Presentation on theme: "Using Microsoft Project 2000"— Presentation transcript:
1Using Microsoft Project 2000 PROJECT MANAGEMENTUsing Microsoft Project 2000
2Tutorials Option 1 Use the following slides to learn MS Project. Throughout the slides arrow (>) means “click on”. For example “>View Bar”, means click on View Bar on your screen.Option 2You may also use the tutorial contained in the software itself. Click on “Help” on the main menu in MS Project to access this tutorial.
3Overview Project management requires balancing elements: project scope – goals, objectives and activities needed to meet themschedule- duration and succession of activitiesavailable resources - human and materialGenerally this means:planning, organizing and monitoring the activitiesidentifying the necessary resourcesPlanning how to use resourcesThe focus for all these activities is the project plan.
4Why use a project plan?Without a plan, you reduce the likelihood of accomplishing project goals or objectives, such as staying within budget or on schedule because:you can’t easily track who is doing whatknow when tasks should be finishedif something goes wrong it will be difficult to determine the problem’s cause and it’s impact on the schedule
5Five steps in managing a project 1 Project initiation/definition :scope definitionauthorization (project charter)resource definitiontime limits definition2 Planning the projectidentifying the tasks, as well as who and what will accomplish themestimating the volume of work and time needed for each taskidentifying dependencies – tasks that depend on other activitiesdetermining the limitations and constraints on activities and resources
63 Executing the project carrying out each task 4 Controlling monitoring progressrevising the resources, scope and scheduleidentifying problems that might push your project out of the plan’s parametersanalyzing the necessary resources so that no one on the team is overworkedmaking necessary corrections or changes5 Closing the projectcomparing the initial plan to what really happenedanalyzing the problems that you encountered and identifying the areas for possible improvementsarchiving the project file
7How Does Microsoft Project help? ItCalculates most schedule detailsBalances critical scheduling factorsFlags problems before they impact your scheduleCreates the project planTracks the project planHelps close the project
8What MS Project does NOT do It won’t write the Project Charter nor the Project StatementIt won’t automatically identify the necessary resources for a certain activity, nor it’s durationIt won’t check the validity of the input data (such as dependencies, costs, durations, etc.)It won’t generate reports or wievs based on data that we didn’t supply (such as completion percentages, actual durations, actual start/end dates, etc.)
9Steps you will take in creating an MS Project plan Open a new project documentSpecify the project starting dateCreate the task list, specifying durationGroup and logically organize the tasks in phases, summarizing tasks and subactivitiesSpecify dependenciesAdd resources and information about themAssign resources to activitiesAdd cost information about resources and activitiesOptimize the plan in order to reduce costsSave baseline information
10You must clearly define the following elements: OBJECTIVESThese are the actual results that should be obtained. When defining them one should be careful that the objectives are “SMART”SpecificMeasurableAdequateRelevantTimelyPROJECT SCOPE - the combination of the project goal, objectives and activitiesASSUMPTIONS about the action of different factors on duration and costs
11MS Project window Menu bar Entry bar Tool bars View Bar Active split barStatus bar
12InstructionsWhen you see a > sign in the following text , you should go to that location; or click your mouse on that menu/toolbar item; or fill in that blank field.If you see a > sign followed by “Select”, highlight that item by holding down the left mouse button and moving the mouse over the appropriate letters, just as you would in a word processing task.
13Creating a new project Saving the project Automatic save >File>New>Blank Project > Start Date>Schedule from > Finish DateTo modify the start or the end date:> Project > Project informationTo specify data about the project (scope, objectives, assumptions) :>File > Properties > Summary > CommentsSaving the projectSave > File nameAutomatic saveTools > Options > Save > Save every
14Working with tasks Defining tasks A task is a concrete step that’s required to meet a project goal or objective.Defining tasksThe tasks must be:well definedprecisedetailedsignificant - their completion should move the project forward measurably
15PhasesA phase consists of a group of related tasks. Breaking a project into phases enables you to:focus on one aspect of the project at a timesee the logical flow of the tasks in the projectdetermine missing tasksdetail the project up to the needed levelMilestonesMilestones are activities that do not require actual work.They are interim points that you can use to track the progress of your project.
