 Agenda Welcome The importance of phonological awareness in literacy development A closer look at the phonological awareness foundations Phonological awareness and the ELD foundations Bringing it back to your program or classroom 2 2

3 Outcomes Become familiar with the language and literacy foundations with a focus on the phonological awareness substrand. Identify and define the operations by which children demonstrate phonological awareness. Describe the developmental continuum of phonological awareness skills. Consider strategies for fostering phonological awareness in all children. If facilitators wish to have the outcomes posted for reference throughout the day, they may want to write and post them on chart paper. 3

4 Norms Start on time and end on time. Turn off cell phones.
Help the group stay on task. Listen to thoughts and ideas of others. Contribute your thoughts and ideas. Use this as a slide if you want and/or chart the norms.

5 Parking Lot Please write questions on post-its and place them on chart paper titled “Parking Lot.” Slide optional: Place a couple of Parking Lot posters in the room. Participants may post their questions in the Parking Lot. Note that facilitators will try to answer as many questions as possible. Any unanswered questions will be sent to CDD for answers.

6 Welcoming Activity This slide is a placeholder to put in a welcoming activity of your choice.

7 Ask participants to take out their publications and follow along
Ask participants to take out their publications and follow along. Draw participants’ attention to the icons on the spine of the cover. Identify which domain each icon represents. Explain that the icons and their colors are used to identify domain sections inside of the book. Point out the words Volume 1 on the cover. Explain that this volume contains the first four domains (the first four icons reading from the top of the page). Explain that Volume 2 will contain the next three domains (visual/performing arts, physical development, and health), and that Volume 3 will contain the last two domains (history/social science and science).

8 Purpose The purpose of the foundations is to promote understanding of preschool children’s learning and to guide instructional practice. Read slide.

9 The Foundations… are for all children, including children learning English and children with disabilities. They describe the knowledge and skills that young children typically exhibit: at around 48 and 60 months of age; as they complete their first or second year of preschool; with appropriate support; and when attending a high-quality preschool program. Share the information on the slide with the audience.

10 High-Quality Programs Include the Following:
environments and experiences that encourage active, playful exploration and experimentation purposeful teaching to help children gain knowledge and skills specific support for children learning English specific accommodations and adaptations for children with special needs For children to attain the knowledge and skills in the foundations, programs must work to provide appropriate conditions for learning and individually assist each child in his/her learning and development. Introduce PEL guide as a support to the third bullet.

11 Indicators of a High-Quality Preschool Program Include:
Staff Experience and Training Staff-to-Child Ratios Environment and Materials Program Structure and Activities Adult-Child Interactions Use of Language and Reasoning Parent Involvement This information came from the Whit Hayslip presentation for CPIN in April The items in this slide are based on information in the longitudinal study on quality childcare which Dick Clifford, Carolee Howes and others were involved in. The reference is; The Children of the Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study Go To School, Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg, Margaret R. Burchinal, Richard M. Clifford, Mary L. Culkin, Carollee Howes, Sharon Lynn Kagan, Noreen Yazejian, Patricia Byler, Jean Rustici, and Janice Zelazo.

12 The Language and Literacy Foundations
A Guided Tour The Language and Literacy Foundations Show slide: Now we will spend time looking at the language and literacy foundations with an emphasis on the phonological awareness substrand.

13 The Sections Introduction (pp. 47-55) The Foundations (pp. 56-70)
Bibliographic Notes (pp ) Glossary (p. 89) References and Source Material (pp ) In reviewing the sections, provide a brief description of each. Introduction: It is important to realize that the introduction contains valuable information about the domain, including underlying assumptions and the use the foundations with children with special needs and with English-language learners. Foundations: The foundations describe what children learn. Today we will focus on one substrand of the language and literacy foundations. Bibliographic notes: These contain the research related to each domain’s strands. Glossary: These are terms that are defined in each domain to support the understanding of the content. References: This section includes research upon which the language and literacy foundations are based. There is a summary list of the language and literacy foundations in the Appendix.

