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Preschool Vocabulary Development

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1 Preschool Vocabulary Development
Dr. Theresa Roberts October 25, 2006 copyright Theresa A. Roberts

2 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Welcome! Very important work copyright Theresa A. Roberts

3 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Purpose: Learn about why vocabulary size is important Learn about the process of vocabulary acquisition and types of words Learn how to promote vocabulary growth in preschool settings Foster commitment to the effort, work and sustained engagement necessary to increase vocabulary size 4th bullet - It takes a lot of input to sustain this engagement. Vocabulary size - we are really talking about a whole classroom milieu and a family order to sufficiently enhance vocabulary size copyright Theresa A. Roberts

4 How does a large vocabulary benefit development?
Promotes social/emotional well-being Improves communication (receptive/expressive) Develops thinking and learning from experience Aids in the control of behavior Enhances school learning Helps reading comprehension When you are working with children to expand their language you are expanding their well being. YES! By being able to communicate your wants and needs - It is very important to a child’s social emotional development. It promotes well being, being able to establish relationships. Thinking & Learning- Link language and concept development children HELPS CHILDREN have MAXIMAL INTELLECTUAL power Control of behavior - In special education ADHD successful intervention to have children self talk Enhance school learning - Reading comprehension - are the words children are learning in stories, words? copyright Theresa A. Roberts

5 Levels of word knowledge
No Know- ledge Have seen or heard Recognize the meaning Use in a sentence or talk. Know multiple aspects Know skills to learn it bubble florid Wide recognition that young children are very good word learners. They can be better than “naturally good” with specific instructional strategies. Children MAY learn faster the more they do it If we structure our environment, provide experiences through planning they can learn even more. We need to think about how to activate those WORD learning skills. What does it mean to really know a word… Ask participants to check off boxes as you read the content in the box. How about bubble - most people go all the way across. How about florid? Not so much….tried to choose a word that you might not be as familiar. Peabody- story (bring example if possible) I DON’T UNDERSTAND THIS copyright Theresa A. Roberts

6 Vocabulary learning like brushing your teeth
Common everyday experience Regular repeated effort, takes attention Technique and knowledge required Benefits are cumulative Requires tools- brush, floss Get better at it with time Cognitive tools are USED to learn words. You MAY get better and better AT WORD LEARNING the more you do it. Benefits- your teeth last longer DON’T THINK THIS APPLIES-ELIMINATE copyright Theresa A. Roberts

7 ELLs- Two beautiful facts
State of the art, optimal vocabulary development practices for English only are the same as those absolutely necessary for ELLs Win- win situation Language acquisition processes essentially the same across languages L1 a “filter” for L2 We are not in a situation that we are robbing Peter to pay Paul. This doesn’t mean there are not difference between kids State of the art does mean individualization, it does not mean it closes the gap. It does mean that the right conditions the optimal instructional environment will accelerate the WORD learning . ALSO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT FOR ELLS IS THAT THEY ARE LEARNING TWO LANGUAGES AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN EACH MAY BE SLOWER FOR SEVERAL YEARS Everyone’S needs are the same, but we must provide high quality practices. We need to provide OPTIMAL instructional environments FOR ALL CHILDREN. EL have another language to draw upon to learn new vocabulary. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

8 English language learners
More at risk than others for low vocabulary Effective caregiver engagement will call for primary language development for many Large primary language vocabulary beneficial to English vocabulary development Already know concept, just need label Higher level thinking when have rich primary language vocabulary Use of primary language is a value. Children can acquire some knowledge of the word after 1 exposure. Must have more experience & exposure of the words for deeper meaning. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

9 Vocabulary age equivalents
Language Kinder (5-06) Grade 1 (6-06) Grade (7-06) Hmong 2-04 3-10 5-07 Spanish 3-09 5-01 7-03 English 5-03 6-05 7-06 Open Court School- English only approach Age equivalents under grade level. These children are all the same economic level. The difference between Spanish speaking and English speaking grow smaller. The difference between Hmong and English grows larger. We think most often of EL as Spanish because they are such a large portion of the population we work with. 20-30 minutes a day, BICs (Basic Interpersonal Communication System) , pull out program. BICs which they learn pretty well on their own. IMPORTANT TO ATTEND TO VARIATION WITHIN THE EL POPULATION copyright Theresa A. Roberts