16Creating the task list To Enter Tasks The task list is the core of your project plan. Rule of thumb when creating the task list:include only tasks that are critical to the completion of your projectadd tasks that are significant yet detailed enough that the time to complete each one is short compared to the overall project lengthuse phases and milestonesidentify tasks that occur repetitivelyTo Enter Tasks>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Task nameUse a verb and a noun to name a task, for example: draw plans
17Deleting tasks Enter recurring tasks >View Bar > Gantt Chart Select the task’s name you want to deleteDEL or Edit > DeleteEnter recurring tasksRecurrent tasks occur repeatedly during the project (for example, weekly status meetings)>Insert > Recurring task>Duration, Occurrence pattern>Length - the time interval when the task occurs>Occurrences - how many times the task will occur
18Add MilestonesMilestones are used to mark thepoints in time for the start or the completion of significant sections of your project.MS Project considers a milestone as an activity with 0 days duration. It represents the milestone with a distinctive diamond-shaped symbol.The first step in adding a milestone is to enter it’s name into the task list.To turn it into a milestone, all you have to do is to specify a 0 days duration.
19Estimating task duration There are several ways to estimate task duration:based on others’ experiencebased on your experiencebased on past recordsWARNING:When specifying a duration you must think about how many resources you will allocate to that taskThe task duration doesn’t include non working times. If you want to schedule a task over a continuous period of time, including non working time, you must specify an elapsed duration.
20Any activity has an estimated duration of one day Any activity has an estimated duration of one day. To remind you about this, MS Project adds a symbol of uncertainty in front of it ( this is a “?” ).After you set a duration, the “?” will disappear.WARNING:Specify only the task duration, without the starting or ending dates. MS Project will compute these automatically, when you’ll specify the dependencies.
21Enter or change task durations >View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select task>“Duration” = type the duration you wantSpecifying elapsed durations>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select task>“Duration” = precede the time unit you enter with the letter “e”
22A logically ordered task list By organizing your tasks logically you can:spot missing tasks or flaws in the logical flow of taskscomplete each phase of your project at the right timecreate a hierarchy to show each task as a part of a major phasesee only the details of a the phase of your project you are interested in at a given timeOrganizing your tasks is a three step process:put tasks in a logical ordergroup related tasksoutline the tasks listYou may group the tasks that:are part of the same processare completed in the same time period
23Creating Summary Tasks Ordering the tasksTo do this you have to move tasks up or down the task list:>View Bar > Gantt ChartSelect (highlight) the task you want to moveCut, Paste or Drag and Drop it where you need itCreating Summary TasksLike a milestone, summary tasks do not require work. Unlike milestones, a summary task summarizes information about its subtasks.>View Bar > Gantt ChartSelect the task you want to indent/outdent>Indent to show subordinate tasks
24Expand and collapse summary tasks By doing this you can show or hide the details of the subtasks of a summary task.>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select the summary task>Show / Hide Subtasks
25Work Breakdown Structure The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is the hierarchy of the tasks in your project. Each activity has a unique WBS code.Defining WBS Codes>Project > WBS > Define code
26Order the WBS Codes sequentially Displaying WBS codes>View bar > More Views > Task Sheet>Insert > Column > WBSOrder the WBS Codes sequentiallyThis becomes necessary after you rearrange the tasks in the task list.>Project > WBS > Renumber
27Specifying dependencies To figure out the task sequence (dependencies), you need to answer these questions for each task:Does the start or finish date of this task depend on the start or finish date of another task? If not, just specify a start date for itWhich task does this task depend on? (in other words, which are its predecessors)Which tasks depend on this task? (in other words, which are its logical successors)
28Types of dependencies There are four types of dependencies: FS - “Finish to Start” - a task starts after its predecessor finishesSS - “Start to Start” - a task starts when its predecessor startsFF - “Finish to Finish” - a task finishes when its predecessor finishesSF - “Start to Finish ” - a task starts after its predecessor finishesThe types of dependencies you specify will affect your project length.
