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Foundations in English-Language Development A California Department of Education Child Development Division Presentation Welcome: 5 minutes.

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1 Foundations in English-Language Development A California Department of Education Child Development Division Presentation Welcome: 5 minutes

2 Agenda California context and demographics The role of home language
Stages of sequential bilingual language development and foundation levels of second language development Structure of the foundations Strategies for implementation Time: 2 minutes The plan today is to provide an overview of the ELD foundations, highlight some key research findings that underlie the foundations, and introduce strategies for implementation. Ask audience to think about the children they serve, their ethnic backgrounds, languages, IEP status, etc. Solicit some of their thoughts to help the group appreciate the diversity of the children served.

3 Outcomes Become familiar with the changing demographics in California.
Explain the importance of home language to a child’s learning and identity. Explain the stages and paths to English-language learning. Navigate and understand the structure and content of the English-language development domain. Begin to think about ways to use the ELD foundations to support English-language development. Become familiar with additional resources. Time: 1 minutes These are the outcomes for the session. (Read them)

4 Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide
Time: 1 minute This session is focused on understanding the foundations for English-language development and beginning to think of how you can use these foundations to support the children in your care. There is much more to learn about English-language development than can be covered in this session on the foundations. We encourage you to take advantage of Preschool English Learners trainings available in your region. (Provide participants with specific information on how to access PEL training.) More information about second-language development can be found in the Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide. You will see references to this guide throughout the remainder of this presentation. 4

5 Norms Start on time and end on time. Turn cell phones off.
Help the group stay on task. Listen to thoughts and ideas of others. Contribute your thoughts and ideas. Time: 1 minute Use this slide and/or chart the bullets.

6 Parking Lot Please write questions on post-its and place them on chart paper titled “Parking Lot.” (Slide optional) Place a couple of “parking lot” papers in the room. Post participants’ questions in the “parking lot.” We will try to answer as many questions as possible. Any unanswered questions will be sent to CDD for answers.

7 Where Do You Stand? Handout 1
You will see eight different core beliefs about English-language learners posted around the room. Stand next to the belief that speaks most loudly to you. Discuss your choice with others who have made the same selection. Choose a spokesperson to share a sentence or two about your choice with the rest of the group. Time: 10 minutes See Activity Sheet titled “Where Do You Stand?” Process: Read slide to give directions. Summary: The core beliefs we hold dear are related to our principles and practices. Challenge participants to think about those core beliefs to which they least related. Over the course of the training participants will hear information to help connect those core beliefs. Refer participants to Handout 1 in the folder listing the Eight Core Beliefs. They will use this handout later in the session. (click to reveal handout callout) Handout 1

8 California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1
Social-Emotional Development Language and Literacy English-Language Development Mathematics Visual and Performing Arts Physical Development Health History and Social Studies Science Time: 2 minutes Ask participants to take out the publication and follow along. Point out the icons on the spine of the cover. Point out the words Volume 1 on the cover. Explain that this volume contains the first four domains (Click to reveal the first four domain names) Point out the icon for English-language development (circled). Explain that Volume 2 will contain the next three domains (Click to reveal the next three domain names). Explain that Volume 3 will contain the last two domains (Click to reveal last two domain names). Point out that the icons and their colors are used to identify domain sections inside of the book. Ask participants to locate the English-language development section in the book(s) they are using at their table.

9 Purpose The purpose of the foundations is to promote understanding of preschool children’s learning and to guide instructional practice. Time: 1 minute Share the information on the slide and pause to give participants time to think about it.

10 California Context

11 Time: 5 minutes The information on the screen comes from FACT BOOK 2008: Handbook of Education Information Process: Ask participants to pull out Handout 2 from their packet and look over it for a minute or two. Ask participants what trends they observe. Summary: Recent trends show that half of California’s children live in immigrant families. In 2007, 49% of California children lived in immigrant families ( ) and these are mostly Latino and Asian immigrant groups. Background information: The following information comes from Lopez, Alejandra Californians’ Use of English and Other Languages: Census 2000 Summary. Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity: Stanford, CA. Thirty-one percent of Latino and Asian households in California can be categorized as “linguistically isolated” from the English language. Households are considered linguistically isolated by the Census Bureau if all members of the family fourteen years old and over have at least some difficulty with English. “The term “linguistically isolated” does not mean that these homes do not have language but rather the language happens to be a language that is not English.” (Marlene Zepeda) Handout 2