10 How do children learn words?
Size of the Gap? What do they know? Where do we want to go? copyright Theresa A. Roberts

11 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Word learning- simply Amount of talk Variety of talk TALK, TALK, TALK adult input child intake child production Hear, associate, store, recognize use Reference Hart & Riesly work. Peer social interaction good for social interaction not optimal for ENGLISH language acquisition , IF ALL CHILDREN ARE ELL. Children interact with children that speak their same language. Pronunciation is important to word learning.. We want to foster production and not damage children in the process. Research shows that PARENTAL AMOUNT AND VARIETY OF TALK ARE TWO MAJOR CORRELATES OF VOCABULAYR SIZE Try to foster production The child who is silent are the one teachers need to seek out for individual conversations. We can do this in a safe way. If you can motivate children to talk, you create a safe environment . It can be done through choral response. This is about quality instruction copyright Theresa A. Roberts

12 Landmark Hart & Risley study (1995)
Amount of talk by parents at age 3 predicted language ability at age 9-10 Number of different words used by parents at age 3 predicted language ability at age 9-10 Professional parents averaged 2,150 words per hour Working-class averaged 1,250 words per hour Welfare parents averaged 620 words per hour It is important to look at the huge number of words - input. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

13 Word learning processes-not so simply
Fast mapping (Carey, 1978) Can learn with 1 exposure or hearing others use word Initial word knowledge incomplete Object principles (Spelke, 1994; Shipley & Shepperson, 1990) Pay attention to specific objects Labeling, naming Theory of mind (Bloom, 2000) Use social cues to figure out what others are referring to when they say a word Social pragmatics (looking, pointing, showing) Fast mapping - This is a well established point. Labeling- they HAVE AN ORIENTATION TO PROVIDING LABELS Teach words that will give kids power & communication – words THAT CAN BE USED FOR MORE LANGUAGE GENERATION I.e. Elevator is NOT a high impact word. USE Looking, pointing, showing IN INSITRUCTION copyright Theresa A. Roberts

14 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Fast-mapping Fast-mapping for younger and lower vocabulary depth and polysemy for older and/or those with larger vocabularies Fast-mapping for preschool ELLs Production and use of the word helps consolidate word learning Look at differentiating instruction BASED ON CHILDREN’S RESPONSES AND LANGUAGE LEVEL. (Hen story & Ping) In ECE we need to look at this. We want to give them exposure and practice with LOTS of words. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

15 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Object principles Children will be aided when they are helped to direct attention to and identify objects and exemplars that new words refer to In fact they will be looking for and expecting these references Gestures, pointing, gazing, showing, demonstrating TPR- total physical response This is nothing new. TPR (Total Physical Response) Guiding the experience and counting on the child to bring something to the experience as well. Does this help everybody? YEP… copyright Theresa A. Roberts

16 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Theory of Mind Children have the knowledge that “word teachers” and “language models” use language initially in the context of real objects or ongoing activity and use more than just words to confer meaning They will watch for and be expectant of social cues to help them acquire meaning This is part of what young children have about learning new words. In word learning, kids are developing social skills I.e. learning to read social cues. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

17 Activating and building on word learning processes
They learn to watch people… copyright Theresa A. Roberts

18 Activating and building on word learning processes
Semantically contingent responses (respond to meaning) Social cues (looking, pointing, demonstrating, showing, acting) Complex/rarer words Expand on what the child says They are ready to learn words… Semantic-Essentially respond to meaning-MAKING process Social - Also thinking about expansion, we need to lead development forward (scaffolding learning) BY USING SOCIAL CUES TO HELP CHILDREN LEARN WORDS Complex - copyright Theresa A. Roberts

19 Practice: “Teacher I hurted myself!”
Please write some examples of Semantically contingent responses Please write some examples of Non contingent responses Please identify Social cues (pragmatics) that you could use Please identify some Rare/sophisticated vocabulary words you could use in responding to this child’s statement Please write some statements that Expand/elaborate what the child says. Ask group to generate response to these questionS. Suggest they put it on a clip board and carry around with them as they move through the classroom. This remindS TEACHERS to use these strategies. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