29Create a task link Change a task link Delete a task link >View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select the tasks you want to link>Link tasks using the toolbar’s link buttonChange a task link>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Double click the link you want to modify>Change the TypeDelete a task link>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select the tasks you want to unlink>Unlink tasks
30Specifying lead or lag time Overlap or delay tasksSometimes the task link doesn’t show accurately when the task will actually start. You can show this by using lag time and lead time.Specifying lead or lag time>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select the successor>Task information > Predecessors > LagFor lead time you should use negative values
31Working with resources There are two types of resources:Worker or work resources - they do or facilitate workMaterial resources - are used by the workersDetermining your work resourcesOne should consider the following:how many resources do you need- affects the project duration and costswhat worker abilities are necessary
32Working with resources - continued In order to determine the necessary resources you must consider:Project scopeType of tasks that need to be doneWhat kind of tasks need to be doneWhat set of skills are needed for each taskHow many resources are needed to complete each task on timeCan one worker resource work on more than one task?What and how much material resources do you need.There are two ways to estimate your resource needs accurately. You could use your previous experiences or base estimates on previous projects that used the same resources.
33Creating the resource list To create the resource list:>Tools>Resources>Assign resources: add them one at a time as you assign resources to tasksThis will create your resource list.The resource list includes:resource namemaximum amount of time a resource is available per daytotal amount of the resource you expect to use.
34Resource sets and groups A resource set is a collection of resources that share the same skills and that you might assign to the same type of activities.For instance – a team of paintersA resource group is a collection of individual resources or resource sets grouped together for tracking and reporting purposes.For instance: - the painters team, brick layers team, the design department, etc.,
35Creating the resource list >View Bar > Resource Sheet>View > Table > EntryResource nameType > resource type (material or work)Label > quantity unit (only for material resources)Group > the name of the group the resource belongs to.Std. Rate > either the cost per time period (for work resources) or the cost per material label (for material resources)Max. units or Units > number of resource units available (only for work resources, not available for material resources).
36Working Times Calendars The working times calendar stores all expected working and non working days and hours of a given resource. There are several types of calendars:Project calendar - also named the Standard calendar. It is chosen when you create a new project.Base calendar - stores the planned working and non working days and hours for several resources. It contains exceptions from the project calendarResource calendars - are based on base calendars and contain the work schedule for one resource onlyCreating a base calendar>Tools > Change working time>New > Name (to create a new calendar) >Nonworking time / Nondefault working time
37Assign resources to calendars >View Bar > Resource Sheet>Base calendar select the type of calendar
38Create a resource calendar >View Bar > Resource Sheet>Edit the resource (double click)>Working time>Base calendar - the name of the base calendar that will be modified. When a resource’s work shift begins on one day and ends on the following day you must specify two time intervals - one from the start time until midnight and one from midnight until the end time.
39Assigning resources to tasks Benefits of using resource allocation:Your schedule mirrors your actual circumstances more accurately.You can assign responsibilities for tasksYou can monitor workload and make adjustments to avoid overloading peopleYou can track resource costs
40Task scheduling For scheduling tasks, MS Project uses these elements: Work - the amount of effort measured in time units put into a task by a resource.Total work is the sum of all time units used by all resources assigned to the taskDuration - the amount of time between the start and the end of a task. It depends on the number of resources and the amount of work assigned to a task.Resources - are people, equipment, office space, etc.The scheduling method based on work is called effort-driven scheduling. In this case, the more resources you assign to a task the shorter the duration becomes.
41Effort-driven scheduling When you first assign resources to a task, MS Project calculates the work by multiplying the duration and the number of units allocated.This number will not change, no matter the number of resources or units you will allocate later. The only thing that will change is the duration.WARNING: when you define the duration of a task you should think about the resources and number of units you will allocate to that task. By doing this, the task duration will not change when you allocate the resources.