12 California Context Number of English learners in kindergarten for Total kindergarten population 454,743 Total kindergarten English learners 186,982 Of all kindergarten children Spanish speaking 155,968 (34%) Vietnamese speaking ,523 (1%) Adapted from CDE, Dataquest (Slide text adapted with permission from the Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Summary: As you can see, about 41% of kindergartners are English learners. “What are possible implications for early childhood teachers and programs? (Open the question for brief group feedback.) Of the 454,743 children who entered kindergarten in , about 34% had Spanish as their home language followed by Vietnamese, Cantonese (N=2990), Pilipino (N=2491), Korean (N=2088), Mandarin (N=2147), Hmong (N=1674). CDE, Dataquest. According to a report by Children Now (2007), one in four children in k-12 are identified as English-language learners, English learners represent 39% of children between the ages of three to five. One of the challenges in determining the extent of the need for educational services directed to English learners is that we do not have comprehensive data. Many children are not enrolled in state-funded programs that collect this type of information. Note: ““We do not have comprehensive data….for the zero to five population.” (Marlene Zepeda) 12

13 Placeholder Insert your local demographic data here Time: 1 minute

14 What Does that Mean for Us?
We must take into consideration how young children, whose home language is not English, negotiate learning in all content and curricular areas. Read slide

15 The Importance of Home Language

16 Role of Home Language Home language socializes children into their families and communities. Children’s identity and sense of self are linked to the language they speak and the culture from which they come. Home language provides a foundation for success in learning and literacy in English. California Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol 1, p Time: 1 minute The research tell us that… (read slide)

17 Loss of Home Language Puts Children At-Risk for:
Cultural and linguistic displacement Diminished parent-child communication, socialization, and identity Reduced sense of self-efficacy, social, and cognitive development California Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol 1, p Time: 1 minute Another consideration is… (read slide)

18 Developing proficiency in the first language helps children learn a second language
Time: 2 minutes This may sound familiar to those of you who have attended a PEL training. Talking points: Children who have the skills to understand and communicate in their home language will transfer that knowledge to the learning of a second language resulting in a more effective and efficient second language learning process. (Cummins, 1979; Wong Fillmore, 1991) PLF, p. 194 For example, building Spanish speaking children’s language skills in their first language directly enhances their literacy development in English (Bialystok, 2001; Childhood Bilingualism, 2006; Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 1998) Remind participants that they can receive more information about this topic at a PEL Guide training or from Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide . 18

19 Advantages of Bilingualism
Communication advantages Cultural advantages Cognitive advantages Character advantages Curriculum advantages Cash and financial advantages Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide, p. 35 Time: 5 minutes Presenter note - Clicking will reveal six advantages. Before revealing advantages, consider soliciting life stories from one or two participants, or sharing your life story. Communication advantages—can communicate with a wider range of people Cultural advantages—deeper multiculturalism, increased tolerance Cognitive advantages—thinking, memory, brain plasticity Character advantages—increased self-esteem, security in identity Curriculum advantages—easier to learn a third language, increased school achievement Cash and financial advantages—increased employment benefits 19

20 Who is an English Learner?
Children whose families use a language other than English at home, and Children whose primary or first language is a language other than English. FAQ 21 Time: 2 minute Read slide. Refer participants to Handout 3, PLF FAQ’s. Point out that FAQ 21 expands on this information. Give them 1 minute to look at this FAQ. Background information: Children come to preschool with varying levels of English-language proficiency. Regardless of children’s prior experience with English, they learn English at different rates from one another. Individual children’s progress in one area of learning may occur at a different rate than in other areas of learning. Home/school connection is not only important but essential for children on the path to acquiring English. Families are the best source of information. Parent reports on child’s language dominance may not really give you the full picture as siblings and other relatives may be providing a lot of English input. Without a reliable screener for language dominance, family reports may be a program’s sole source of information. The Child Development Division 9600, Confidential application for CD services (CD 9600 – Back Side) has a place for identifying the child’s primary language Handout 3 20

