Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention: A Framework for Educational Reform"— Presentation transcript:
1 Response to Intervention: A Framework for Educational Reform What does it mean for gifted education?NAGCTampa, FloridaNovember 2, 2008Daphne PerelesColorado Department of EducationLois BaldwinWestchester County, NYResponse to Intervention: A Framework for Educational ReformWhat does this mean for gifted education?
2 Structure for Discussion RtI as an overall systemic changeDefinitionComponentsFrameworkInfusing gifted language and consideration through each componentAn opportunity not to be missedIdentifying resourcesNext StepsHow will you use this information to include gifted in your RtI plans?
3 ULTIMATE PURPOSE of RTI Not to determine whether a student qualifies for special education, but rather to enhance the success of students with a variety of academic and behavioral needs.
4 Core Principles We believe that… ALL children can learn and achieve high standards as a result of effective teaching.All students must have access to a rigorous, standards-based curriculum and research-based instruction.Intervening at the earliest indication of need is necessary for student success (Pre K-12).A comprehensive system of tiered interventions is essential for addressing the full range of student needs.
5 Core PrinciplesStudent results are improved when ongoing academic and behavioral performance data are used to inform instructional decisions.Collaboration among educators, families and community members is the foundation to effective problem-solving and instructional decision-making.Ongoing and meaningful involvement of families increases student success.All members of the school community must continue to gain knowledge and develop expertise in order to build capacity and sustainability.Effective leadership at all levels is crucial for the implementation of RtI.
6 The overarching purpose of RtI implementation is to improve educationaloutcomes for allRtI Defined(Colorado Dept. of Education)Response to Intervention is anapproach that promotes a well-integrated system connectinggeneral, compensatory, gifted, andspecial education in providing highquality, standards-based instruction& intervention that is matched tostudents’ academic, social-emotional, and behavioral needs.A continuum of evidence-based,tiered interventions with increasinglevels of intensity and duration iscentral to RtI.Collaborative educational decisionsare based on data derived fromfrequent monitoring of studentperformance and rate of learning.students.
7 How it fitsGeneral discussion about RtI/multitiered model insert Colorado’s as an example
8 Traditional vs. Problem-Solving Focus on problems within childFocus on outcomesCauses presumed to be largely due to internal variablesCauses presumed to be largely due to external variablesUnexpected underachievement (relative to ability)Unexpected underachievement (relative to good instruction)IQ-Achievement discrepancyFailure to respond to empirically validated instruction or interventionsAssumes better classification leads to better treatmentDecisions about students based on progress monitoring dataAs we began implementation of such a model, it was difficult to move from the old to the new. A framework that was helpful for discussion for all practioners was how are we doing business now (traditional) and what are we heading toward (problem solving)
9 Traditional vs. Problem Solving for GT How are programming needs for gifted and advanced learners currently determined?What variables might be considered in a problem-solving model to determine programming needs?
10 Practitioners’ Guidebook Six ComponentsUnderstanding the Three-Tiered ModelKey DefinitionsRole ExpectationsRtI after ImplementationSpecial ConsiderationsGlossaryResources
12 Six Essential Components of RtI LeadershipCurriculum & InstructionProblem-Solving/ConsultationAssessment/Progress MonitoringSchool Culture & ClimateFamily and Community Engagement
13 Leadership State District Building Training Guidelines Professional developmentResourcesDevelopment of leadership rolesBuildingTimeFidelitySupport problem-solving processDevelop action planRefer to NASDE Blueprints for Implementation (again, what about gifted?); What leaders should be at the table to include the necessary gifted discussions at each level?
14 Curriculum Across the Tiers Universal TierProvide foundation of curriculum and school organization that has a high probability(80 – 90% of students responding) of bringing students to a high level of achievement in all areas of development/contentChoose curricula that has evidence of producing optimal levels of achievement (evidence-based curriculum)Targeted TierSupplemental curriculum aligned with Core Curriculum and designed to meet the specific needs of the targeted groupIntensive TierFocused curriculum designed to meet the specific needs of the targeted group and/or individualConsideration of replacement Core curriculum
15 Curriculum: Guiding Questions (District or School ) Is curriculum evidenced-based and sufficient?How document evidence and what constitutes evidence (both quantitative and qualitative)?Is the curriculum aligned to the standards?How will the Core curriculum identify needs and how will they be addressed?How will the effectiveness of the Core curriculum be monitored and adapted over time?For which children/students is the Core curriculum sufficient and not sufficient, and why?What specific supplemental and intensive curricula are needed (does the Core curriculum need to be changed)?