42How MS Project schedules a task There are four elements that impact on task scheduling:Task dependenciesTask durationResource calendarResource units you assign to a taskIn the case of effort-driven scheduling the more resources you allocate to a task, shorter the task duration will be.
43Assign one or more resources to a task >View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select the task>Assign Resources > Name > Units > Assign
44Remove a resource from a task >View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select the task>Assign Resources > Name > RemoveReplace a resource with another resource>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select the task with a resource you want to replace>Assign Resources > Name > Replace > Name > OK
45Displaying and printing information Data about a project can be either viewed or printed.When viewing data, three elements determine what you see:viewstablesfiltersViewsA view displays a subset of information from the database in a particular format. There are several formats in which data can be displayed:sheetschartsgraphsforms
46Views - continued Selecting a view Viewing data in one or another view doesn’t change the data content.Choosing one view or another depends on the information you want to visualize. There are specialized views for tasks and for resources.Selecting a view>View Bar > Gantt Chart
47TablesThe data displayed in a view depend on the table you choose to view. The tables depend on the category of information you want to see.There are specific tables for:taskscostsdata entryproject trackingAs there are views for tasks and for resources, there are also tables for tasks and for resources.
49FiltersFilters allow you to see only that piece of information that satisfies certain criteria. There are predefined filters for:activitiesresourcesType of predefined filters:standard filters (one or two criteria)interactive filtersautofilters (only for a sheet view, only one criterion for each field)
50Printing information Printing a view You may print both views and reports. They differ in the kind of information they contain and in how they display the information.Printing a view>View Bar > Select the view you want to print>Preview>File > Print
51ReportsThere are several sets of predefined reports. If needed these reports can be modified to satisfy your actual needs.You can also create new reports.Types of predefined reports:Project overviewsTask informationResource usage informationCost informationProgress information
52Print a report Modify a report Create a new report >View > Reports>Select the type of report>Select the report>PrintModify a report>View > Reports > Custom>Select the report>EditCreate a new report>View > Reports > Custom>New
53Resolving overallocations A resource that is assigned to do more hours of work in a given time period than it has available on its resource calendar is overallocated.An overallocated resource might burn out or becomes bottleneck.Ways for solving overallocation:Adjust task propertiesChange assignmentsModify a resource’s working time
54Find overallocated resources Before you can resolve overallocations, you mustidentify overallocated resourcessee when over allocation occurssee what tasks they are assigned toTo find overallocated resources:>View bar > More views > Resource allocation > Apply>View menu > Toolbars > Resource management>Go To Next Overallocation
56Modifications that solve overallocations Delay tasks manuallyDelay tasks automaticallyCut a task’s scopeSplit a taskAssign other resourcesReassign resources from non critical tasks, without affecting the total project durationChange the resource calendar
57Assigning and Managing Costs When you add cost information to your project you can:Assign resource costsDetermine the cost of each taskEstimate the total cost of the projectView the cost to date either for a task or for the entire projectControl how costs are accruedDetermine whether you can hire extra resources to accelerate the schedule without going over the budgetDevelop a project budgetPerform an earned value analysis
58How MS Project calculates costs Factors that can affect a calculated cost:Rate based resource costs - for work resources this value is multiplied by the time it takes to accomplish the task. For material resources these costs are multiplied by the quantity required to accomplish the taskOver time costs - for worker resources used beyond regular working hoursPer use costsFixed costs (taxes, approvals, etc.)Resource rates - are tables storing information about different cost levels depending on such factors as time, origin, etc.Cost accrual method (beginning, end, prorated)