21 Paths to Second-Language Learning
Simultaneous Sequential or Successive Receptive Time: 5 minutes Talking points: (click to reveal) Simultaneous: Simultaneous bilingualism applies to children who learn their first two languages at the same time before the age of 3. For example, a child might learn English from her father and Spanish from her mother from birth onward. Simultaneous bilingualism usually happens before three years old. The ELD foundations do not apply to these children. (click to reveal) Sequential or Successive Bilingualism: These children begin to learn English after their first language is established, usually after they are three years old. For example, a child might speak Italian at home and begin to speak English in preschool. The ELD foundations address the English learning of sequential or successive English learners. (click to reveal) Receptive Bilingualism: These children can understand more of a language than they can express in words. For example, a child may speak Tagalog at home with the family, but may watch TV in English and understand most of what is being said. However, that child may never have used English to express himself. Since this child is not truly considered bilingual, the ELD foundations would apply. Background information: There is a large body of literature that addresses the course of language development among monolingual English speakers. It is increasingly clear that monolingual language development may be somewhat different from dual language development depending upon the language structures of the two languages. Such tings as the alphabet and phonemic representation of each language may be different or similar in nature. Complicating the picture is the fact that there are a variety of circumstance under which children learn more than one language. Preschool English Learner Resource Guide, p 21

22 Stages of Sequential Bilingual Language Development
Attempts to use home language to communicate with teachers and peers Observational and listening period Telegraphic and formulaic communication Fluid/Productive language stage Preschool Learning Foundations, p Time: 10 minutes See Activity Sheet—Stages of Sequential Bilingual Language Development. Process: Ask participants to take out the worksheet “Stages of Sequential Bilingual Language Development.” (Handout 4) Use the pages of foundations as a resource to create a summary sheet with the characteristics of bilingual language development. Depending on how many foundation books are available, group participants (dyads, triads, table groups). Participants will use this later in the day and back at their program. Summary points: The terms “sequential” and “successive” language development mean the same thing. You will see both terms used in the literature but not in the foundations, per se. Children entering a preschool program with little or no knowledge of English, typically move through several stages on their journey to achieving success in a second language. “Children will often weave in and out of each stage, depending on the situation.” (Preschool English Learners Guide, p. 46) If desired, solicit examples from the group. The length of time a child remains at a stage and the level of expectation for second language learning depend on several important characteristics of the child and their language environment. It may take from 6 months to 2 years to move through the four stages. (Foundations, p. 106) The age of the child The child’s temperament (introverted vs. extroverted) The quantity and quality of the language input at home and the school. Handout 4

23 Disability or Normal Stage
Language Disorder Inability to understand and process language either expressively or receptively Disability Language Difference Can speak another language or a variety of a standard language Normal stage of language development Time: 2 minutes Talking points: Collaborate with families and specialists to determine whether or not the child might have an “authentic language disorder.” (PEL Resource Guide, p. 64) “Children with disabilities can learn more than one language and can function bilingually as effectively as their typically developing peers…The language delays in both languages coexist with their disabilities, but bilingualism is not the cause of their delays.” (PEL Resource Guide, p. 66) A collaborative team of teacher, family and specialists should make decisions on how best to incorporate home language, English and alternative modes of communication. ( PEL Resource Guide, p. 70) Preschool English Learner Resource Guide, p. 64

24 How is the English-language development domain organized?
A Guided Tour How is the English-language development domain organized?

25 The Foundations for English-Language Development…
describe the knowledge and skills in sequential or successive English acquisition that young children typically exhibit: In beginning, middle, and later stages of English-language development; With appropriate support; and When attending a high-quality preschool program. Time: 1 minute Read slide Note to presenter - You may notice that the wording on this slide is different than for the other domains and is specific to the foundations for English-language development.

26 High-Quality Programs include…
Environments and experiences that encourage active, playful exploration and experimentation; Purposeful teaching to help children gain knowledge and skills; Specific support for children learning English; and Specific accommodations and adaptations for children with special needs. Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines. California Department of Education, 2000. Time: 1 minute Summary: For children to attain the knowledge and skills in the foundations, programs must work to provide appropriate conditions for learning and individually assist each child in his/her learning and development. It is important for teachers to acknowledge the importance and the role of the child’s primary language in their overall learning and development.

27 ELD Foundations… Are intended to provide guidance to adults who are working to help preschool English learners gain the knowledge and skills necessary in all domains of the California preschool learning foundations, and Are not intended to be used as an assessment tool or checklist. Time: 1 minute Presenter note - Click to display each of the two messages.