14 Map of the Foundations Language and Literacy
Domain Strand Substrand Age Foundation Substrand Description Examples Ask participants to find the handout in the folder. Note: There are two handouts, one with the labels and one that is blank. Choose one of the handouts. This slide illustrates the way the foundations are organized. This example is the Reading strand. Use a laser pointer to draw participants’ eyes to each part of the page. Ask a series of questions: What is the name of this “strand”? After participants give their response ask them to write the word “strand” in the bubble. Continue this process until all the bubbles are filled in. Draw attention to the following elements: The name of the domain (Language and Literacy) The name of the strand at the top of the table (in this case, Reading) The name of the substrand (phonological awareness). Note that substrands always end in “.0”. For most foundations, typical behaviors at around 48 and 60 months are described. However, in the phonological awareness substrand, behaviors are only described for children at around 60 months, because much of the initial development of phonological awareness occurs between 48 and 60 months of age. The foundations (In total there are TWO phonological awareness foundations 2.1 and 2.2.) The examples for the phonological awareness foundations separate the foundation into discrete skills. It is important to remember that the examples provide only a few of the ways that children may demonstrate the foundation. Take a moment to read what it says at the bottom of the page about children with disabilities. Show books with tabs, etc. Includes notes for children with disabilities Map of the Foundations 14

15 Foundations Organization
Domain Strand Substrand Age Substrand Description This is an optional slide. Some interactive options include the following: Consider asking those who attended an input session if any of these terms are familiar to them. Ask participants to read the words aloud as they fly in from the side. Ask participants to find and highlight each of the pieces on their map. Foundation Examples

16 Strand - Substrand Order
Phonological awareness foundations are written only for children at around 60 months of age. Remember, the strands and substrands are not presented in a developmental progression. Bullet 1: Ask participants to turn to page 64. In the “at around 48 months of age” column, the foundations’ authors indicate that the phonological awareness foundations are written only for older four year-olds, because much of the initial development of phonological awareness occurs between 48 and 60 months of age. Bullet 2: Read slide. Provide the following example, there is no developmental progression from the Listening and Speaking strand to the Reading strand (pp in Language and Literacy). In the Reading strand, there is no developmental progression between substrand 3.0 at around 48 months “Children begin to recognize letters of the alphabet” (p. 67), and substrand 4.0 “Children demonstrate understanding of age-appropriate text read aloud” (p. 68). NOTE: strands 3.0 and 4.0 were selected as examples, because strand 2.0 doesn’t have a foundation for children at around 48 months.

17 Phonological Awareness:
An individual’s sensitivity to the sound (or phonological) structure of spoken language independent of meaning. California Preschool Learning Foundations p. 52 & 79 Phonological awareness: This is quote from the California Preschool Learning Foundations, pg. 79.

18 Phonological Units Words Syllables Onset and rimes
Onset - The first consonant or consonant cluster in a syllable (e.g., the h in the one syllable word hat, the m and k in the two syllables in the word monkey) Rime - Everything left in a syllable after the onset is removed; the vowel and coda of a syllable (e.g., the at in the single syllable word hat) Phonemes (individual sounds) Phonological awareness refers to spoken language. It does not involve print. California Preschool Learning Foundations, p.79-80 Examples: Words- Syllables- Onset and rimes-is the work of kindergarten and first grade. Phoneme- This is the individual unit of meaningful sound in a word or syllable. The definitions provided in the slide and the notes section are from the Glossary section of the foundations page 89.

19 Phonological awareness
What’s the difference??? Phonological awareness Phonemic awareness Phonics Phonological awareness is different than phonemic awareness. Phonemic awareness is the most advanced level of phonological awareness---the ability to recognize and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of words. Phonics relates sounds to letters and involves print. Phonics is a school age skill, although “at around 60 months of age children begin to recognize that letters have sounds.” (Pg. 67 Alphabetics and Word/Print Recognition, foundation 3.3) NOTE TO LEADS: The design of this slide is intended to reinforce the message that phonological awareness is the most important and developmentally appropriate focus for preschoolers and then comes phonemic awareness. Phonics is at the bottom because it is a school-age skill.

20 Phonological awareness the ability to detect or manipulate the sound structure of spoken words, independent of meaning Phonemic awareness the ability to recognize and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of words Phonics a method of instruction that focuses on teaching the relationship between sounds and the letters that represent them Definitions and notes are from the glossary page 89. Phonological awareness is an increasingly sophisticated capability that is highly predictive of, and causally related to, children’s later ability to read. Phonemic awareness is the most advanced level of phonological awareness---Phonics relates sounds to letters and involves print. This is a school age skill. Phonics definitions is from the foundations, page 80 (top left column). NOTE TO LEADS: The design of this slide is intended to provide the participants the definitions in the three slides-per-page handout.