20 Use Semantically contingent responses
“You hurt yourself?” May I see where you hurt yourself?” “How did you do it?” “What should we do for it? ” “Let’s go get the first aid kit so that we can fix it.” Scaffolding Modeling CORRECTION CAN BE APPROPRIATE FOR CHILDREN, BASED ON HOW IT IS DONE AND THE MOTIVATION FOR IT “It is what is in your heart” or how the child perceives your response THAT MATTERS. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

21 Non contingent responses
“I told you to be careful.” “No- you hurt yourself.” copyright Theresa A. Roberts

22 Use Social cues (Theory of mind)
“Let’s go get the first aid kit so that we can fix it.” (point to where the kit is) “I’m looking (show looking) for the best thing to help you treat your injury. Here is a band-aid (show it), some gauze (show it) and some cream (show it).” copyright Theresa A. Roberts

23 Expand on what the child says
“Here is some special cream.” “Here is some antiseptic ointment.” Expansion: “This ointment will kill any bad buggies (or bacteria). You don’t want to get an infection. Infections will make your injury sore and red. Sometimes infections have yellow juice in them called “pus”. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

24 Use more complex/rarer words
“I’m looking (show looking) for the best thing to fix your owie”. treat your injury”. “May I see it?” “May I examine it?” “Here is some special cream.” “Here is some antiseptic ointment.” copyright Theresa A. Roberts

25 Intentionality in Word Learning
copyright Theresa A. Roberts

26 Word learning contexts
Direct instruction that flexibly uses different instructional principles based on what is known about problem-solving strategies children use to learn different types of words Opportunity for incidental word learning based on what is known about problem-solving strategies children use to learn different types of words Both types of learning require teacher intentionality and specificity Using fast mapping, etc see previous slide. Incidental WORD learning requires a lot of teacher support THRUGHT SPECIFIC PRACTICES. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

27 General vocabulary direct instruction principles
Words carefully selected (generative, frequency/norms, complex/rare, content-related) Rich explanations of words using social cues and engaging activities Children say and actively use the word many times (production, with pronunciation accuracy) Use syntax appropriately Those with primary language can use it to ensure understanding the meaning Three E’s: Excite, engage, expand Phonological representations and CONCRETE feedback loop ARE PROVIDED BY CHILD PRODUCTION WITH ACCURATE PPRINUNCIATION. For vocabulary learning, simply your sentences SO THE TARGET WORD STANDS OUT. Syntax- focus child’s attention to understand the meaning…use simple vocabulary - consider putting the target word at the end. 3 E’s expand on what kids say copyright Theresa A. Roberts

28 Incidental activation of word learning processes
Provide many words (simple, more complex) Use the word many times Clarify the referent or meaning of the word physically and/or verbally (social cues) Simplify syntax Provide for active language production and correct pronunciation IT IS IMPORTANT TO INFUSE THE WHOLE DAY AND ALL ACTIVITY CONTEXTS WITH LANGAUGE. At the water table, cutting table? copyright Theresa A. Roberts

29 Questions and comments
copyright Theresa A. Roberts

30 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Selecting Words copyright Theresa A. Roberts

31 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Types of words Generative words for Basic communication (Ogden, 1932) Words frequently used in preschoolers talk at school and at home (based on research) Challenging, sophisticated, rare words Content/academic related words (storybooks, centers, activity contexts, instruction) Generative words - If you teach (850 words) Think about what you should teach, words that they can begin to build onto TO HAVE MORE POWERFUL LANGUAGE. It IS IMPORTANT TO stematicALLY SELECT WORDS. Frequency count- see handout 27 pages K - 6 grade Instructional strategies may be modified FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF WORDS. ConteNt - We typically focus here but we need to expand TO INLCUDE BASIC LANGAUGE BUILDING AND RARE WORDS. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

32 Generative words for Basic English (Ogden)
Generative words are those that can be used to maximize language and that can be used to learn other words 850 generative words (basic words) 600 things (200 picturable), 150 qualities (Nouns, operations, qualifiers, prepositions) 600 GENERATIVE WORDS NAME things- right up the preschool child’s alley. English language development-not primary language development. When choosing words- it depends on the purpose. Put” is hard to teach but “putting” something and demonstrating it makes THE MEANING ACCESSIBLE. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