28 The Sections Introduction (p. 103-111) The Foundations (p. 112-136)
Glossary (p. 137) References (p ) Time: 5 minutes As you present each bullet, explain and ask the participant to tab the sections. Introduction: It is important to realize that the introduction contains valuable information about the domain. Note that the English-language development domain does not have a separate bibliographic notes section found in the other three domains in Volume 1. Instead, bibliographic notes are integrated into the introduction section found on pages Foundations: The ELD foundations describe “children’s progress toward English-language proficiency.” (p. 105) Glossary: These are terms that support the understanding of the content. References: This section includes research upon which the ELD foundations are based. There is a summary list of the English-language foundations in the Appendix.

29 Preschool Learning Foundations in English-Language Development
Listening Strand Sub-strand Substrand Focus Developmental Level Foundation Examples Time: 5 minutes Ask participants to follow along with their blank copy of the foundation map (Handout 5a) or on the complete copy of the foundations map (Handout 5b). Click to reveal callouts. Highlight: Note that the ELD foundations have a “focus” statement below the substrand. The developers of the ELD foundations felt that specific foci were needed to provide the practitioner with a clearer idea about how one substrand emphasized different aspects of development. For example, under Listening, the first substrand is “children listen with understanding.” This substrand is broken into different foci such as “beginning words”, “requests and directions” and “basic and advanced concepts.” Direct participants to asterisk notes on the bottom of this page for children with disabilities. Includes information for children with disabilities Handout 5

30 A Different Format Handout 6 Time: 5 minutes
Ask participants to refer to Handout 6 from their folders. Talking points: The ELD foundations are formatted differently than the foundations in social-emotional development, language and literacy, and mathematics. The other domains provide expectations for a child who is “at or around 48 months of age” and “at or around 60 months of age.” “Because of the wide range of language capability found in children…the use of developmental markers, such as “beginning,” “middle,” and “later,” are used to provide for a range of expectations for performance.” (p. 106) The ELD foundations recognize that children whose first language is not English will enter preschool with varying experiences with English. Do not confuse the “beginning” “middle” and “later” levels in the foundations with the similar sounding “early” “middle” and “later” levels found in the EL Resource Guide. The levels in the foundations are appropriate for children who are learning English AFTER learning a home language. The levels in the EL Resource Guide are for children learning English at the same time as they are learning another language, usually before three years old. ---Background information “EL children come from many different backgrounds and hear and use English to varying degrees. For example, if they have older siblings who speak English, they may have very different language inputs than an only child who is primarily interacting with mom who does not speak English.” (M. Zepeda quoted from conversation). Recognizing this reality, and mirroring the general structure of ELD foundations for the k-12 ELD standards (Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced), the ELD foundations are divided into three levels: beginning, middle and later. The five (5) levels for k-12 come from the California English Language Development Test (CELDT). Handout 6

31 Strand - Substrand Order
There is a developmental progression from beginning-middle-later within a substrand. The order in which the strands and substrands are presented is not meant to indicate a developmental progression. Time: 2 minutes Ask participants to look at the English-language development foundations. Bullet 1: As we talked about earlier, there is a developmental progression from “beginning” to “middle” to “later” within each substrand. Bullet 2: Provide an example such as “For example, there is no developmental progression from the reading to the writing strand, or from 3.0 Children demonstrate an understanding of print conventions to 4.0 Children demonstrate awareness that print carries meaning.” (p )

32 A Deeper Understanding
In the following slides, we will explore how the research on English-language development guided the unique structure of the ELD foundations.

33 English-Language Development Foundations Working Group
Lead Researcher: Marlene Zepeda, CSU Los Angeles Barbara Flores, CSU San Bernardino Vera Gutierrez-Clellen, San Diego State University Linda Espinosa, University of Missouri, Columbia Celia Genishi, Teachers College, Columbia Univ. Alison Wishard Guerra, UC San Diego RaMonda Horton-Ikard, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Gisela Jia, City University of New York Lisa Lopez, University of South Florida Time: 1 minute Optional slide (Slide used with permission from the Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint.) The English-language development foundations had an ‘internal working group’ of national experts (listed here) who held a series of telephone conferences to develop successive drafts. Several of the social-emotional experts also participated in the expanded consortium meetings held in Sacramento. In the development of the ELD foundations, Marlene Zepeda spent time observing in bilingual preschool settings and interacting with a group of preschool teachers that reviewed an initial draft and provided some examples for the foundations. 33