21 Phonological awareness plays a key role in several components that help children become skilled readers such as: Understanding the alphabetic principle (Burgess & Lonigan 1998; Ehri 1991,1995) Decoding printed words (Beck & Juel 1999; Bradley & Bryant 1985; Byrne & Fielding-Barnsley,1993, 1995; Demont & Gombert 1998) Spelling (Bryant and others 1990; Gentry 1982; Read 1975) Reading comprehension, although the relation with reading comprehension is not direct (Tunmer & Nesdale 1985) California Preschool Learning Foundations p. 81 This is a direct quote from page 81 of the California Preschool Learning Foundations. Phonological awareness is good for all children but essential for some. It is important as a predictor for later reading success. It can be a red flag or indicator of reading difficulty down the road. It prepares children for learning to read but is not an end into itself.

22 Understanding Phonological Awareness
With a partner complete the crossword puzzle. Use the Glossary (p. 89) and the Introduction (pp ), as necessary. Ask participants to get the handout out of the folder. 22

23 Answer Key Share answers. Ask if there are any questions.
Based on the group’s level of knowledge, either provide examples or ask volunteers to provide examples of the various terms. Encourage participants to record the various examples.

24 A Closer Look Transition slide

25 The Developmental Continuum
Detect and manipulate words and syllables within words Awareness of onset and rime Awareness of phonemes California Preschool Learning Foundations p. 80 California Preschool Learning Foundations, p. 80. “Simply put the continuum is going from larger chunks to smaller chunks.” (Marilyn Astore) The following bullets are additional information directly from the foundations. Trainers are not expected to say all of this. Choose appropriate wording for the audience. “The development of phonological awareness typically moves along a continuum in which children progress from a sensitivity to larger concrete units of sound to a sensitivity to smaller abstract units of sound. Usually, children’s first achievements in phonological awareness are the detection and manipulation of words and syllables within words.” For example, first a child might be able to hear and move the words within a compound word. For example, the child would recognize mailbox is comprised of two words—mail and box, and he/she may be able to orally blend or delete words to create other words. Or the child may be able to recognize that a word has two parts or syllables, and the child would be able to orally blend syllables to create words or orally take words apart into syllables. Onset is the first consonant or consonant cluster of a syllable (b in boy or bl in blow). Rime is everything left in a syllable after the onset is removed ( oy in boy) the vowel and coda of a syllable (coda is the concluding section or part; see explanation below). Finally, phonemes are represented by single letters (c–a-t) unless those letters are silent. Some phonemes are represented by two letters such as th, ch, sh. In these cases two letters produce a single sound.

26 The Phonological Awareness Foundations
2.1 Orally blend and delete words and syllables without the support of pictures or objects Orally blend words Orally blend syllables Orally take apart words Orally take apart syllables Note that this foundation requires that children demonstrate the skills without the support of pictures or objects. It is an oral activity. The foundation orally blends and deletes words and syllables without the support of pictures or objects includes more than one skill. Unpacked, the foundation includes four discrete skills. The next four slides will look at each skill individually as shown in the examples. Each sentence in the four following slides are sentences provided in the language of the examples. (California Preschool Learning Foundations, p ) 26

27 Orally puts together two familiar spoken words making a compound word
This skill does NOT use pictures or real objects. This is a phonological processing skill. It involves noticing and manipulating sounds in spoken language. Initially the emphasis is on noticing and manipulating sounds in spoken language. It can also be referred to as phonological sensitivity. It is an oral activity only. Creating and taking apart two syllable compound words is an easy way to introduce children to blending and taking apart syllables in words. Syllable segmentation activities are easier and often more engaging for children when using compound words. Illustration activity for group follows: What do we get when we put together “air” and “plane”? What do we get when we put together “mail” and “man”?