33 Words frequently used in preschooler’s talk (school and home)
See words attached at the end of your packet These words might be especially useful to guide choice of words to be taught Likely overlap with generative words Many of these words challenging to teach Choose 2 of these words and write how you could teach them. Share your ideas with others. List is normed. Teach those hard words like “put” by DEMONSTRATION. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

34 Challenging/rare/sophisticated Words
Words children need most help in learning Adult communication with “challenging talk” produces the strongest language A shift in vocabulary instruction to include these words is needed Meal time common words: bowl, spoon, knife, fork, cup, In a group of 3-4 come up with some more “Challenging, rare and sophisticated” words to use when talking about meal times copyright Theresa A. Roberts

35 Challenging/rare/sophisticated Words
Offer children more challenging words when the goal is to stretch their vocabulary Make sure that teaching strategies are the richest and there is the most repetition, production and active use with these words The Napping House HAS good exampleS…sleep, doze, slumber, Words in both English & Spanish copyright Theresa A. Roberts

36 Content-related words
Words related to themes, topics, storybook meaning These words are those that are most centrally related to core meanings in themes, topics, or storybooks Use the storybook that you have to go through and select the most important “core meaning” words Write down a favorite theme that you use in your class and identify the “core meaning” words related to this theme copyright Theresa A. Roberts

37 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Types of words summary Vocabulary development must target all types of words with teachers who are monitoring and aware of their selections: Generative words frequent/normative words rare/challenging classroom content words copyright Theresa A. Roberts

38 Questions and comments
copyright Theresa A. Roberts

39 Classroom Activity Contexts for Learning Words
copyright Theresa A. Roberts

40 Brown Bear teaches words!
Brown bear, brown bear what do you see? You see a teacher talking to me! Brown bear, brown bear what do you see? You see me at a center talking to 3! Brown bear, brown bear what do you see? You see me hearing a story and still talking free! Brown bear, brown bear what do you see? You see me washing, walking and chanting fingerplays we! Brown bear, brown bear what do you see? You see me eating and talking more please! Brown bear, brown bear what do you see? Talking me, talking me, talking me! Build oN what they have….give them what they don’t. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

41 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Classroom contexts Individual conversations (narrative) Storybook reading Centers Classroom routines Meal time Mealtime conversations is a time to have decontextualized conversations. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

42 Individual conversations
Across cultures children use narratives as their basic way of talking about the world Narrative is a basic, time sequence structure like a typical storybook “What did you do with your family last night?” “Once upon a time…….” copyright Theresa A. Roberts

43 Individual conversations
When individual conversations talk about the past or future, children are learning decontextualized language This ability crucial for academic learning This ability supports higher and more abstract thinking Have to learn TO DO this with words out of context. LIMITED IN OPPORTUNITY BE CAUSE OF NUMBER OF CHILDREN AND OTHER DEMANDS copyright Theresa A. Roberts

44 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Conversations Limited in actual classrooms Less than 5% of time spent in individual conversations with children Hard for teachers How efficient is this process for input, intake and production? This is hard for teachers today…you may want to keep a checklist of what and when they talk to a child. May find they are talking to the same children. Or giving direction to others and not really having conversations. Lend support to whole group instruction because it’s virtually impossible to have enough individual conversations with kids. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

45 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Center activities Centers specifically structured to promote language and vocabulary development are more effective than others not so designed All classroom centers should be intentionally and specifically structured to promote vocabulary acquisition copyright Theresa A. Roberts

46 Center characteristics
Clearly identifiable and “bounded” Change frequently Integrated with specific learning purposes Have an adult present at them to use strategies to foster vocabulary development (expanding, social cues, semantically contingent, labeling, using narrative/decontextualized language, teaching rare/complex and generative words) Provide materials such as word cards, objects or pictures related to target words Planned, linked and systematicALLY DESIGNED FOR LANGUAGE ELICITATION. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

47 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Storybook reading Interactive with lots of child language Teach words with direct explanation during or before reading Vocabulary cards, carefully select words Repeated readings of story beneficial Pretend reading of storybooks Vocabulary words and/or storybooks in primary language for at home background knowledge building Story retelling, prediction Tell their story in the primary language first. Give child small version of book so they have to share with a partner and will have to talk copyright Theresa A. Roberts

48 One instructional approach
Video tape of the story to build background knowledge Introduction of each vocabulary card Interactive storybook reading Realia kit activities Pretend “reading” individual copies of books Books taken home in either English or primary language before classroom instruction copyright Theresa A. Roberts

