Presentation on theme: "Recommended Literacy Practices for Preschool English Learners"— Presentation transcript:
1Recommended Literacy Practices for Preschool English Learners Opening (slides 1-2, 2 min)In preparation: Some of the information was introduced at the Overview Training conducted by CPIN and will be developed in greater depth in this training. Trainers would thus benefit from reviewing what they covered related to Chapter 8, “Recommended Early Literacy Practices”, as part of the Overview Training and refer back to that content when needed.Note: Use these trainer notes after slide 2 “Review: Arrival Activity”Bring the group together by explaining that the day/training session will be opening with an activity to tap into previous knowledge regarding the topic of early literacy practices. In general the session will move back and forth between:data and researchInteractive activities and make-and-take activities that serve to introduce or reinforce the critical early literacy skills all children need, including preschool English learners.Preschool English LearnersResource GuideChapter 8 Extended Modules
2Review Arrival Activity: Overview Training on Chapter 8 As you come in, make your way to the posters titled “Key Points” located around the room.Each poster lists one key point from the Overview Training on Chapter 8 of the Preschool English Learner Resource Guide (PEL Resource Guide).Jot down what you remember in relation to each key point from the training.In preparation: Each of the five key points listed on slides of the Overview Training should have been made into laminated posters or printed on large cardstock and laminated to tape onto blank poster paper to post around the training room.This activity is a way to have the participants engage with the materials as they arrive, and start to tap into his/her previous knowledge related to the topic at hand.If someone did not attend the overview training, invite them to jot down their reaction to the key point based on previous knowledge they have related to early literacy for preschool English learners.
3Arrival Activity: KWLTake a few minutes to write down on Handout 1A: Early Literacy KWL one statement youAlready know about early literacy for English learnersWant to know about early literacy for English learners.At the end of this module, you will add a statement about something youLearned about early literacy for English learners.Arrival activity: KWL (7 Min)In preparation: Handout 1A1) Let participants know that if they can’t generate ideas about their knowledge base of early literacy for young English learners, they can write ideas about what they know about early literacy in general. They should draw on the review portion of the arrival activity that they engaged in as they arrived.2) When most participants have finished writing, call on a few to share.3) As a way to close this activity, invite teachers to share how they’ve used the KWL technique with children.
4OutcomesTo review recommended early literacy practices for preschool English learners covered in the Overview Training.To discuss recent research, promising practices, and long-term achievement regarding young English learners’ literacy development.To cover in greater depth both early literacy research and practical applications for preschool English learners.Outcomes (slide 4, 2 min)Third bullet: “In greater depth” is in comparison to the PEL Overview Training.PLF: As part of the “promising practices” and “practical applications” discussed in this training, additional links to the California Preschool Learning Foundations for English-Language Development will be provided to assist in understanding the developmental progression of children’s second language development.
5Connections to California’s Preschool Learning System Preschool Learning FoundationsEnglish-Language DevelopmentProgram Guidelines and ResourcesPreschool English Learners Resource GuideProfessional DevelopmentPreschool Curriculum FrameworkDesired Results Assessment systemPreschool Learning System (slides 5-6, 5 min)In preparation: Facilitators should have copies of all the items mentioned in the slide, unless they are still in development, e.g. the Preschool Curriculum Framework. They should also have some extra copies on hand for participants to refer to during the discussion and activities.This slide lists the 5 components of California’s Preschool Learning System: Preschool Learning Foundations, Program Guidelines and Resources, a statewide system of Professional Development, upcoming Preschool Curriculum Frameworks, and the Desired Results Assessment system. Trainers should just read the titles aloud and then in the next slide describe them in further detail.
6Facilitator: “This is a graphic of California’s Preschool Learning System. We will quickly review the five components This will better enable us to see how the foundations fit as the centerpiece for Preschool Learning System.”At the center of the system are the Preschool Learning Foundations which describe the learning and development that preschool children typically demonstrate with appropriate support at around 48 and 60 months of age.The Program Guidelines and Resources component includes publications such as the Prekindergarten Learning & Development Guidelines and the Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning (PEL Guide).Professional development is provided through the state’s extensive higher education system, the California Preschool Instructional Network, the Faculty Initiative Project, and other CDE activities.The Preschool Curriculum Framework offers guidance on how programs and teachers can support the learning and development that are described in the foundations, through environments and experiences that are linguistically and developmentally appropriate, as well as individually and culturally meaningful and connected.The Desired Results Assessment system is designed to document the progress made by children and families in achieving desired results and provides information to help practitioners improve their child care and development services. The Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP) is an observation assessment instrument that enables teachers to document children’s learning and developmental progress along a continuum of four developmental levels.
7Agenda KWL: Already know, want to know. Family Literacy Practices: The Foundation for Early Literacy.Why Support Early Literacy? Building Blocks for Later Reading Success.Supports for Oral Language Development.Reading with Preschool English Learners.KWL: What did you learn about early literacy for English learners?Agenda (slide 7, 2 minutes)
8Family Literacy Practices: Foundation for Early Literacy Family Literacy Practices: Foundation for Early Literacy (slides 8-12, 7 min)It is important to recognize that an important goal of fostering early literacy is for young children to experience the joy, magic, and wonder that books can offer. This can happen when ‘reading’ books alone or when being read to by parents, siblings, extended family members, friends, neighbors, etc. It also happens through a range of literacy activities that do not always incorporate the use of books.
9Review: Definition of Early Literacy “The gradual and ongoing process of learning to understand and use language that begins at birth and continues through the early childhood years. During this period children first learn to use oral forms of language-listening and speaking-and then begin to explore and make sense of written forms-reading and writing.”In preparation: On chart paper, write each of the 3 questions below. Participants will be recording their responses on separate sheets of chart paper.Read aloud the definition and remind participants that this definition was introduced in the Overview Training.Next, ask participants to focus on the following questions:What does the definition state about the relationships between oral forms of language and written forms of language?What does this definition imply for life-long literacy development?What does the definition imply about literacy practices in which children and their families engage in daily?Ask participants to share their answers to the questions above, and record the responses on chart paper.Koralek, D. & Collins, R. (1997). On the road to reading: A guide for community partners. Vienna, VA: The Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center, p.10.