16 For which children/students is the Core curriculum sufficient and not sufficient, and why? How would this be answered for students exhibiting possible gifted behaviors?This is a question that would be answered in a different way for “struggling learners” What guidance can be infused here to include thoughtful consideration to the inclusion of the needs of gifted learners? Here is our opportunity…
17 How might this question be answered for gifted learners? What specific supplemental and intensive curricula are needed (does the Core curriculum need to be changed)?How might this question be answered for gifted learners?How might this inform programming options for gifted learners?
18 Instruction Across the Tiers Universal TierInstructional strategies that are proven effective by researchInstruction that is systematic and explicitDifferentiated instructionTargetedInvolves homogeneous small group or individual instructionExplicit and systematic instruction targeting specific skill/contentResearch-based instruction to such student factors as age, giftedness, cultural environment, level of English language acquisition, mobility, etc.Supplemental to Tier I instruction -- increasing time and intensityIntensiveExplicit, intense instruction designed to unique learner needsDelivered to individuals or very small groupsNarrowed instructional focus and increased timeFor forth bullet point - for application of skills, re-teaching , additional practice and/or advanced level tasks as determined by benchmarks and progress monitoring data
19 Problem-Solving Process Define the ProblemDirectly Measure Behavior/SkillEvaluateResponse to InterventionAnalyzeValidate ProblemIdentify Contributing VariablesImplementDevelop PlanImplement Plan as IntendedProgress MonitorModify as NecessaryProblem solving is the way the entire system functions. Many think it is a meeting but not all of this can occur within a meeting. Meetings are for the development of a plan. Data is gathered and problem identified prior to a meeting.
20 The Problem-Solving Process Steps in the ProcessRoles of the Team1. Define the ProblemWhat is the problem?2. Problem AnalysisWhy is this problem occurring?3. Implement PlanWhat are we going to do about it? How will we monitor progress?4. Evaluate Response to InterventionDid it work?CoordinatorConsultantRecorderTimekeeperParentPersons with Expertise in:DataInterventions- Academic/BehavioralParent PartnershipsCommunity Resources
21 Problem-Solving TeamComprised of teachers (classroom and special educators), specialists, and parentsPartner with parentsPlan prescriptive interventions for studentsPromote shared responsibility for student learningCollect and review dataEvaluate responsiveness to intervention
22 Assessments in RtIScreening and Benchmark Universal measures that give a quick read on whether students have mastered critical skills.Diagnostic Individually administered to gain more in-depth information and guide appropriate instruction or intervention plans.Progress Monitoring Determines whether adequate progress is made based on individual goals regarding critical skills.Outcome Provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of instruction and indicate student year-end achievement when compared to grade-level performance standards.
23 Purposes of Assessment Identify strengths and needs of individual studentsInform problem-solving processInform instruction and necessary adjustmentsEvaluate the effectiveness of instruction at different levels of system (e.g., classroom, school, district)Inform educational decisionsEligibility across programs
24 Outcomes of Progress Monitoring Screening Goal: To identify students at academic or behavioral riskBenchmark Testing Goal: Evaluation of students at designated periodsStrategic Monitoring Goal: Monitoring individual students using ongoing information about specific skills.Intensive Monitoring Goal: Based on an individualized plan, monitoring individual students using ongoing information about specific skills and interventions.
25 Outcomes of Progress Monitoring Screening Identify types of screening tools currently used for gifted studentsBenchmark Testing How is benchmark testing currently being used for gifted students?Strategic Monitoring How might this type of skill development monitoring for gifted students be helpful?Intensive Monitoring What specifics would be needed to identify GT plan monitoring? How can this be used to measure effectiveness of individual programming?