59Assign a rate to a resource >View Bar > Resource sheet>Std. Rate, Ovt. Rate, Cost/useSpecify Default Standard and Overtime Rates>Tools > Options > General>Default Standard Rate>Default Overtime Rate>Set as defaultSpecify the Default Currency Symbol>Tools > Options > View > Currency
60Assign more than one rate to a resource In case one resource has different payment schedules, you can enter different rates into the resource’s rate tables.>View Bar > Resource sheetResource name > Resource informationCosts > Std. Rate, Ovt. Rate, Cost/use>Effective date (starting only with the second row)
61To apply a specific pay rate: >View Bar > Task usage>Task name > Resource select>Assignment information>General > Cost rate table
62Assign a Fixed Cost to a Resource In case there are costs relative to a task that doesn’t relate to any resource assigned to that task (approvals, tasks, etc.)>View Bar > Gantt Chart>View > Table > Cost>Fixed cost
63Assign a Rate to a Material Resource You can assign one or more rates to a material resource. For one rate:>View Bar > Resource Sheet>View > Table > Entry>Resource name, Type, Material labelStd. Rate
64For multiple rates:>View Bar > Resource Sheet>View > Table > Entry>Resource name > Resource information>General > Cost rate table > Costs>Standard rate>Effective date (starting only with the second row)
65Assign a Per-Use Cost to a Material Resource A per-use cost may be a delivery charge, a service fee, etc.You can enter one or more per-use costs for a material resource. For one cost:>View Bar > Resource Sheet>View > Table > Entry>Resource name, Type, Material labelCost/use
66Assign a Per-Use Cost to a Material Resource For multiple per-use costs:>View Bar > Resource Sheet>View > Table > Entry>Resource name > Resource information>General > Cost rate table > Costs>Per use cost>Effective date (starting only with the second row)
67How resource costs are accrued Cost accrual controls how you account for resource costs. There are two commonly used cost accounting methods: you can accrue or prorate resource costs.When you accrue a cost, you incur the entire cost all at once. You may choose to accrue the costs when the task starts or when the task ends.When you prorate a cost you incur the cost gradually as the task progresses.To select a cost accrual method:>View Bar > Resource Sheet>Resource name > Resource information>Costs > Cost accrual
68Reducing costsBefore devising a strategy for cutting costs, find out which factors cost the most and which of those costs can be reduced. You do this by displaying different costs:The total project costThe total cost of an individual activityThe total cost of a material resourceThe total cost of a work resourceThe total cost of an allocationCosts distributed over a task’s duration
69View the Total Project Cost This is the first thing to check to stay within the budget.>Project > Project information > Statistics>Current
70View the Total Cost of a Task If you find that the project cost exceeds the budget, you can check the cost of individual tasks to see which one can be reduced. This is often done by discussion within the project team, in order to understand the implications of a cost reduction.>View Bar > Gantt Chart>View > Table > Cost > Total cost
71View the Total Cost of a Resource Because the resources are often a project biggest expense, an affective way to reduce project costs is to reduce resource costs.>View Bar > Resource Sheet>View > Table > Cost > Cost (total cost)
72View How Costs Are Distributed over a Task’s Duration >View Bar > Task usage>Format > Details > Cost > Cost (total cost)
73Strategies for Reducing Project Cost There are several approaches to reduce project costs:Cut the project scope (for example, re-construct 10 kilometers instead of 12)Replace expensive resources with less costly ones (for example, hire a less expensive employee or buy a cheaper piece of equipment)Reschedule work (for example, use less overtime)
74Setting the BaselineThe project plan you create represents the best estimate of how your project will work. The best way to track what does and what doesn’t go as planned is to set this estimate as a baseline. It contains your original scheduling, resource and costs estimates.When tracking your project implementation, you’ll monitor start and end dates, resource usage, costs levels and you’ll make the necessary adjustments.