10Life-long Literacy Development Literacy is a means to lifelong personal development and education.Literacy moves beyond the simple reading of a word and becomes an act of critical understanding of one’s situation in the world.UNESCO, 2008This slide and the next slide expand upon the definition of early literacy, offering the more “global”, life-long goals of literacy development.Read the bullet points aloud, and at the same time, refer to participants responses to the question, “What does this definition imply for life-long literacy development?” recorded on chart paper.The source of this information is from the web site for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The more complete version of the bullets on this and the next slide is listed below.1. A literate person is one who can with understanding both read and write a short simple statement relevant to his everyday life.2. Literacy is not just the simple reading of a word or a set of associated symbols and sounds, but an act of critical understanding of people’s situation in the world.3. Literacy is not an end in itself but a means of personal liberation and development and extending individuals educational efforts involving overall inter-disciplinary responses to concrete problems4. A literate person is one who has acquired all the essential knowledge and skills which enable him to engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his group and community and whose attaining in reading, writing and numeracy make it possible to use these skills towards his own and his community’s development.“UNESCO was founded on 16 November For this specialized United Nations agency, it is not enough to build classrooms in devastated countries or to publish scientific breakthroughs. Education, Social and Natural Science, Culture and Communication are the means to a far more ambitious goal : to build peace in the minds of [persons].”Source: URL_ID=3328&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
11Life-long Literacy Development A literate person:Can read and write short and longer texts related to everyday life.Has acquired essential skills in reading, writing, numeracy, and other content areas that allow one to function effectively and contribute meaningfully to one’s community.UNESCO, 2008See Slide 10 notes.
12Connections to the PEL Resource Guide Principle 1The education of English learners is enhanced when preschool programs and families form meaningful partnerships. (pg 16)Principle 9Engaging in multiple literacy practices, such as reading books, singing songs, and reciting poetry, is part of the daily life of many families. (pg 73-74)In Preparation: Refer participants to the PEL Resource Guide:Principle 1, p. 16Principle 9, ppThis is a reminder that the PEL Resource Guide contains several ideas to implement that will support the development of early literacy. The following activity engages participants in the “practices” section of Principle 9, by modeling one way to ask families about the ways they engage in the use of language and literacy practices.PLF: Some of the research on language development in the home is reviewed on pages of the Preschool Learning Foundations. Pages 54 and 85 in the Preschool Learning Foundation in Language and Literacy also addresses Literacy Interest and Response.
13Connections to the Preschool Learning Foundations "Children are first introduced to language and literacy in the home language and these experiences provide an important foundation for success in learning literacy in English."(page 103) PLF Durgunoglu and Öney 2000; Jiménez, García, and Pearson 1995; Lanauze and Snow 1989; Lopez and Greenfield 2004).
14Home Literacy SurveyTake a few minutes to complete Handout 1B: Survey of Children’s Home Literacy.Base your responses on what your family practiced when you were a child or what you practiced with your own young children.Survey of Home Literacy Activities (slide 13, 20 minutes)In preparation: Handout 1B (2 pages)Note: This activity is often incorporated as part of the Overview Training, therefore it is optional and should only be used as time allows. The trainer could engage the group in a large group discussion using the questions on the survey as prompts. Participants could each contribute one language or literacy activity. These could be recorded on chart paper.Distribute Handout 1B: Survey of Children’s Home Literacy Activities. Point out that home literacy activities often include both print materials and oral language activities:• Oral language and literacy activities: conversations, storytelling, singing• Print literacy activities: reading mail, writing letters to other family members, reading newspapers and magazines, writing grocery lists, reading for pleasureOnce participants have completed about half of the survey, guide them in moving on to Part B of the Survey and to identify the three practices that were particularly joyful and/or helpful and/or unique and create a poster as a small group.Note: Encourage participants to take and use the handout in their own settings. Emphasize the importance of incorporating family literacy activities as a way of working with families.
15Ways to Tap into Family Literacy Poems, rhymes, versesFingerplaysMusic, songsArtDanceCatalogsRecipe books, menusMuseums, parksBoard gamesFamily storiesMealtime conversationsCar/plane gamesMagazinesNewspapers/ComicsWays to Tap into Family Literacy (slide 14, 2 min)This slide serves as a summary and transition. The list presented here illustrates that there are many ways to support literacy, and may very well capture some of the ideas shared by participants during the preceding activity.Some families may feel more comfortable or find it more natural to implement some of the ways listed here in addition to some of the ways that are practiced in school (e.g alphabet blocks, magnetic alphabet letters). Honoring a wide range of literacy practices serves as a way to honor practices familiar to the child, and at the same time, forms stronger linkages between home and school.Note: As an extension for this activity, the trainer could choose to have small groups use chart paper to represent how to implement one of the ways to support literacy listed on this slide, or one of the ideas shared aloud by the participants.
16Why Support Early Literacy? Building Blocks for Reading Success Why Support Early Literacy (slides 15-19, 8 min)This is a transition slide from the introductory material presented thus far to the research data to be presented in following slides.Note: The research findings will lay the foundation for the discussion on strategies throughout this training module, which contribute to the development of rich and varied vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, etc.
17Early Literacy Skills That Lead to Later Reading Success Oral Language as the foundationVocabulary and Listening Comprehension: Children who have a strong vocabulary – large set of words, varied, and complex – increase their ability to make sense of what they are reading.Providing children many opportunities to listen and speak gives children an important foundation for reading and writing. (pg 72)Coyne, Simmons Kame’enui, 2004These skills will be referred to as key early literacy skills in upcoming trainer notes.Refer participants to PEL Resource Guide, p (Koralek & Collins, 1997) and Teaching Through Language, p.76Additional Research:The significance of vocabulary development in early literacy has been underestimated given that it does not truly come into play until children are in 3rd or 4th grade as a prerequisite for reading success. In fact, oral proficiency developed at home, prior to entering kindergarten, contributes to later literacy development in English.So, deficits in vocabulary may be fundamentally more remediable than many other school learning problems. We can do more in the early years to ensure rapid vocabulary development and greater comprehension of grade-level texts in the upper grades. (Biemiller, 2006)Multiple opportunities for children to interact with target vocabulary in meaningful contexts can result in increased vocabulary learning. (Coyne, Simmons Kame’enui, 2004)PLF: Page 50 and 73 of the preschool learning foundations in language and literacy discusses vocabulary development and the it’s role in reading.