28 Orally takes apart compound words into their component words
This activity does NOT use pictures or real objects. The emphasis is on spoken language. The focus of this skill is noticing and manipulating elements of spoken language. Developmentally children notice and manipulate large to smaller chunks of language. Facilitators provide a few examples - such as, child responds, “mail” and “box” when asked, “What two words make “mailbox’?” - and then ask participants to think of their own examples at their tables. Consider suggesting ideas for games that people can use. 28

29 Orally puts together two syllables of two-syllable words that are familiar to the child
The next two activities are different from the previous one in that children are asked to work with two syllables rather than two words. Again, this is an oral activity and does not use picture cues. (Illustrate as follows) What do you get when you put together “a” and “ple”? What do you get when you put together “pen” and “cil”? Another way to do this is by starting by saying the 2 syllable word slowly then ask child to say it fast. Car…toon “I will say it slow and you say it fast” “zi”…”pper” Note to leads: Be sure and check a dictionary pronunciation guide when substituting words-splitting words into syllables or codas for pronunciations is different than for spelling the word. For example, in the “apple” example above, the pronounced sounds are split between the “p” and the “le” whereas the correct split when hyphenating the word is between the two “p”s (ap-ple). The emphasis is independent of meaning which is what makes this challenging for children (not puzzles). If child is an English learner, consider doing this activity in the home language.

30 Orally takes apart two-syllable words into their component syllables
Using the song “Hickety, Pickity Bumblebee”-show video clip. This demonstrates children orally taking apart their names and breaking them into their component syllables. Children are only responsible for for taking apart two syllable words. The use of names can be less or more than one syllable. An alternative might be to tap rhythm sticks, jump like a kangaroo, or shake maracas. 30

31 The Phonological Awareness Foundations
2.2 Orally blend the onsets, rimes and phonemes of words and orally delete the onsets of words, with the support of pictures or objects. Blend onsets and rimes Delete onsets Blend individual phonemes Foundation 2.2 states that “at around 60 months of age” a child will orally blend the onsets, rimes, and phonemes of words and orally delete the onsets of words, with the support of pictures or objects. Note that for this foundation, the expectation is that children will perform these tasks WITH the support of pictures or objects. The foundation includes several discrete skills. When unpacked, the foundation reveals the following skills: Blending of onsets and rimes Deleting onsets Blending individual phonemes to make a single word As we did with the last PA foundation, we will explore each of these skills individually. 31

32 Orally blend onsets and rimes with the support of pictures or objects
Onset and rime with support of pictures can be practiced in a number of ways. One way is to work with one rime at a time. The teacher might ask the child to select the picture that represents the word made when blending the first and second part of what the teacher says. For example, if the teacher says /b/ /at/, the child should select the photo of the bat. Be sure that the teachers understand not to put /uh/ at the end of the consonant sound such as /buh/ /at/. Facilitators should be very clear in articulating the spoken consonants as they review the examples with participants. For English-language learners, choose pictures that will work in the child’s home language. Have children blend in their home language. Consider introducing the pictures/objects and vocabulary prior to working on blending onset and rimes. Play a game called I Spy and Instead of using pictures you can place some objects on table for people to play with and identify. “I see a /h/ /at/. Table group holds up the hat. Go through this activity with a couple of items on the table. Using objects can be a strong support for children with disabilities. 32 32

33 Delete the onset from a spoken word with the support of pictures or objects
On the table there are three to four cards. The teacher asks the child to say the word pants without the /p/ sound (not /puh/), the child selects the card with ants on it. Again, you may want to introduce the pictures and vocabulary before doing this activity. This strategy may be helpful to English-language learners as well as children with disabilities. This examples comes from the foundations. NOTE for trainers: For English-language learners, suggest participants use pictures of something they could do in child’s home language. 33 33

34 Blend individual phonemes to make a simple word with the support of pictures or objects
Children need exposure to these types of activities: Again, consider introducing the pictures and vocabulary before doing this activity. This strategy may be helpful to English-language learners as well as children with disabilities. In this activity the focus is on blending the three phonemes (/c/ /a/ /t/) to make the word cat. Words should be a single syllable. The picture of the cat is provided as support for the activity. The teacher may play a bingo-like game where she asks the child to find the word for which she sounds out the individual phonemes (e.g., find the /c/ /a/ /t/ or the /d/ /o/ /g/). Consider using real photographs of the familiar objects for the chosen words instead of illustrations. Teacher can also say to children, “I’ll say it slowly, you can say it fast and find the picture.” For children with disabilities, consider repeating it again and then provide “wait time” for child to process the information. For a child with visual impairments, perhaps use pictures that are a black outline only, or provide a high contrast background behind the picture. 34 34