75Before You Set a Baseline In order to make sure your plan is as accurate as possible the project team should check the following:the project start and finish dates have been approvedworking time calendars have been adjusted for the project, groups and each individualthe task list is completethe resource list is completeat least one resource has been assigned to each task (except for milestones)the workload is evenly distributed - resolve all overallocations
76Before You Set a Baseline - continued the critical path has been shortened as much as possibleyou specified the correct dependenciesno unnecessary constraints have been applied to any tasksestimated project costs are within budget
77Save a Project with Baseline Information Set a baseline>Tools > Tracking > Save Baseline>Entire projectSave a Project with Baseline Information>File > Save As>File name - you should choose a name that reminds you that this file is a backup of baseline information>Save
78Tracking and Updating Your Schedule Where does the information come from:by personal collection (for small projects)from reports done by individuals responsible for each taskWhich information should you update:tasks’ start and end datescompletion percentage for each tasktask durationstotal costwork
79Enter Actual Start and Finish Dates for a Task >View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select task>Tools > Tracking > Update task > Actual Start / FinishIf several tasks took place on time:>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select tasks>Tools > Tracking > Update projectUpdate work as complete through...
80Enter the Actual Duration of a Task >View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select task>Tools > Tracking > Update task>Actual durationIf you think the task is going to be finished sooner or later than originally scheduled, you can enter a new value in:Remaining duration
81Indicate Progress on a Task as a Percentage >View Bar > Gantt Chart>Select task>Task Information > General>Percent complete
82Update the Work Completed on a Task Using this updating approach you can track the work that each resource is performing for a given task. By doing this you can see the work remaining to be done by that resource for that task.>View Bar > Task Usage>View > Table > TrackingActual Work
83Update Actual Work on a Daily Basis >View Bar > Task Usage>View > Table > Work>Format > Details > Actual Work
84Update the Remaining Work on a Task As you track the progress of an individual task, you may realize that there is more or less work remaining on a task than MS Project has calculated. If you want to correct this situation:>View Bar > Gantt Chart>View > Table > WorkRemaining
85Update Actual Costs for a Resource Assignment WARNING:MS Project automatically updates actual costs as a task progresses based on the accrual method you set. Therefore if you want to manually update the costs you must turn off the automatic updating of actual costs and then enter your own actual cost for a resource. This can only be done only after the remaining work is zero.>Tools > Options > Calculation>Clear the check box for “Actual costs are always calculated by MS Project”>OK
86Update Actual Costs for a Resource Assignment - continued >View Bar > Task Usage>View > Table > TrackingAct. Cost
87Track Fixed Costs >View Bar > More Views >Task Sheet >View > Table > Cost>Fixed Cost
88Assessing the Variance Between Actual Data and Baseline Data Variances you should look for when comparing your updated schedule to the baseline plan:Tasks that do not start or do not end on timeTasks that do not progress at their expected rateTasks that require more or less resources than plannedTasks that cost more or less then estimated
89Display Progress Lines in Your Project Progress lines create a visual representation of the progress of your project. A progress line connects tasks that are in progress or should have started to a vertical line that represents the progress date.>View Bar > Gantt Chart>Tools > Tracking > Progress lines>Dates and intervals>Always display current progress line
90To View Baseline Fields >View Bar > Tracking Gantt>View > Table > More Tables > Baseline
91Compare Baseline Estimates to Actual Data The whole point of tracking progress is to compare your original baseline estimates with actual data collected during the project. By noting the differences, or variances between baseline and actual data you can judge how much your actual progress has deviated from the original plan.To compare baseline estimates to actual data:>View Bar > Tracking Gantt>View > Table > More Tables > Baseline
92Determine if Tasks are Starting or Finishing According to Plan >View Bar > Tracking Gantt>View > Table > Variance
93Determine if Tasks Costs More or Less Then Budgeted >View Bar > Gantt Chart>View > Table > CostCompare Total Cost and Baseline FieldsLook at Variance field
94What we haven't told you (but you can do with MS Project) Optimizing the projectResolving overallocationModifying, formatting and creating new forms and filtersWorking with split windows and creating composed views (viewing two views at once).Modifying, formatting and creating new reportsExchanging information via or hyperlinks with the team membersExchanging information with other programsWorking with multiple projects
95SummaryUse MS Project or other software to plan and execute your project.Use those features that you need. If budgeting by MS Project does not fit your organization’s system, use the official system.Nothing can substitute for your thinking through tasks, timing and costs. The software is only as useful as your team’s careful analysis makes it.