18Early Literacy Skills That Lead to Later Reading Success Phonological AwarenessA sensitivity to the sounds in spoken language.Supporting phonological awareness:Orally taking apart words and syllables (PLF, page 65).Orally blends the onsets and rimes of words (PLF, page 65).Connections to the PEL Resource Guide:In preparation: Have at least one copy of PLF per table as well as copies of PEL.Refer participants to the PEL Glossary beginning on page 110, which defines many of these terms. The expanded definition of phonological awareness comes from the glossary, p. 113.PLF: Refer participants to PLF ELD Foundations to make connections to the early literacy points on the screen. Explain that the foundations provide a guide for teachers to understand the developmental progression second language learners follow as they acquire phonological awareness in English.p. 131 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness Focus: Rhyming;p. 132 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness. Focus: Onset (initial sound);p. 133 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness. Focus: Sound differences in the home language and EnglishRefer participants to PLF Language and Literacy Foundation domain to better understand phonological awareness.p. 52 and pp Provides information on phonological awareness.p. 89 Definition of phonological awareness.pp Reading strand: Substrand 2.0 Phonological AwarenessNote: Trainers could also refer to the FAQs document developed by CDE/CDD regarding the connection between the ELD and the Language and Literacy Foundations.
19Early Literacy Skills That Lead to Later Reading Success Alphabetic knowledge:Recognizing and naming some letters.Print knowledge and concepts:Environmental printConcepts about print, such as reading from left to right, and story structure.Writing:Including scribbling and invented spelling.PLF: Refer participants to PLF ELD Foundations domain to make connections to the early literacy points on the screen.• Alphabetic knowledge:p. 129 Reading, Substrand 5.0 Children demonstrate progress in their knowledge of the alphabet in English. Focus: Letter awareness• Print knowledge and concepts:p. 128 Reading strand: Substrand 4.0 Children demonstrate awareness that print carries meaning. Focus: Environmental printp. 127 Reading strand: Substrand 3.0 Children demonstrate an understanding of print conventions. Focus: Book handlingp. 126 Reading strand: Substrand 2.0 Children show an increasing understanding of book reading. Focus: Story structure• Writingp. 134 Writing strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use writing to communicate their ideas. Focus: Writing as communicationPLF Language and Literacy Foundations domainpp and 53 Information on print knowledge and conceptspp and Information on writingp. 63 Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Concepts About Printp. 67 Reading strand: Substrand 3.0 Alphabetics and Word/Print Recognitionp. 70 Writing strand: Substrand 1.0 Writing Strategies
20Early Literacy Skills That Lead to Later Reading Success Attention should be given to key early literacy skills that are predictive of later reading success.Vocabulary and Listening ComprehensionPhonological AwarenessAlphabetic KnowledgePrint Knowledge and ConceptsWritingFor preschool English learners, experiences in the home language provide a bridge to English literacy.Snow, D. Burns, S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, p. 9.Emphasize that these research findings lay the foundation for the discussion on strategies. For example, strategies explored in this training module (dialogic reading, Strive for 5, types of questions, etc.) all contribute to the development of rich and varied vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness.Source: The NIEER April 2006, Issue 10, Preschool Policy Brief, Early Literacy: Policy and Practice in the Preschool Years, offers a concise overview of the findings of the National Early Literacy Panel, and is available atSnow, D. Burns, S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, p. 9.Note: The research base is still quite limited on early literacy as it relates to preschool English learners, in comparison to what we know about monolingual English preschoolers in the U.S.PLF: Refer participants to PLF ELD Foundations pp Categories of English-language development for a brief introduction to a typical developmental progression in the four categories: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
21Building from the Home Language Home language experiences can have a positive impact on literacy achievement.Home Literacy SurveyOral proficiency and literacy in the home language can facilitate literacy development in English.Children transfer literacy skills from one language to another. The stronger the skills are in the home language, the more likely the children will transfer those skills to the second language. (pg 74)The Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Skills of Hispanic Head Start Children, Lisa M López; Daryl B Greenfield, Bilingual Research Journal; Spring 2004; 28, 1First bullet: Refer to the home literacy activity that was just completed. (Handout 1B)Facilitators can also remind participants of the importance of engaging families in conversations regarding the power of rich dialogue at home with young children. This can happen between parents, grandparents, older siblings, friends, extended family, etc.
22Building from the Home Language If the home language has a different writing system, the task of learning to read and write may be more challenging. (pg 76)English and Chinese have different writing systems.First bullet: Refer to the home literacy activity that was just completed. (Handout 1B)Facilitators can also remind participants of the importance of engaging families in conversations regarding the power of rich dialogue at home with young children. This can happen between parents, grandparents, older siblings, friends, extended family, etc.Second bullet: Refer participants to p. 74 of the PEL Resource Guide.Recent research with Spanish-speaking preschool-age children: There is a positive relationship between phonological awareness skills in Spanish and English (Lopez & Greenfield, 2004)PLF: Refer participants to PLF ELD Foundations to make connections to the early literacy points on the screen.p. 136 Writing strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use writing to communicate their ideas Focus: Writing their own name.Note: Developmentally children may begin by using the writing system of their home language to write their name, and gradually progress over time to writing their name in English.
23Building from the Home Language General cognitive abilities transfer across languages and facilitate literacy development (pg 74)Making sense of new concepts by connecting information from what is being discussed with what the child already knows.Using knowledge of letter-sound relationships to begin to decode print.Applying knowledge of word order when starting to read and write.Understanding a story read aloud and asking questions when they are confused.Putting thoughts into writing.Note: These findings are listed in the PEL Resource Guide on pp They are largely based on research done with children in kindergarten and the elementary grades.
24Bringing Concepts to Life Bringing Concepts to Life (slide 23, 3 min)This is a transition slide.Trainer: As a recap, we have covered the following up to now:California’s Preschool Learning SystemWhat we know from research, regarding early literacy skills and building on the home languageNow, we will move into explicit options for addressing the key components of early literacy in the classroom:Supports for ensuring extended conversations, including Strive for 5Types of questions: Known-answer and Open-endedSupports for Oral Language Development: Poetry in Motion, Fishing for Sounds, and How Many Syllables in Your Name?Creating your own storybooks/booksPhases of a successful reading activity
25Supports for Oral Language Development Supports for Oral Language Development (slides 24-26, 7 min)Note: Refer participants to the Appendix, pages of the Preschool Learning Foundations for a summary list of the Speaking strand foundations for the English-language development domain.