35 Your Turn… At your table, explore the phonological awareness activities in the handout. Put the number of each activity next to the skill it supports: Orally blend words Orally blend syllables Orally take apart words Orally take apart syllables Use pictures to blend onsets and rimes Use pictures to delete onsets Use pictures to blend phonemes This activity can be completed in table groups, as it may be challenging for participants. Review the answers for the group. If time, ask participants for additional ideas. 35

36 Foundations and the DRDP-R
PA Foundation At around 60 months A guide and teaching tool DRDP-R Developmental continuum An observational assessment tool It is important for people to understand that the foundations describe the knowledge and skills that all young children typically exhibit: at around 60 months of age; as they complete their first or second year of preschool; with appropriate support; and when attending a high-quality preschool program. The DRDP-R is the child observational assessment tool. 36

37 Foundations and the DRDP-R
At around 60 months 2.1 Orally blend and delete words and syllables without the support of pictures or objects. 2.2 Orally blend the onsets, rimes, and phonemes of words and orally delete the onset of words, with the support of pictures and objects. Note to presenter: when first showing this slide, no level is circled. Ask participants to think about/discuss at what level the two phonological awareness foundations would align. On mouse click, an oval will appear over the integrating level. The foundations for phonological awareness describe what children can do at around 60 months. On the other hand, the observation assessment tool, the DRDP-R, describes preschool children’s development on a continuum: Exploring, Developing, Building and Integrating. This allows teachers to identify where a child is on the developmental continuum. As you know, the DRDP-R is being aligned with the foundations. Although producing rhymes is not a language and literacy foundation, certainly playing with words, singing rhyming songs, and finger plays and games with rhyming components is appropriate, fun, engaging, and motivating. Children who have mastery at the Building level show awareness of rhymes and sounds at the beginning of words. For example, they may: Know that “car” and “cat” begin with the same sound; May identify other words that begin with the same sound as the sound at the beginning of their name; and May identify something that rhymes, such as when the teacher says “Claire Bear,” the child says “Hey that rhymes!” 37

38 This phonological awareness measure is from the DRDP access (Measure 37).
Both the DRDP-R and DRDP access are developmental continuums. Each assessment helps to identify where children are on the continuum so appropriate experiences can be planned. The lack of phonological awareness is an indicator for possible reading difficulties down the road. Remember that children with disabilities must have access to the curriculum, and the foundations help them get there. The DRDP access is the assessment for some children with disabilities. The activities provided should be based in play, so that all children can participate.

39 Phonological Awareness – DRDP- R and L&L Foundations
DRDP-R and DRDP access Phonological Awareness – DRDP- R and L&L Foundations Explain that the slide shows the DESCRIPTORS for the DRDP-R at the top under each developmental level: Exploring, Developing, Building and Integrating. In the box below, the DESCRIPTORS are the DRDP access levels. Give participants a moment to look at the two pages again. Ask participants what they notice about the two instruments. ANSWER: The developmental levels are the same. DRDP access broke down Building and Integrating into more discrete levels. Check for understanding with the group. You can also reinforce the point about full participation and access to the curriculum.

40 In small groups, participants will use this handout to brainstorm strategies to use with children at each developmental level in order to scaffold up to the next level. Participants will only complete the first row of boxes. Participants will look at the DRDP-R and DRDP access pages, as well as the phonological awareness (PA) foundations pages, to complete the matrix. Later in the presentation, participants will look at the English-language development PA foundations and add to this matrix. 40

41 In the Classroom Transition slide

42 Phonological Awareness Video Viewing Guide
This is the handout used with this activity. 42

43 Early Steps to Reading Success - The Code
Explain that Early Steps for Reading Success was a joint project between the California Department of Education and California First Five. It was developed by University of California Los Angeles and RISE Learning Solutions. It was widely used as a satellite broadcast. 43

44 Phonological Awareness Video Viewing Guide
Optional slide: Show this slide again while debriefing the activity. Explain that participants will be watching a video clip about a teacher named Bianca for about 10 minutes. As they watch, participants should write down the strategies she uses with the children. OPTIONAL: When the video clip ends, provide the participants with 5-10 minutes to share what they recorded on their video viewing guide. Consider inviting participants to share what they saw with the large group or just the table group. 44