49 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Classroom routines Accompany classroom routines with language and related demonstration “Ok, now we will go wash our hands.” Use transition times for nursery rhymes, songs, fingerplays “Where is thumpkin?” is excellent for during hand washing copyright Theresa A. Roberts

50 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Mealtime talk Mealtime talk is associated with enhanced vocabulary development (Dickinson &Tabors, 2000) Use of “rare words” particularly beneficial to vocabulary development “bowl vs. “serving dish” “spoon”, “knife”, “fork” vs. “utensils” Having routines set frees time for talk Child centerED conversations. It is finding the balance of where they are and taking them beyond. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

51 Questions and comments
copyright Theresa A. Roberts

52 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Engaging caregivers We are talking about families here. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

53 Engaging caregivers rationale
Hart & Risley (1995) calculated that “Just to provide an average welfare child language experience equal to that of an average working class child would require 41 hours per week of out-of-home experiences as rich in words addressed to the child as that in an average professional home.” Schools cannot do this alone… copyright Theresa A. Roberts

54 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Engaging caregivers Primary focus is to help caregivers increase the amount of talking that children are doing in the home Requires the use of primary language and helping caregivers understand the benefits of primary language Principle of identifying language resources/preferences in the home and building on them Principle of connecting home language experiences to classroom intentional vocabulary development practices The language they have strength in is fundamental in the caregiver engagement piece. Every family has language uses and resources---look at what they do now and how it can support. Build on parents language…parents need to focus on vocabulary development in the home language. Give suggestions of where this can happen in the family routine BASED ON FAMILIE’S SOCIAL PRACTICES; riding in the car, waiting for the bus, meal time or meal preparation. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

55 Caregiver skill development
Some means to help parents learn about and use the following 5 skills is needed (these skills are those associated with parenting of those whose children had the largest vocabularies) Just talk (many words, and many kinds of words) Be nice when talking (affirm rather than prohibit or criticize) Tell children about things in the home, community Give children choices in talking Listen to what children say and show this by responding to them This is a very sensitive matter. The nature of the dialogue is a very sensitive issue. Positive, supportive talk and more critical talk, look at it from the English language development. Make it personal…acknowledge cultural/ethnic differences and expectations. Focus on saying to parents that these strategies are for English language development. Caution: Stay away from judging families- you may try to focus on the child’s experience in school and the benefit of learning English in the school context . Build on the links between home & school and explain the difference. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

56 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Engaging caregivers Find out what languages are used in the home and for what purposes How? Find out when parents talk to their children copyright Theresa A. Roberts

57 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Engaging caregivers Communicate activities in a language that can be used by caregivers Bilingual paraprofessionals Bilingual caregivers from the classroom Bilingual older children Provide materials in a language that can be used in the home Primary language storybooks Primary language newsletters copyright Theresa A. Roberts

58 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Engaging caregivers Identify bilingual resource people that can be used to communicate in the primary languages you have in your settings Identify primary language resources that you have or need that children and their caregivers can use in their home 2nd bubble- don’t reinvent the wheel and share resources with others. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

59 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Engaging caregivers Provide parents with a list of the focus vocabulary words that will be used in the classroom and have them use these words at home Give ideas for specific activities that can be done with the words Example: a game called “word finders” where the child gets a hug or praise for each time they use one of the target words Don’t give too big a menu of choices to caregivers. Keep it simple for example: “Please do these things - “Use these words 4 times at home.” copyright Theresa A. Roberts

60 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Engaging caregivers Provide daily/weekly structured activities for parents to do at home Link these activities with classroom activities For example, if doing “Whistle for Willie” in the classroom, have parents take their children with them to the grocery store and label items as they shop Bring in food containers from home and place in the related grocery store center copyright Theresa A. Roberts

61 Engaging caregivers in the classroom
Plan for specific activities related to language development that parents can do in the classroom: Storybook reading Story dictation Be the adult at one of the centers Have individual conversations with children on the narrative topics that have been identified in your daily lesson plan copyright Theresa A. Roberts

62 Caregiver engagement research results
Reading storybooks in primary language at home and classroom instruction each added to children’s vocabulary acquisition. Parents selected primary language storybooks more than English storybooks It was possible to engage 80% of families in the primary language storybook reading program (Roberts, 2004) copyright Theresa A. Roberts