34 Beginning-Middle-Later
Time: 3 minutes (Speaker notes adapted from Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Talking points: “Because of the very broad variability in language development for EL children, a developmental progression was viewed as the appropriate way to go. This progression also is consistent with the ELD framework for K through 12 where 5 stages of development are noted. For the preschool foundations, experts felt that 3 stages best represented the developmental progression.” (Marlene Zepeda) Given the variability of English acquisition in these young children and recognizing that they enter preschool settings with the ability to communicate in a language, the ELD foundations use a continuum of “beginning”, “middle”, and “later” to characterize children’s movement towards learning English. The continuum allows teachers to view children’s development as uneven. These continua show that children who are learning English use their knowledge and skills in their home language to continue to build knowledge and skills in all other domains. Draft Preschool Curriculum Framework March 2009 The advantage of using a continuum is that we know that children may be more advanced at the listening stage but less so in their productive capacities such as speaking, reading and writing. Children are not expected to be at the same level in every strand of the foundations.

35 Structure of This Domain: A Developmental Progression
Page 116 Time: 7 minutes (Speaker notes adapted with permission from Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Talking points: 2 minutes The English-language development foundations assume that preschool children come to the educational setting with varying abilities in their first language. We know that many children are still in the process of developing their first language. In ELD foundations: As we look at the “beginning” level, children use their home language as a means of understanding and communicating in the classroom. The use of the home language in the beginning level is a clear recognition that children come to preschool with a means of understanding and communicating in their first language. Read time: 5 minutes Ask participants to read the examples of the beginning level in their books. See p 116 – 1.0 Children use nonverbal and verbal strategies to communicate with others, Beginning level examples

36 Structure of This Domain: A Developmental Progression
Page 116 Time: 7 minutes (Speaker notes adapted with permission from Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Talking points: 2 minute In the “middle” level, children use a mix of their home language and English. When children move back and forth between the two languages, it is called “code-switching.” Read time: 5 minutes Ask participants to read the examples of the Middle level in their books, p. 116. 36

37 Structure of This Domain: A Developmental Progression
Page 116 Time: 7 minutes (Speaker notes adapted with permission from Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Talking points: 2 minutes In the “later” level, children begin to express themselves in their own words in English and have a general understanding of the rules of English. (Ask participants to read the examples of later level in their books.) The foundations remind us that young children come to the learning already having language. They come with skills and competencies in their home language that we should endeavor to build upon. Read time: 5 minutes Ask participants to read the examples of the Later level in their books, p 116 37

38 The Three ELD Levels of English-Language Development
Beginning: The child uses the home language to communicate. Middle: The child uses a mix of home language and basic English common vocabulary and phrases. Later: The child uses English to communicate. Time: 1 minute Summary: When planning for your group, make sure to include strategies to support content learning for all children, including those at each level of English-language development. Ask participants to turn over their Power point notes before you move on to the next slide.

39 Learning a Second Language Four stages Three ELD levels
First stage--Use of home language in second language setting Second stage--Observational and listening period Third stage--Telegraphic and formulaic communication Fourth stage--Productive language use Beginning Middle Later Time: 5 minutes Activity: Match the four stages with the three levels. Process: Ask participants to take out their completed Handout 4: Stages of Bilingual Development from the earlier activity. With an elbow partner, have participants decide what stages correspond to what levels. Solicit group input as you click through the answers. Summary: “The four stages of successive or sequential second language acquisition found in the PEL Guide (home language, observational/listening, telegraphic/formulaic and fluid stages) are approximately parallel to the three levels in the ELD foundations: “beginning” level -home language and observational/listening stage; “middle” level -observational/listening and telegraphic/formulaic stages; and “later” level - fluid stage.” FAQ The ELD foundations collapse the first two stages of this progression into the “beginning” level. The telegraphic and formulaic communication stage is the “middle” level and the fluid/productive use of language is the “later” level. PEL Guide, p. 46. First two stages are collapsed because learners demonstrate very uneven development across the foundations. --- Background information. See FAQ 20 The English-language development (ELD) foundations describe what children typically demonstrate at three different levels of successive English-language development. The Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide reinforces the information in the introduction to the ELD foundations, and includes additional material about family and community language practices, simultaneous second language acquisition, and supporting the English-language learner with special needs. The four stages of successive or sequential second language acquisition found in the PEL Resource Guide (home language, observational/listening, telegraphic/formulaic and fluid stages) are approximately “parallel” to the three levels in the ELD foundations: beginning level -home language and observational/listening stage; middle level -observational/listening and telegraphic/formulaic stages; and later level –fluid stage. The guide includes information on creating a supportive classroom environment, strategies to strengthen children's language acquisition, as well as the crucial role of the family in the education of English learners. Handout 4