45 English-Language Development Foundations 6
English-Language Development Foundations Children demonstrate phonological awareness Focus: Sound differences in the home language and English Beginning Middle Later 6.3 Attend to and manipulate different sounds or tones in words in the home language (as reported by parents, teachers, assistants, or others, with the assistance of an interpreter if necessary). 6.3 Begin to use words in English with phonemes (individual units of meaningful sound in a word or syllable) that are different from the home language. 6.3 Begin to orally manipulate sounds (onsets, rimes, and phonemes) in words in English, with support. Ask participants to turn the ELD foundations on pages Note that foundation 6.3 is on page 133. Ask participants to consider the connection between the language and literacy foundation 2.2 (p.66) and the ELD foundation 6.0. California Preschool Learning Foundations p.133

46 English-Language Development Foundations 6
English-Language Development Foundations Children demonstrate phonological awareness Focus: Rhyming Beginning Middle Later 6.1 Listen attentively and begin to participate in simple songs, poems, and finger plays that emphasize rhyme in the home language or English. 6.1 Begin to repeat or recite simple songs, poems, and finger plays that emphasize rhyme in the home language or in English. 6.1 Repeat, recite, produce, or initiate simple songs, poems, and finger plays that emphasize rhyme in English. Ask participants to turn the ELD foundations on pages Note that foundation 6.1 is on page 131. California Preschool Learning Foundations p.131

47 English-Language Development Foundations 6
English-Language Development Foundations Children demonstrate phonological awareness Focus: Onset (initial sound) Beginning Middle Later 6.2 Listen attentively and begin to participate in simple songs, poems, and finger plays in the home language or English. 6.2 Begin to recognize words that have a similar onset (initial sound) in the home language or in English. 6.2 Recognize and produce words that have a similar onset (initial sound) in English. Ask participants to turn the ELD foundations on pages Note that foundation 6.2 is on page 132. California Preschool Learning Foundations, p.132

48 For English-Language Learners
Children who have the skills to understand and communicate in their home language will transfer that knowledge to the learning of a second language, resulting in a more effective and efficient second-language learning process. (Cummins 1979; Wong Fillmore 1991a). California Preschool Learning Foundations p.104 English-language learners are developing many skills simultaneously. While they are developing language and literacy skills, they are also developing English-language skills. The DRDP-R measure 33 for phonological awareness measures all children’s development of this skill whether they speak English or another language. The three ELD phonological awareness foundations describe how children move from demonstrating their knowledge of these skills in their home language to demonstrating those same skills in English.

49 English Learners … Two Important Considerations
Is the child a successive or simultaneous bilingual? In what stage of language acquisition is the child? It is important to consider when the child was first exposed to English, as this information is helpful in planning to meet the individual needs of the children with whom you work. In addition, in which of the following stages of language acquisition is the child: home language, observational/listening, telegraphic/formulaic, or fluid language use. Teaching strategies and learning activities should be selected based on this information.

50 Successive bilingual children…
add the second language after the first was established, often when the child first enters preschool. need time to attune to the sounds of English that are not found in their home language. Refer to the “English-Spanish Connection” handout.

51 Simultaneous bilingual children…
learn two or more languages from birth or infancy. may have prior experiences and the phonological awareness necessary to distinguish the sounds of both languages. continue to develop these skills as they grow.

52 ELD Foundations and PEL Guide
Home Language Use Observational/Listening Telegraphic/Formulaic Fluid Language Use Beginning Middle Later Facilitator note: one arrow will appear upon each click. Children at the beginning level of second-language acquisition will need more scaffolding to hear the sounds in English that are not present in L1. Children at the fluid use stage will need less support. Remember that children will be at all levels depending on the foundation. TRAINER NOTE: If further clarification is necessary, please refer to the PLF - FAQ and the ELD foundations Introduction on page 106.