26 Progress Monitoring in RtI Intensive MonitoringIntensive interventions based on comprehensive evaluation.For students with most intensive needs that may be several grade levels behind or above.Monitoring occurs more often to ensure intervention is working (e.g., every 1-2 weeks).Approximately 1-5% of students.Strategic MonitoringTargeted interventions based on data that students’ need for moreFor students who are struggling with specific skillsMonitoring occurs more than at the universal level to ensure intervention is working (e.g., every 4-6 weeks).AApproximately 5-10% of students.Universal LevelResearch-based, high quality general education.Screening and benchmark testing for ALL students.Data continues to inform instruction, but less frequently (e.g., 3 times a year).Enough monitoring for 80-90% of students.
27 Positive School Climate: Essential Elements A caring school communityInstruction in appropriate behaviorand social problem-solving skillsPositive Behavior Support (PBS)Effective academic instruction
28 Positive School Climate: Essential Practices Defining and consistently teaching expectations of behavior for students, parents and educatorsAcknowledging and recognizing students and adults consistently for appropriate behaviorsMonitoring, correcting or re-teaching behavioral errors
29 Positive School Climate: Essential Practices Engaging teachers in a collaborative team problem-solving process that uses data to guide instructionIncluding families in a culturally-sensitive, solution-focused approach to supporting student learning
30 Family & Community Engagement Effective partnerships include:ParentsFamiliesStudentsCommunity membersEducatorsIndicators of effective partnerships:Sharing informationProblem-solvingCelebrating student successesCentral to effective partnerships is the recognition of shared responsibility and ownership of student challenges and successes.
31 Key Roles/Expectations for Families Collaborate with teachers regarding identified needShare information about child and family as appropriateSupport student learning at homeAttend Problem-solving team meetingPartner in intervention planning and progress monitoring
34 BEST PRACTICES of Tier I Core InstructionAssessment/Progress MonitoringData discussionsWhat should the overall process look like during Tier I?
35 Core Instruction During Tier I Scientifically based core instructional programs and practicesBased on state/district standards and benchmarksIntervention occurs within the general design of the classroom (flooding, flexible grouping)Instructional changes are made based on classroom and school-wide assessment
36 Data Discussions in Tier I Professional Learning CommunitiesData-dialogue meetingsGrade or Content-level meetingsMeeting should be efficient, organized and scheduled regularlyDiscussWhole group, flexible group changes, class changes at secondaryCurricular gaps based on review of class benchmarks or other data
37 Assessment in Tier IProgress monitoring is conducted primarily using school-wide screenings three times per yearClassroom assessmentsBenchmarksQuarterly and Unit Assessments
38 The Overall Process of Tier I Teachers evaluate school-wide assessment data to inform instructional placement decisionsMonitor all studentsDifferentiate instruction, groupings, accommodationsComplete documentation for studentsneeding targeted interventions
39 BEST PRACTICES of Tier II: and how to Distinguish from Tier I Problem Solving ProcessData dialogueAssessment/Progress MonitoringDesign of Instruction/InterventionWhat should the overall process look like at this tier?
40 Data Dialogue in Tier II: Consultation between consultant and teacher to define and analyze a measurable problem prior to problem-solving team meeting.Focus on data that is specific to problem identified.Problem-solving team meeting led with facilitator which is timed, sequential and efficient.
41 Assessment in Tier II:Progress is monitored more often (weekly, bi-monthly)Progress is monitored repeatedly for a period of time using consistent CBM toolTrends in performance are used to gauge effectiveness of supports and interventionsIneffective intervention plans are changed in a timely mannerIntervention plans are modified based on emerging needs
42 Gap AnalysisA critical factor in determining whether a student is making sufficient progress in Tier I is conducting a Gap Analysis.Example:Benchmark vs. Current Level of Performance = Gap90 wpm/40 wpm = 2.252+ = Significant Gap and signifies a need for Tier II or Tier III intervention to close the Gap between student and peersHow might this be modified to show appropriate growth for gifted learners?Can this be modified for gifted learners? A gap from what?
43 Design of Instruction/Intervention in Tier II: How to distinguish from Tier I Instruction supplements, not supplants core instructionFocus on non-responders to Tier IShort-term interventionHomogeneous, same ability small group (3-5 students) instruction
44 The Overall Process of Tier II Goals:to gain critical academic or behavior skills so students can return to the core curriculum orto enhance academic or behavior instruction to maximize student learningSpecific progress monitoring occurs to informinstructionOngoing consultation occurs between case manager/consultant and teacher
45 BEST PRACTICES of Tier III: Problem Solving ProcessData dialogueAssessment/Progress MonitoringDesign of Instruction/InterventionWhat should the overall process look like at this tier?