40 Let’s Practice Handout 7 Time: 15 minutes
See Activity Sheet— “What Level is It?” Process: Ask participants to take Handout 7: “What Level Is It?” worksheet from their folders. As elbow partners, triads or tables, ask participants to complete the sheet. Refer to the four substrands of Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing of the preschool English learner domain in the Preschool Learning Foundations to help figure out what level each example illustrates. If the question indicates Listening, please figure out what level it might illustrate in Listening. If it indicates Reading, decide on a level in reading. Summary: Answer key on the Activity Sheet indicates a page reference where the same or similar example can be found. Emphasize that children can be at one level in listening, another level in reading and another in writing. Handout 7

41 Using the ELD Foundations
The ELD foundations are used “if the family reports that a preschool child’s primary language is other than English.” FAQ ELD L&L

42 * English-language development foundations focus mainly on language and literacy learning because it is by nature language specific. In light of the language specific nature of language and literacy learning, the English-language development foundations focus mainly on knowledge and skills that pertain to language and literacy. Children's abilities to understand and use English to communicate influence the level of additional support and time they need to demonstrate the knowledge and skills described in foundations in domain in social-emotional development, mathematics, and language and literacy. Draft Preschool Curriculum Framework March 2009

43 Use the ELD and the L&L Foundations as Companions
ELD foundations Designed to assist classroom teachers in their understanding of children’s progress toward English proficiency (PLF, p. 105) L&L foundations Describe development of language and literacy skills for all children Talking points: The ELD foundations are meant to be used along with the language and literacy foundations, not in place of them (PLF, p. 105). The English-language development foundations show children’s development in English which is acquired along a continuum of development, and not at specific points in time. The language and literacy foundations are the knowledge, skills and behaviors children have acquired at specific points in time. For example, foundation 1.1 on page 176: “Use language to communicate with others in familiar social situations for a variety of basic purposes, including describing, requesting, commenting, acknowledging, greeting and rejecting.”

44 How the Foundations and the DRDP-R Work Together
Transition slide

45 Assessing and Monitoring Children's Progress
The foundations describe what children should know and be able to do. The DRDP-R is the observation based assessment tool. Children may demonstrate their knowledge using their home language, English, or other communication methods. DRDP-R measures are being developed for English-language development. Talking points The foundations describe what children should know and be able to do. The foundations for L&L are meant for all learners, including children learning English and children with special needs. The DRDP-R is the observation based assessment tool used by teachers to describe children’s progress toward these goals. Some children with special needs will use the DRDP access assessment tool as determined by the IEP team. All children, particularly children at the “Beginning” and “Middle” levels of English language acquisition, may show knowledge and skills in different domains using their home language. The preschool DRDP recognizes this possibility by considering children’s demonstrations of knowledge and skills in their home language as evidence of developmental progress. Draft Preschool Curriculum Framework 2009 DRDP-R measures are being developed for English-language development.

46 Assessing Children with Disabilities who are English Learners: Guidance for the DRDP access and the PS DRDP-R for Children with IEPs Time: 1 minute Remind participants that asterisks on the bottom of some foundations pages for adaptations for children with disabilities. For more information about English learner children with disabilities, please visit the DR access web site. Also refer to Chapter 7 from the Preschool English Learners, A Resource Guide for more information.

47 Supporting the English Learner
Time: 1 minute Talking points: Regardless of what language or languages a preschool child is learning, he is still in the process of mastering that language. This does not only apply to second language learners…it applies also to children whose home language is English. (California Preschool Learning Foundations, p. 104) Many of the following strategies to support English-language learners will be equally as valuable for English-speaking children and children with disabilities.