26Building Oral Language for Preschool English Learners Time, materials, and resources that actively help children build language and conceptual knowledge.A supportive learning environment in which children have access to a wide variety of print resources.Intentional or specific scaffolds that support the learning for English learners.Note: Guide participants to pages in the PEL Resource Guide, which contain a list of supports or scaffolds that early childhood teachers can implement to maximize the learning for English learners.Here are sample materials typically found in preschool settings to encourage oral language, vocabulary, and literacy development:Play telephones Dolls and dramatic play propsFlannel board stories PuppetsCommunication boards and other assistive devices for children with disabilities.Environmental print Play microphonesA “stage”Encourage participants to generate additional ideas, OR have participants complete the checklist outlined in the next slide.Adapted from Neuman, S. (2006)
27Building Oral Language for Preschool English Learners Experiences that help children connect new learning to what they already know and can do.Opportunities for sustained and in-depth learning.High levels of teacher interaction to assist and guide children’s learning.Note: As an example of Bullet 1: Guide participants to the “Research to Practice: Drawing on Student’s Knowledge” box on page 81 of the PEL Resource Guide.Adapted from Neuman, S. (2006)
28Extended Conversations Provide a variety of contexts and opportunities for talke.g. book read aloud, pretend play, etc.Fine-tune the balance between talking and listening to childrenduring free play talk less, listen more.Build and extend on children’s comments.Use a variety of complex words“You must be very brave and daring to climb up there.”Engage children in thoughtful discussione.g. during book reading focus on story.Dickinson & Tabors, 2002Extended Conversations & Strive for 5 (slides 27-32, 15 min)When teachers are having conversations with children, there are several strategies for extending conversations. Extended conversations encourage multiple turn-taking by each partner in the conversation, promote use or introduction of varied and complex vocabulary, and validate children’s experiences and interests.This slide reviews the ways to promote rich conversations. It serves as a reminder to give children multiple opportunities to practice the language they are learning in meaningful ways.Supporting language is hard work. Research shows that children have few conversations with their teachers that incorporate the use of a large variety of vocabulary words, and extended conversations are rare.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners? Intentional efforts are required to foster oral language. Teachers must be aware of the opportunities for meaningful conversation with peers, both English-speaking peers and peers that share a common home language, and teachers. Teachers must plan intentionally to provide these opportunities for children to talk.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 115 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Communication of needsp. 116 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Vocabulary productionp. 117 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Conversationp. 118 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Utterance length and complexityp. 119 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Grammarp. 122 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Narrative development
29Strive for 5Strive for 5 turns on the same topic as a way to stretch conversations.Add details, introduce new words, enhance language by using,Adjectives & adverbsDefinitions & synonymsCompare & inferencesSyntax & pragmatics.Strive for 5 (slides 36-41, 15 min)“Strive for 5” is a technique developed by David Dickinson. The focus is on having at least 5 turns on the same topic, 2 rounds of conversation where for example, the teacher initiates, the child responds. Then the teacher speaks, and the child responds, and the teacher speaks once more.Teachers can expand conversations by asking open-ended questions to encourage children to tell them more. Dickinson states not to intentionally avoid adult-like grammar.What early language and literacy skills does this activity address?This technique encourages children to use a greater variety of words, build their vocabularies, and express complex ideas in full sentences.Teachers can stretch conversations by adding details in their parts of the conversation, introducing new words and enhancing the language by using adjectives and adverbs. Other aspects to this strategy include: modeling definitions with synonymous words, comparing things so children can make inferences, and modeling the correct use of words and pragmatics (body language).Dickinson & Tabors, 2001
30Example of Strive for 5Teacher: “What would you do if you found a giraffe outside?” (Turn 1)Child: “I would leave it alone.” (Turn 2)What might the teacher add next?Note: The Strive for 5 example goes from slide 27 through slide 32. Each “turn” is counted by the number in parenthesis. This particular example actually has 6 turns showing teachers that “Strive for 5” provides a guideline, but they can always go beyond the 5 turns if the situation presents itself.Adapted from: Dickinson & Tabors (2001)
31Example of Strive for 5Teacher: “ Why would you leave it alone?” (Turn 3)Child: “Cause I don’t want to bring it home.” (Turn 4)What might the teacher add next?Read slideAdapted from: Dickinson & Tabors (2001)
32Example of Strive for 5 Teacher: “No?” (Turn 5) Child: “They would have to make a really big house.” (Turn 6)Teacher: “A gigantic house.” (Turn 7)This “Strive for 5” example helps build language for a lifetime, and would only take less than 30 seconds.Note: By using the word “gigantic” after the child has said “big house”, the teacher is introducing a new word (adjective) and giving that new word (gigantic) a definition that is related to the word that the child used (big).PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 117 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus: ConversationLevels:Beginning - Converse in the home language, point, mime, act out, or respond with gesturesMiddle - Uses some English vocabulary, but may code-switchLater - Converse in English.Refer participants to PEL Resource Guide pp Research to Practice: “Strategies for Responding to Stages of Communication That Children Move Into and Out of as They Learn a Second Language”.Adapted from: Dickinson & Tabors (2001)