53 English-Language Learners
Rhyming techniques that produce nonsense words can be confusing, as children are listening attentively to gain meaning from English words. Songs and rhymes are one of the best techniques for exposing children to the sounds of English. If children have more phonological awareness and print knowledge in their first language, they tend to have stronger phonological awareness and print knowledge in their second language. These are transferable skills. 53

54 The participant will now consider the second row of boxes and complete strategies that support English-language learners. Participants need the ELD PA foundations. 54

55 Meeting the Needs of All Learners
This information can be presented in two ways. The special education leads can choose to weave the information into the presentation where it fits, or it can be done as a stand-alone.

56 Meeting the Needs of All Children
Children experiencing delayed speech and/or language skills may experience difficulties with phonological awareness. Some children may have difficulty hearing the individual sounds. This information is also in a handout. Consider asking participants to share the information from the handout in a “call and response” manner. 2nd bullet: A child who is deaf will not learn how to sound things out and combine sounds to read words. Instead, it is important for the child to learn how to use words in context rather than in isolation. (Schiller and Willis, Inclusive Literacy Lessons for Early Childhood 2008.) Ask group what that might look like, or provide them with an example. 56

57 Meeting the Needs of All Children
Some children may hear the sounds, but not understand what it is they hear. The more we support listening activities by engaging children through different modalities, the more children will understand and become aware of the sounds of language. Bullet 2: For example, asking children to chant and stamp a rhyme involves listening and moving. Children should have opportunities to be in a noisy, action-filled environment, as well as opportunities for quiet times and spaces. 57

58 Teaching Strategies For All Children
Children who have hearing, language, or visual impairments use: increased practice and repetition pictures props pictures or words outlined with glue TRAINER NOTE: Show examples, if available. Use paste or glue to create relief pictures for children who have visual impairments. Outline the words with glue. 58

59 Teaching Strategies For All Children
Use gestures or sounds to help demonstrate the sequence of sounds. Discuss the sound of a letter and how the sound is used in words. Utilize whisper phone or phoneme phone 2nd bullet:#2- One example might be “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.” Children can often hear the repetition of the /p/ sound, but do not necessarily understand that the sound is made by a letter called P. This is a great example of alliteration which is part of phonological awareness. Whisper Phone or Phoneme phone-These greatly increase the child’s ability to notice spoken sounds in words and are easy to make, as well as lots of fun. NOTE: Whisper phone is a short length of pvc pipe (3 inches) with an elbow connector on each end. (FYI-sometimes a Home Depot staff person may cut the 3-inch pieces at no charge.) NOTE: Bring one to the training if possible. This could be added as a make and take at a teacher workshop. 59

60 Teaching Strategies for All Children
Use concrete instructional strategies. Slow down the presentation of the word or words. Demonstrate with exaggerated lip and tongue movements. Concrete strategies: provide props- e.g., toss a block in a basket each time you sound a syllable. 60

61 Teaching Strategies for All Children
Provide extensive repetition across environments. Initially use continuous consonants (m,n,s sounds) in phonological awareness activities to support children’s multi-sensory learning. Begin with continuous consonants such as mmm. Initially use continuous consonants m, n, s to promote children’s ability to: feel /s/ see the production of /f/ provide tactile or vibration feedback /m/ 61

62 Teaching Strategies for All Children
Building Sound Awareness Activities Speak clearly Read books with predictable patterns Engage children in favorite rhyming songs and finger plays It is important to remember to articulate consonants in a pure fashion. For example, /b/ should not have an /uh/ attached to it. Ultimately the additional sounds can cause problems for children as they learn to read.

63 Next Steps for Administrators
Share information from today’s session. Provide the resources and time for teachers to read and discuss the information. Create opportunities for teachers to learn, discuss, reflect, and implement new approaches. This is a slide to consider using with administrators. This private time for reflection allows participants to personalize the content to their own background knowledge and identify the ways it fits within their practice. Next steps: The participants will reflect on the module content. They will identify three things they learned, two things to utilize in practice, and their first step. 63

64 3-2-1 Action for Administrators
My First Step Will Be NOTE: A reflection or action plan needs to be included. The “3-2-1” is one action plan. However, regional leads may select to utilize an alternative reflection or action plan activity. Distribute the “3-2-1 Action Plan.” Ask participants to consider the questions at the top of the handout: What information will I share from today’s session? In what ways will I share the information? How will I provide the resources and time for teachers to read and discuss the information? What will I do to create opportunities for teachers to learn, discuss, reflect, and implement new approaches? Each participant should complete the handout as she/he reflects upon the day. 64