48 Some Instructional Strategies
Pronounce the child’s name correctly. Use body language. Use visuals. Use lots of interesting vocabulary, repeating new words often in English. Summarize or provide key phrases of a story in a book. Repeat common phrases slowly and clearly. Use language and literacy activities that contain repetitive refrains. Use running commentary. Time: 2 minutes (Slide used with permission from the Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Ask participants to take out Handout 8 “Instructional Strategies for English-Language Development”. This resource can be used later in this session and back at their site. Go over the bullet points: Learn how to pronounce the child’s name as accurately as possible. Because a child’s name is so closely linked to their sense of self, it is very important that the correct pronunciation of their name be used. Use body language. Use visuals. To the extent possible, learn some key words or phrases in the child’s native language. The parent, sibling, or other staff member who speaks the child’s home language may assist in this effort. Repeat common phrases slowly and clearly to the child so s/he can begin to make the connection between the phrase and the action (e.g., it’s circle time, naptime, etc.) Use language and literacy activities that contain repetitive refrains so that English learners can hear the idea or concept multiple times (e.g., Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What do You See?) Use ongoing commentary when the child is engaged in an activity. For example, if the child is climbing up the ladder to the slide, you might say, “You are going up the ladder and then you will go down the slide.” Additional talking points: Although there are good teaching strategies for all children regardless of the language they speak, for EL children there are some modifications that may need to take place in order to help them understand what is going on when spoken to in English. These include the bulleted items listed in the slide. The acquisition of English requires deliberate and intentional instructional practices that assist young children to hear the sounds of the second language slowly, clearly, and often. When interacting with English learners, teachers should employ strategies that emphasize body language and gestures, as well as spoken language that is well-articulated, pronounced, and utilizes clear referents (e.g., visual aids as appropriate). Initially, young English-language learners may be relatively non-verbal when entering preschool, it is important that they be included in a variety of activities that promote listening and comprehension. Handout 8

49 Accommodations and Adaptations for Children with Disabilities
“The more we support English-language development by engaging children through different modalities, the more likely children are to both understand and use that language in a meaningful context.” (Whit Hayslip, Ph.D.) Time: 1 minute Read slide Refer participants to Handout 9 for strategies. These two strategy handouts (8 and 9) will be used in the next activity. Handout 9 49

50 Additional Resources Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide
A World Full of Language: Supporting Preschool English Learners (DVD) Time: 30 seconds Remind participants about the additional PEL resources available 50

51 How Would You Do It? Handout 1 Handout 8 Handout 9 Handout 10
Time: 25 minutes See Activity Sheet— “How Would You Do It?” Ask participants to remove the following handouts from their folders. Handout 1—Eight Core Beliefs Handout 8—Instructional Strategies for English Language Development Handout 9—Some Adaptations for Children with Disabilities Handout10—How Would You Do It? Process: Give each group a picture book to use to complete the lesson plan, a profile of a child with a disability and a profile of a child learning English. Brainstorm how you might use your story/song/fingerplay/poem to support children’s development of each of the goals in the left hand column. In the first column, jot down a strategy you might use for a typical classroom of diverse children. In the second column, discuss the needs of the child with disabilities profiled at your table. How might you ensure that the activity is accessible to that child? Jot down your strategy in the space provided. In the third column, think about the child learning English profiled at your table. How might you ensure that the activity is accessible to that child? Jot down your strategy in the space provided. The adaptations for the child with disabilities and the child learning English should be tweaks to the strategy you have planned for your typical classroom, not totally different strategies. Model the process using a familiar poem such as Jack Be Nimble Ask members how they might adapt that activity for a Korean speaking child at the observational stage of English language development. (5 minutes) (5 min) Provide work time for groups to complete their sheets at their table. (20 minutes) See activity sheet for share out options Handout 1 Handout 8 Handout 9 Handout 10

52 Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide
Developed to assist practitioners in their understanding of English learners and their families. Provides principles and practices. 2007 version updated with the guidance of a panel of experts (see EL Resource Guide acknowledgements). Supported by a DVD titled “A World Full of Language” Time: 1 minute (Slide used with permission from the Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) The Preschool English Learner Resource Guide was developed to provide teachers and administrators with information about working with EL preschool children and their families. Specifically, the guide provides information about the research that informs specific teaching strategies for EL children, emphasizes the importance of understanding the children’s families and their cultures of origin, contains a chapter on EL children with disabilities, and has specific information on early literacy. It should be noted that the guide addresses the needs of children from a variety of home languages, not just Spanish.