33Try It! Strive for 5The trainer and a volunteer engage in a conversation.The trainer initiates the conversation by stating, “Where have you visited recently?”Participant responds, “I went to ____.”A volunteer comes up front to have a conversation with one of the trainers.Trainers: Tell me about a place you have visited recently (can be a city, a country, amusement park, relative’s home, etc.)Volunteer: I went to __________.Trainer: Models extending the conversation, using Strive for 5.This activity is a way for participants to see the technique “Strive for 5” in action and to demystify it so that they will feel more comfortable implementing it with the children in their program.Additional Activity:Trainers can use the additional examples listed below to engage participants in small group work to identify the 5 turns, what strategies were implemented to extend the conversation, etc. The conversations could be posted on chart paper, or provided as a handout, for participants to use as they discuss the conversations. Small groups could then engage in a large group discussion.#1Setting: Child is playing outside and the classroom assistant engages child in this conversation.Child: I went to Grandma's house!Teacher: What did you do at Grandma's? (Allow “Wait Time" for child to gather thoughts)Child: I maked a cake.Teacher: Made a cake? (Pause for response; if none is forthcoming, extend by adding the following:) Tell me how you made it?Child: We put in eggs and stirred it.Teacher: Did you help crack the eggs? (Vocabulary extension through incorporating "crack")Example 2B: Something to note: --- Some children/cultures stress the family/people present and behaviors of an experience, rather than the materials used. If so, the conversation might look like this....Child: We maked a cake.Child: Me and Grandma maked it, we used eggs.Teacher: Did you help Grandma crack the eggs?Child: Yes, and I made a big mess!#2Setting: Four year old child has come into the classroom and tells his teacher about a trip to the playground by his house.Example 1Child: I went to the park.Teacher: What did you do at the park?Child: I played on the swings.Teacher: What else did you do?Child: I went down the slide. It was really, really tall and it went down and down.Teacher: Did you go with someone else?Child: I went with mommy and Tyler wasn’t there.Teacher: Is Tyler your friend?Child : Tyler is my friend. He likes to play at the park too.Teacher : It sounds like you had lots of fun at the park.Adapted from: Dickinson & Tabors (2001)
34Facilitating Language Use and Development Through social interactionConversationsQuestionsTypes of QuestionsKnown-answerOpen-endedFacilitating Language Use and Development and Types of Questions (slides 33-36, 27 min)This is a transition slide between extending conversations and types of questions.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Refer participants to page 27 of the PEL Resource Guide under the section of "Our Community" Language Practices. Attending to the types of questions used in the classroom is one way to build on what is familiar to children.Also refer participants to page 55 of PEL Resource Guide -- Expand and ExtendThis is based on studies conducted by Shirley Brice Heath, Courtney Cazden, Eve Gregory, and others.What early literacy skills does this activity address? Oral language, vocabulary development, listening skillsPLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 112 Listening strand: Substrand 1.0 Children listen with understandingp. 115 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate with othersp. 121 Speaking strand: Substrand 2.0 Children begin to understand and use social conventions in Englishp. 122 Speaking strand: Substrand 3.0 Children use language to create oral narratives about their personal experiences.
35Known-Answer Questions Teacher knows the answer to the questionExample: What color is my shirt?Can serve as:A quick assessment of child’s knowledge of a simple conceptA way to include English learners at the one-word stage.Introduce these two types of questions using slides 34 and 35.Explain that known-answer questions have specific purposes, such as serving as a quick assessment of a child’s knowledge of a simple concept or as a way of including children who are responding at the one-word stage.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Why are they referred to as “known-answer” questions? Often, the answer is more or less obvious. One teacher shared that she overheard one of her students tell her parent, “Mommy, I don’t think this teacher knows her colors or numbers. She keeps asking us, “What color is this? Or “How many do we have?”In some families or communities, children are given the implicit message that it is not appropriate to answer a question to which the adult should know the answer as this may seem disrespectful.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 116 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Vocabulary productionp. 117 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Conversation.
36Open-Ended Questions Encourage oral language use and development. Create an opening for children to draw from their life experiences.Responses usually elicit:longer phrases or sentencesmore complex languageactive participation.Example: What do you like about going to the county fair?Note: Explain that open-ended questions often generate more participation, encourage oral language use and development, and can be more familiar to some children. Open-ended questions can also serve to acknowledge children’s lives and experiences. Responses to open-ended questions tend to generate longer phrases or sentences, more complex use of language, and offer more possibilities for active participation.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?English-Language Development domainp. 116 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Vocabulary productionp. 117 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Conversationp. 118 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Utter length and complexityp. 119 Speaking strand: Substrand 1.0 Children use verbal and nonverbal strategies to communicate with others: Focus Grammarp. 122 Speaking strand: Substrand 3.0 Children use language to create oral narratives about their personal experiences: Narrative development
37Try It! Intentional Use of Questions Choose one photo from those at your table.Identify a recorder and a reporter for your group.As a group, generate 3 known-answers and 3 open-ended questions based on the photo you chose and have your recorder write these on Handout 1D: Two Types of Questions.As a group, discuss what implications this activity has for your practice.Each group’s reporters shares one of each type of question and the implications of the activity for practice.In preparation: Gather pictures from magazines, calendars, or photos of community. Handout 1D: Two Types of Questions.Distribute two or three community picture cards to each small group of four to five participants. Use photos of the community around the preschool, or picture cards made from calendars or magazines of places or items that participants recognize. This helps to draw out conversation.Each group views their picture cards and creates a known-answer question based on their picture card, writing their question on Handout 1D: Two Types of Questions. Participants then should re-work their question to generate a similar, but now open-ended, question. They can draw upon the examples listed in the handout.Have groups use the same picture card to generate up to a total of three known-answer and three open-ended questions. The recorder should record all questions on Handout 1D: Two Types of Questions.Once they have generated their lists, the reporter can share at least one of each type of question with the whole group, as well as, the implications of the activity for practice. Trainer records the discussion around implications on chart paper.
38Connections to the PEL Resource Guide Principle 10Offering a variety of opportunities for children to explore written materials and their meanings, as well as the sounds of spoken language through rhyme and alliteration, builds the language and literacy skills of preschool English learners. (Pg 84-85)Connections to the PEL Resource Guide (slide 37, 5 min)Refer to page in PEL Resource Guide. Use this slide as a summary slide to tie together the activities and discussion, and as a preview of the material that will follow.