63 Engaging caregivers summary
Build on family practices Use primary language as appropriate Help caregivers to know what kinds of language use in the homes will benefit vocabulary development Provide materials and resources Provide structured activities Engage caregivers in homes as well as classrooms in specific ways copyright Theresa A. Roberts

64 Questions and comments
copyright Theresa A. Roberts

65 Sample Daily Lesson Plan form for vocabulary development
Activities for centers: Adult prompts___________________________ Speaking, writing and reading prompts_______ Activities to engage talking________________ Materials_______________________________ Storybook reading_______________________ Target vocabulary (book, generative, frequent/norms, rare)_______, _______, _____ Teaching strategies for words_______________ Materials ___________________________ This could be a LESSON PLAN FORM. We created an additional handout that you may want to use. See CD rom for copy and we have included a hard copy for your use. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

66 Sample daily lesson plan con’t
Primary language use and support Caregivers_________________________________________________ Buddies _________________________________________________ Bilingual support staff________________________________________ Activities ________________,___________,___________,__________ Materials________________,___________,___________,__________ Daily Classroom Target vocabulary (norms, generative, rare words, specific category) ________,________,_________,_________,__________,_________ Individual conversations (checklist of children) Use of narrative/decontextualized language Specific topics ______________,__________________,____________ Caregiver/At home activity _____________________________________ copyright Theresa A. Roberts

67 Clarifying some issues
Preschool children with very low English can learn vocabulary from storybook reading Preschool children with very low English can engage in interactive storybook reading for minutes (Roberts & Neal, 2004) Pronunciation matters (Roberts, 2005) Almost all children can be engaged in productive language right from the beginning Producing and articulating helps kids learn the vocabulary. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

68 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Questions Raised How do children really learn words and how can knowledge of these processes be capitalized on in vocabulary instruction and classroom language use? Which words do we teach? How can caregivers be engaged to help with vocabulary learning? Simply and more complex… copyright Theresa A. Roberts

69 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Training feedback 1. What did you find most helpful? 2. What did you find most challenging? 3. What would you like to know more about? 4. What more would you like to know about classroom practice? 5. What questions do you have on vocabulary acquisition and learning? copyright Theresa A. Roberts

70 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
References Becker, W. C. (1977). Teaching reading and language to the disadvantaged-What we have learned from field research. Harvard Educational Review, 47(4), Bloom, P. (2000). How children learn the meanings of words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Carey, S. (1978). The child as a word-learner. In M. Hale, J. Brendan, & G. A. Miller (Eds.),Linguistic theory and psychological reality. Dickinson, D. K. & Tabors, P.O. (Eds.). (2001) Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and school. Baltimore, Brookes. Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday lives of children. Baltimore, Brookes. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

71 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Ogden, C. K. (1932). The basic words: A detailed account of uses. London: Kegan Paul. Roberts, T. (2003). Preschool primary language and English language storybook reading at home combined with classroom storybook reading and vocabulary instruction: Influences on vocabulary learning. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Education Research Society Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL. Roberts, T. & Neal, H. (2004). Relationships among preschool English language learner’s Oral proficiency in English, instructional experience and literacy development. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, copyright Theresa A. Roberts

72 Research study citations:
Roberts, T. (2005). Articulation accuracy and vocabulary size contributions to phonemic awareness and word reading in English language learners. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), Spelke, E. S. (1994). Initial knowledge: Six suggestions. Cognition, 50, copyright Theresa A. Roberts

73 copyright 2006 Theresa A. Roberts
Recommendation A comprehensive preschool to grade 6 vocabulary program that attends to systematically developing children’s understanding of the different kinds of words needed for different cognitive purposes such as language development, reading comprehension and school learning is needed. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

74 Such a program would be:
Developmentally sensitive by utilizing words in alignment with developmental norms for vocabulary development Draw on processes known to support learning of different types of words at different ages. copyright Theresa A. Roberts

75 Words to teach: A proposal
   850 Basic English words (Ogden, 1932)  +2640 basic reading vocabulary words   instructional/metacognitive words =    3640 core vocabulary words     7 years of K-6 instruction    520 words a year/9 months of school=    58 words a month/4 weeks = 15 words per week to be learned copyright Theresa A. Roberts

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