65 3-2-1 Action for Teachers My first step will be
NOTE: A reflection or action plan needs to be included. The “3-2-1” is one action plan. However, regional leads may select to utilize an alternative reflection or action plan activity. Distribute the “3-2-1 Action Plan.” Ask participant to consider the questions at the top of the handout: What information will I share from today’s session? In what ways will I share the information? How will I provide the resources and time for teachers to read and discuss the information? What will I do to create opportunities for teachers to learn, discuss, reflect, and implement new approaches? Each participants should complete the handout as she/he reflects upon the day. 65

66 Q & A

67 CDE Web site At the Web address, the underlined Preschool Learning Foundations link takes you to the publication. There you will have easy access to the chapters and sections within the 192 page publication. The Appendix, on pages , provides a summary list of the foundations. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are posted on the website. Questions can be sent to Share the information in the first bullet. Provide the Web handout. On page of the Appendix, you will find a summary list of the foundations, excluding the examples and other material. Hold one up to show how small. Remind participants that the preschool foundation’s address on the previous page is also on the CDE web site. Many questions were asked during the extensive public review process. CDE has developed a set of Frequently Asked Questions to provide the answers to those questions. The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) document is a living document. Over time, new questions will be added and existing responses may be clarified as needed.

68 The entire document is online at the California Department of Education web site. You can look at a specific section or download the entire document. This slide shows the way the web page is designed. The Appendix contains a summary list of the foundations, excluding the examples and other material. The foundations are also available for purchase through CDE press.

69 To Purchase The Preschool Learning Foundations publication is available for purchase from the CDE Press for $19.95. Ordering information can be found at the CDE Web site or by calling Remind participants that there is a handout in the folder with ordering information.

70 References & Resources
Avni, F. (2001).”There’s a Starfish Hidden Under my Bed.” I’m All Ears: Sing into reading. Bayer, J. E. (1984). A My Name Is Alice. NY, NY: Penguin Books. California Department of Education (2007). Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy and Learning. Sacramento, CA: Author. California Department of Education (2008). California Preschool Learning Foundations: Volume one. Sacramento, CA: Author. Remove A My Name Is Alice reference, if that welcoming activity isn’t used.

71 Please complete an evaluation.
Fill-in the bubbles completely Use pencil, black, or blue ink 71

72 Thank you for coming! Insert Local Information Here 72

73 Optional Information It was suggested that the content be flipped. Meaning, start with what phonemic awareness is and how it looks in the classroom and then relate it to the foundations. This is an optional way to present the content. You may move the slides around if you wish.

74 A my name is Alice… J my name is Jan. I want to travel to Japan
and I love to jump! This activity is an optional grounding activity. 74

75 Your Turn _____ my name is ______. I want to travel to ________
Use the first letter in your name to complete the following statements: _____ my name is ______. I want to travel to ________ and I love _________________! This activity is adapted from a traditional children’s jump rope chant. 75

76 Show Me The Money This is one of three optional activities for the Introduction and Bibliographic Notes section. Transition slide to activity.

77 Show Me The Money This is the handout trainers will ask participants to find.

78 Show Me The Money With your table group:
Read the Phonological Awareness sections of the Introduction and Bibliographic Notes. Find the answers to the “Show Me the Money” questions. Be prepared to share your answers and earn money. You have 15 minutes.

79 Just the Facts Ma’am This is one of three optional activities for the Introduction and Bibliographic Notes section. Transition slide to activity. 79

80 Finding the Facts This is the handout trainers will ask participants to find.

81 Finding Facts about Phonological Awareness
With your table group: Read the Phonological Awareness sections of the Introduction and the Bibliographic Notes. Find the facts about phonological awareness. Be prepared to share your answers. 81

82 Just the Facts Ma’am Each table will share one or more facts about phonological awareness. Be sure to emphasize that phonological awareness is not consistently mastered by children under four years of age AND vocabulary development may facilitate the development of phonological awareness. Option: Use the round-robin approach and ask each table to share one or more answers from the “Facts about Phonological Awareness” handout. Option: Ask participants to identify which of the facts was new to them. Have them record this information on their own papers for their future use. These facts may inspire further exploration by individuals in the group. 82


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