39Try It! Supports for Oral Language Development In small groups, discuss your assigned activity and record your discussion on Handout 1E: Matrix of Supports:Poetry in MotionHow Many Syllables in Your Name?“Fishing” for Beginning SoundsWhat early literacy skills does this activity address? What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Try It! Supports for Oral Language Development (slides 38-46, 50 minutes)In preparation: Handout 1E, Handout 1F (Poetry in Motion) 1) Sample Syllables In You Name 2) Fishing Pole 3) Laminated Picture Cards. The literacy activities on slides can be made into laminated posters or printed on large cardstock, with one activity per page. Another option is to refer participants to the corresponding slides for each activity.Note: This is a central activity for the module. Allow up to 20 minutes for small group time and 30 minutes for groups to share aloud and to engage in a whole group discussion.Have participants number off from 1-3. They should work in small groups to review and discuss their assigned activity. Encourage participants to record their discussion on Handout 1E, Matrix of Supports for Oral Language Development. The guiding questions are:What early literacy skills does this activity address?Each activity will only address certain skills. As a way to end this activity, trainers may want to guide participants in identifying which early literacy skills these activities address.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Participants should identify appropriate supports for each activity, drawing upon:PEL Resource Guide, ppSupports for Oral Language Development, slides 25-26Connections to the PEL Resource Guide, slide 37Trainers may want to have a copy of Handout 1E at least partially completed for each one of the six activities in order to have something to quickly reference in case any particular group gets “stuck”. The trainer notes under each support slide provide additional information to share during the whole group discussion. Participants should also use the handout to capture the ideas generated by their colleagues during this discussion as well.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 131 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness: Focus Rhymingp. 132 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness: Focus Onset (initial sound)p. 133 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness: Focus Sound differences in the home language and English
40Poetry in MotionIn your small group, choose one poem listed on Handout 1F: Poetry in Motion.Discuss the guiding questions in your group and record your discussion on Handout 1E: Matrix of Supports for Oral Language Development.Prepare a 1-2 minute performance.In the large group, perform your activity and share insights from your discussion.Poetry in MotionNote: A “starter set” of poems is found in the packet of handouts as the second part of Handout 1F, Poetry in Motion, which includes: Little Miss Muffet, Jack Be Nimble, Little Teapot, and Teddy Bear.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?As the handout explains, when children act out a poem, they respond to its rhyme, its rhythm, and the pictures it paints with a few well-chosen words. They grow as readers by connecting feelings with the written word. Encourage participants to use poems familiar to the children in their class or program in English or the home language. When possible obtain a translation from an interpreter or family member.What early literacy skills does this activity address?This would depend on the poem selected. It could include phonological awareness and/or vocabulary development, as poems often contain more advanced vocabulary and hence build comprehension skills.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 131 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness: Focus RhymingRefer participants to the web site for an elaborated version of this activity: Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun
41How Many Syllables in Your Name? In your small group, discuss the activity.Discuss the guiding questions in your group and record your discussion on Handout 1E: Matrix of Supports for Oral Language Development.Prepare a 1-2 minute performance.In the large group, perform your activity and share insights from your discussion.
42How Many Syllables in Your Name? Whole Group: Ask a child to say his/her name. As a group, say each child’s name and clap as you separate the syllables. Ask the children to try clapping the syllables in his/her own name and identify the number of syllables.Individual work: Children to make self-portraits.Teacher-Child: Invite each child to write his/her name on a piece of paper, or the teacher writes the child’s name. Provide each child with small papers to glue under his/her self-portrait to represent the syllables in his/hers name.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Note: It is important to say each child’s name correctly. It may be tempting to shorten a child’s name (e.g., Genie for Eugenia) or to use a simpler version (e.g., Alex for Alejandro). This should only be done when the child or family expresses a preference for this alteration. A helpful technique is to have a roster of the first and last names of the children in the class with a phonetic representation to remind anyone who enters the room how to pronounce each name. This will go a long way to instill a healthy self-identity in each child.Name games are fun and provide children with an opportunity to learn and identify each other’s names. Ask the children to try clapping the syllables in their own names. As a group, say each child’s name and clap as you separate the syllables. Invite the children to make self-portraits. Give them a small piece of paper to write their name and glue under their picture to represent the syllables in their name (examples: Jor-dan, Ai-dan, Mar-cus, Juan, Pe-dro, A-ni-ta, Lai-Wan) Activities such as clapping and tapping syllables are terrific even once letters are introduced, because although phonological awareness relates to spoken language, letter knowledge can support phonological awareness.In addition, names are often a great starting point for children as they are often eager to learn to write their name.
43How Many Syllables in Your Name? These are examples of children’s work from the previous activity to guide participants in the creation of their own “name plate”.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Representing names in this manner can be a way for preschool English learners to learn the names of their classmates (and vice versa).This activity helps children with special needs visually discriminate as they begin by associating the drawing with their friend and then eventually recognize the connection between the written representation of the name and the correct peer.What early literacy skills does this activity address? Phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, concepts of print1. The “How Many Syllables in Your Name” activity is included to illustrate the progression of phonological awareness and print recognition. At around 60 months of age, children can orally take apart two-syllable words into their component parts (phonological awareness PLF page 65); and children extend their recognition of letters of the alphabet, including their name (Alphabetics and Word/Print Recognition: PLF page 67).2. Reinforce with participants that phonological awareness is an oral skill that does not involve print.
44“Fishing” for Beginning Sounds In your small group, discuss the activity.Discuss the guiding questions in your group and record your discussion on Handout 1E: Matrix of Supports for Oral Language Development.Prepare a 1-2 minute performance.In the large group, perform your activity and share insights from your discussion.
45“Fishing” for Beginning Sounds Prepare a group of pictures of objects that include 2-3 different initial sounds. Each picture has a clothespin attached.Place the collection of pictures on the ground.Call out a beginning sound, and invite one child to fish for pictures using a magnet.Pictures are grouped by initial sound on chart.“Fishing” For Beginning SoundsIn preparation: Provide participants with copies of the following 3 slides to cut out for picture cards.Participants can use these cards for the performance for the whole group. Another option is to provide materials for participants to create their own set of cards to use with their class or group of children in their care.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?The photos provided were chosen intentionally for communities in which the two most prevalent languages are English and Spanish, since the words start with the same sound in either language.English/Spanish:Tomato/Tomate Turtle/TortugaLemon/Limon Lettuce/LechugaPopcorn/Palomitas Tiger/TigrePizza/Pizza Train/TrenOne recommendation would be for teachers to create beginning sound cards that are associated with the theme or topic being covered as part of the curriculum or to reflect a focus of one of the learning centers in the classroom to give children a concrete example of connecting this early literacy skill with their everyday activities and conversations.What early literacy skills does this activity address?Phonological awareness, letter-sound correspondence (introduction to phonics). This activity as is introduces/reinforces phonological awareness. You can also do a slightly more advanced version of this activity called, Fishing for Letters” and it is done the same as fishing for sounds, except that a letter is added to the chart and so it would introduce/letter-sound correspondence (phonics).Note: It is important to remember to go through the cards and the labels for each photo or drawing with the children before offering this as an activity they can do either with teacher guidance, individually, or with peers. This will avoid confusion for photos that students may interpret in many ways. For instance, in the previous slide, the lettuce could be seen as kale, as collard greens, etc.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 132 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness: Focus Onset (initial sound)p. 133 Reading strand: Substrand 6.0 Children demonstrate phonological awareness: Focus Sound differences in the home language and English
48Video ViewingLet’s watch the clip from the DVD, A World Full of Language, section titled, “Moving Toward Literacy.”DVD clip (slide 47, 15 min)This clip serves as a review of early literacy skills in preschool settings. You can see children who are English learners and teachers engaged in activities that introduce or reinforce these skills.Ask participants to think about the following while they watch the video:What key strategies are presented?How are these related to what you’ve learned today about early literacy skills?Note: It would be helpful for the trainer to tie the information covered in this clip back to the research findings and recommendations covered earlier as a follow-up discussion after viewing the video.