53 The ELD Foundations and PEL Resource Guide both…
Approach second language learning from a strength-based perspective. Utilize a developmental sequence in understanding second language acquisition. Provide connections between theory and research to practice. Time: 3 minutes (Slide used with permission from the Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Talking points: Both the English-language development foundations and the Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide approach the acquisition of English from a strength-based perspective. What does that mean? The child’s first language is viewed as an asset in developing a second language. A child comes to preschool with knowledge of language and how it functions (e.g., phonology, grammar, pragmatics). As was previously discussed, a child’s first language forms the frame of reference for the acquisition of a second language. By using the first language to compare what is being learned in the second language, the child develops the ability to attach two different words or labels to the same concept. For example, the concept of the color red will not change; that is, the color will remain red. However, the child learning a second language comes to understand that the word ‘red’ refers to the same concept as ‘rojo’ or ‘rouge’ etc. Both the English-language development foundations and the Preschool English Learners: A Resource Guide utilize a stages framework to characterize second language acquisition. In the ELD foundations, the stages are called “levels” are divided into beginning, middle and later, in the EL Resource Guide there are four stages, including (1) the use of the home language to communicate, (2) the observational and listening period, (3) telegraphic and formulaic speech, and (4) fluid language use. As mentioned earlier, these stages or levels describe how the child experiences second language learning and how she begins to make inroads into the second language through trial and error. The ELD foundations take stages 1 and 2 combine them into the “beginning” level. What is important to note here, is that both the ELD and EL Resource Guide use a developmental progression to describe children’s learning. Because of the wide variability that exists in the EL population, a developmental progression is needed to characterize children’s learning. Both the ELD foundations and the EL Resource Guide make a concerted effort to connect what theory and research tell us about how young children learn a second language and how that theory and research would look like in preschool context. What does it mean for what teachers do with young children? One of the best examples of this linkage is what we just talked about in terms of the stages or levels of second language acquisition. These stages or levels have discussed by a number of language experts in the field, including Saville-Troike and Tabors. In addition, the theory and research that support the concept of cross language transfer also informs us about how the child scaffolds learning from the first language to their second.

54 The ELD Foundations and PEL Resource Guide: Linkages to L&L Foundations
Language and literacy development is developed within the context of social-emotional development, physical development, and for EL children, English-language development. Most of the suggested teaching strategies in PEL Resource Guide are appropriate child development practices in early childhood. Time: 3 minutes (Slide text adapted with permission from the Faculty Initiative Seminar PowerPoint) Talking points: As we now have learned, many effective teaching strategies are appropriate for all children, regardless of what language the child speaks. In the DVD entitled, A World Full of Languages: Supporting Preschool English Learners, the following teaching strategies are highlighted: develop a climate of belonging provide scaffolding focus on children’s interests and encourage peer support. These teaching strategies should be used by all teachers. We want teachers to: Make children feel comfortable and secure in the preschool setting. Build new learning on previous knowledge by scaffolding children’s learning when interacting with them, providing as many supports as possible to tap various learning modalities. Capitalize on children’s interests because we know that what is personally interesting to an individual will likely motivate them to learn more about that interest. And lastly, Encourage positive social interaction with peers because we know that it is often through peer interaction that children practice their ideas and concepts including practicing all the language domains.

55 Reflection Think of a child in your classroom. At what stage of English-language development is this child? How do you support English-language learners now? What new strategies might you try? What strategies do you use with families to determine how they support their child’s home language? Time: 5 minutes this slide and the next Process: Read aloud the questions on the slide. The last question is the real link to ‘culture’ and how culture interacts with language development. (Marlene Zepeda) Give participants 5 minutes record their thoughts and reflections on Handout 11. Handout 11

56 Reflection Time: 5 minutes this slide and the previous Handout 11

57 Q & A Time: 1 minute Also check the Parking Lot.

58 CDE Web Site At the Web site address, the underlined Preschool Learning Foundations link takes you to the publication. There you will have easy access to the chapters and sections within the 192 page publication. The Appendix, on pages , provides a summary list of the foundations. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are posted on the Web site. Questions can be sent to Time: 1 minute Talking points: Share the information in the first bullet and then share the information in the “Web” handout. On page in the Appendix, you will find a summary list of the foundations, excluding the examples and other material. Hold one up to show how small it is. Remind them that the preschool foundation’s address on the previous page is also on the CDE Web site. Many questions were asked during the extensive public review process. CDE has developed a set of frequently asked questions (FAQ) to provide the answers to those questions. The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) document is a living document. Over time, new questions will be added and existing responses may be clarified as needed.

59 Time: 1 minute
The entire document is online at the California Department of Education Web site. You can look at a specific section or download the entire document. This slide shows the way the web page is designed. The Appendix contains a summary list of the foundations, excluding the examples and other material. The foundations are also available for purchase through CDE press.

60 To Purchase The Preschool Learning Foundations publication is available for purchase from the CDE Press for $15.95. Ordering information can be found at the CDE Web site or by calling Time: 30 seconds Remind participants that there is a handout in the folder with ordering information.

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