50Reading with Preschool English Learners Reading with Preschool English Learners & Connections to the PEL Resource Guide (slides 49-50, 15 minutes)
51Connections to the PEL Resource Guide Think: Read the bulleted items in the box titled, Reading with Preschool English Learners. (pg 79)Pair: Talk with a partner about one of the techniques presented. Are you familiar with this technique? How? What are its strengths?Share: At least one pair shares aloud for each of the techniques listed.Note: Refer participants to page 79 of the PEL Resource Guide where you will find a “Research to Practice” box titled “Reading with Preschool English Learners”. These are practices that can be used with all preschool children, including English learners. Ongoing research will shed light on how these practices work with preschool English learners in particular.While participants are in the “think” and “share” phase of this activity, the trainer should circulate around the room to monitor discussions, add thoughts, pose additional questions, etc.As participants share aloud, the trainer should record the discussion on chart paper.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 123 Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literature : Focus Participate in read-aloud activityp. 124 Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literature : Focus Interest in books and readingp. 125 Reading strand: Substrand 2.0 Children show an increasing understanding of book reading: Focus Personal connections to the storyp. 126 Reading strand: Substrand 2.0 Children show an increasing understanding of book reading: Focus Story structure
52Focus on One Technique: What is Dialogic Reading? Dialogic reading is a shared-reading intervention designed to promote the development of oral language skills.Dialogic reading involves several changes in the way adults typically read books to children.BUILDING LITERACY WITH LOVE: A Guide for Teachers and Caregivers of Children Birth Through Age 5 by Betty S. Bardige and Marilyn M. SegalFocus on One Technique: What is Dialogic Reading? (slide 51, 5 minutes)What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?This strategy has been proven successful primarily with Caucasian and African-American children of various socio-economic backgrounds. Current studies are underway to look at the effectiveness of this approach with children who are English learners but the findings are not yet conclusive.What early literacy skills does this activity address?Oral language, vocabulary development and comprehension. If the trainer chooses to address Dialogic Reading in further detail, refer to the resource training material.Participants can also be referred to a handout available on the Reading Rockets web site, originally developed by Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Ph.D., Director, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 123 Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literature : Focus Participate in read-aloud activity
53Video Viewing: Interactive Reading Let’s watch a clip from the Language is Key video series, Talking and Books, that highlights another form of interactive reading, called CAR.Language is Key Video Clip (slide 52, 12 min)In preparation: Handout 1CThis video clip is taken from a video training series, Language is Key. This series was developed for parents and yet many teachers find the clips a helpful resource because they are clear and illustrate each suggestion well.The strategies mentioned in this clip form the acronym CAR, Count to 5, Ask questions, Respond by adding a little more. As mentioned above, it is an interactive form of reading which is recommended for parents, but it is similar to Dialogic Reading.After the clip is over, trainers may want to ask participants what they found particularly helpful about what they just saw.The video series Language is Key is available in Spanish, Vietnamese, and Mandarin. A companion training manual comes with the videos, also in the previously mentioned languages so it is a helpful tool to share with many families of English learners.Note: At this point, trainers may want to refer participants to Handout 1C: Becoming a Reader (available in English and Spanish) as another resource for families and teachers alike.CAR: Comment and count to 5,Ask questions, Respond by adding a little bit more.
55Literacy with Love“Those of us who would foster literacy in young children must begin, then, by fostering a love of learning and a love of literacy. To develop this love, we must build the kinds of relationships that affirm children's worth, nurture their curiosity and confidence, and encourage them to share our passions and interests as well as develop their own.”Literacy with Love (slide 54, 3 min)Note: This slide is a transition and summary slide. It illustrates that the techniques discussed thus for reading with preschool English learners, serve to expand and accelerate children’s language development. While specific techniques, such as Dialogic Reading have the goal of determining whether a child understands the book, we also want to foster a love of literacy, or an internal motivation, to love the language of books.While we have discussed the technique of Dialogic Reading at length, it is also important to keep going back to the opening activity of examining family literacy practices as there will be some families that are effectively supporting the early literacy skill development of their young children without using Dialogic Reading as one of their approaches. It is important to remember that in early literacy, like in other areas of education, “one size will not fit all.”When literacy is practiced by those who love us, in cozy places and spaces, whether at school or at home, adults are setting the optimal environment or conditions for children to benefit from these literacy experiences.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainpp Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literatureSource: BUILDING LITERACY WITH LOVE: A Guide for Teachers and Caregivers of Children Birth Through Age 5by Betty S. Bardige and Marilyn M. Segal
56Connections to the PEL Resource Guide Reading Books Aloud to Preschool English LearnersUse different types of books to ensure that children will find at least a few books to match their interests and preferencesUse bilingual books or primary language booksCreate child-generated texts (pp.77-78)Connections to the PEL Resource Guide (slide 55, 5 min)Note: This slide highlights what is found on pages 77 and 78 of the PEL Resource Guide. If the training team has brought a set of books, it is helpful to hold up examples of the books mentioned in the slide and in this section of the guide.If time allows, trainers may want to ask participants if there are certain types of books or titles of books that they have found particularly popular with the English learners in their class.The next two slides illustrate two activities that can be use to create child-generated texts.
57Create Your Own Storybook Ask each child to bring in 4-5 photos of family members, pets or favorite toys.Guide the children to create a ‘personal storybook’ using their photos as the focus for their story.Place finished books in classroom library. You could also make copies for the school or local library.Create Your Own Storybook and Other Homemade Books (slides 56-57, 10 min)Note: If possible, trainer should show a child’s storybook as an example. Each teacher in the classroom could create his/her own storybook to model the value of sharing one’s story for the children and their families. Teacher to provide photos for children unable to bring photos from home.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Explain that the value of having children create books about themselves and their family is that young children enjoy having the opportunity to talk about themselves and have others show an interest in their life. These personal stories are easy to tell and retell because they carry value, meaning, and emotion for the child. Young children often can be engaged in extended conversation when it is about their family and personal experiences.For English learners, it is also recommended to create the book in the child’s home language with English subtitles, so monolingual English-speaking staff and peers can read the story.What early literacy skills does this activity address? Oral language development, alphabet knowledge, concepts of printPLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 122 Speaking strand: 3.0 Children use language to create oral narratives about their personal experiences: Focus Narrative developmentp Reading strand: 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literaturep. 134 Writing strand: 1.0 Children use writing to communicate their ideas: Focus Writing as communicationp. 135 Writing strand: 1.0 Children use writing to communicate their ideas: Writing to represent words or ideas
58Other Homemade Books “Puppies in Space” You and Me book Accordion book Cereal box bookPlastic baggie booksBonus: Book platesHomemade BooksNote: The materials or instructions for each of these homemade books are included in the trainer materials. It is suggested that your training team have a sample of each of these books and provide materials for participants to make-and-take one of these books. Participants could at least assemble the book and complete the first couple of pages.What early literacy skills does this activity address?Depending on the focus of the homemade book, the teacher, parent, or any other adult can emphasize any one of the early literacy skills such as rhyming, alphabet knowledge, onset-rime, alliteration.
59Phases of a Successful Reading Activity for English Learners Pre-reading: In what ways can you introduce key concepts and establish a baseline of knowledge for children?Supports during the reading: How can you ensure that all children are engaged in the reading of the story?Follow-up activities: In what ways can you reinforce concepts, vocabulary, and the story presented?Phases of a Successful Reading Activity (slides 58-60, 27 min)This slide serves as the introduction to the next two activities. Refer to the section in the DVD, A World Full of Language, that explains how to make stories come alive. Remind participants that the teacher first took the children to the garden, then read the book, The Carrot Seed, and finally followed it up with having children draw about their experiences in the garden.Provide a chart paper for each table or small group. Have them divide the chart paper into 3 sections and label as such: 1) Pre-reading activities, 2) During-reading supports, and 3) Follow-up activities.Choose either the “If You Give a Mouse a Cookie” activity OR the Insects and Bugs activity. Both will accomplish the same goal of having participants engage in carefully planning how to support the learning related to a book for English learners.What early literacy skills does this activity address?The object of this type of planning around book reading is to ensure that multiple early literacy skills are addressed: print awareness, comprehension, and the ability to construct narrative.What specifically supports the learning for preschool English learners?Phase 1 serves as quick assessment of children’s knowledge of topic and introduces key vocabulary. Phase 2 serves to ensure maximum attention and comprehension during the reading of the book. Phase 3 offers children opportunities to practice the storyline and new vocabulary.Encourage participants to refer to pages of the PEL Resource Guide to draw on the strategies included there as possible supports or scaffolds.PLF: What preschool learning foundations for English-language development describe the same or similar concepts?Refer participants to PLFEnglish-Language Development domainp. 112 Listening strand: Substrand 1.0 Children listen with understanding: Beginning wordsp. 114 Listening strand: Substrand 1.0 Children listen with understanding: Basic and advanced conceptsp. 123 Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literature: Participate in read-aloud activityp. 124 Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literature: Interest in books and readingp. 125 Reading strand: Substrand 1.0 Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment of reading and literature: Personal connections to the storyp. 126 Reading strand: Substrand 2.0 Children show an increasing understanding of book reading: Story structure
60Try It! If You Give a Mouse… In a small group, generate 2-3 activities that can address each of the phases of a successful reading activity for the book, If You Give A Mouse a Cookie.Record your ideas on Handout 1D: Phases of a Successful Activity for English Learners.Share aloud with the large group.Have a set of If You Give a Mouse a Cookie booksIn Preparation:Have easel paper previously prepared with instructions for each group. Depending on the size of the whole group, more than one small group may need to be assigned to the same phase on separate easel papers.At the top of a piece of easel paper, have the typed explanation of each phase of a successful literacy activity. Then ask members of the small group to generate ways to address this phase of the read aloud, drawing upon the strategies found on pages in the PEL Resource Guide.Once groups have completed their ‘phase’, participants return to their seats; one person per group will capture the main ideas generated by their group.What early literacy skills does this activity address? Oral language, vocabulary development, alphabetic knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print.Trainers can refer to the following url as an additional resource:
61Try It! Insects and BugsIn a small group, generate 2-3 activities that can address each of the phases of a successful reading activity for the book.Record your ideas on Handout 1D: Phases of a Successful Activity for English Learners.Share aloud with the large group.Small Group Activity: Phases of a Successful Literacy Activity (one of two options, do either this activity or the one on slide 59)Have a set of books on the same topic. Insects and Bugs is used here as an example.In Preparation:Have easel paper previously prepared with instructions for each group. Depending on the size of the whole group, more than one small group may need to be assigned to the same phase on separate easel papers.At the top of a piece of easel paper, have the typed explanation of each phase of a successful literacy activity. Then ask members of the small group to generate ways to address this phase of the read aloud, drawing upon the strategies found on pages in the PEL Resource Guide.Once groups have completed their phase, participants return to their seats; and one person per group will capture the main ideas generated by their group.Call attention to the fact that with similar planning done by program staff, creative ideas can be generated for the different books available in a preschool center, program, or school.What early literacy skills does this activity address? Oral language, vocabulary development, alphabetic knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print.
62Closing Activity: KWLAt the beginning of this training, we requested that you use Handout 1A:KWL to record one statement about what you:Already know about early literacy for preschool English learners.Want to know about early literacy for preschool English learners.Now add a statement about something you learned about early literacy for preschool English learners.Ending activity: KWL (slide 62, 3 min)Give participants three minutes to complete the last section of the Handout 1A: KWL so that they can capture what they learned in this training.Have participants share out key findings highlighting key points from PEL Resource Guide (Principles 9 and 10) and PLF examples.