46 Problem-Solving Process in Tier III: Identify why interventions have been unsuccessfulDevelop and improve existing interventions or generate new interventions that are more intensive
47 Data Dialogue in Tier III: Identical to Tier II, happens in problem-solving team meetings with same processConsultants continue to dialogue with classroom teacher, parent, etc. between meetings to support intervention plan
48 Progress Monitoring in Tier III: More oftenProgress monitoring may need to happen every week; however, depending on the grade level and/or skill less often may be sufficient (every other week)Modifications are made to individualized instruction in response to the data collected
49 Design of Instruction in Tier III: and how to Distinguish from Tier II The intervention may stay the same but will increase inIntensity (more time per session)Frequency (additional sessions during day or week)Duration (implement intervention over longer period of time in weeks)The focus of the intervention may change as well
50 Overall Process of Tier III: Supplemental – continue to educate student in core curriculum and with the interventions that have been implemented if successfulInterventions and progress monitoring intensifyIf the goal is to gain academic and behavior skills the lack of progress and inability to close the Gap with intensive interventions may indicate a disability issue
51 Understanding and Utilizing the Comprehensive Evaluation Tool
53 Response to Intervention – Professional Development Continuum Focus of Professional DevelopmentBeginning LevelIntermediate LevelAdvanced LevelLeadership1) Philosophy2) Leadership Role Expectations3) Understanding Problem- Solving, Progress Monitoring, and Intervention DevelopmentPhilosophy of RtIBuilding Responsibilities and ExpectationsComponents necessary for effective implementation of RtIAdministrator RolesCoordinator RolesLeadership ExpectationsShared Leadership and decision makingTrainer of TrainersUnderstanding the Problem-Solving Process, Progress Monitoring & Intervention DevelopmentCurriculum & InstructionAccommodations, modifications, and interventions.Rigor and RelevanceDifferentiated InstructionIdentifying appropriate intervention intensityUsing data to develop individual interventionsUnderstanding accommodations, modifications and interventionsIdentifying appropriate interventions based on time, intensity, and instructionUsing data to develop appropriate individual interventionsProblem -Solving Process1) Consultation Overview2) Collaborative Consultation skills and expectations3) Utilizing the Problem-SolvingProcess in the RtI ModelConsultation OverviewWhat are consultants rolesWhat are teachers rolesDifference between Consultation and other skillsCollaborative Consultation Skills and ExpectationsDeveloping an efficient and effective consultantConsultation in Problem-solving ProcessUtilizing the Problem- solving process in RtI: from referral to resultsIdentifying a Specific Learning Disabilities utilizing the Problem- solving process
54 Response to Intervention – Professional Development Continuum Focus of Professional DevelopmentBeginning LevelIntermediate LevelAdvanced LevelProgress MonitoringAssessmentWhat is Curriculum Based Measurement?Training on administering, scoring, and using CBM dataAIMs Web & Intervention CentralEffectively monitoring behaviorWhat is CBM? (Definition andExamples)Important components for monitoring behaviorTraining on administering and scoring CBMAIMs WebIntervention CentralDiagnostic AssessmentsNext steps in utilizing CBM to make instruction decisions based on dataFunctional Behavior AssessmentSchool Climate & CultureBuilding ConsensusDeveloping Professional Learning CommunitiesEstablishing regular and consistent data dialogues at each TierPositive Behavior SupportDeveloping consensus:DistrictBuildingUtilizing Positive Behavior SupportProfessional Learning CommunitiesData Dialogues:Tier IBehavior DataMaking instructional decisions based on achievement dataMaking system decisions based on behavior dataParent & Community InvolvementWhat is RtI? What does RtI mean for my student?What is a comprehensive evaluation when utilizing the RtI process?How do community resources support RtI?What is RtI?
55 What are the training needs in the district/school? Evaluating SystemsWhat are the training needs in the district/school?
56 Helpful WebsitesIntervention Central: progress monitoring, intervention ideas, behavior resourcesAimsweb: progress monitoring resourcesWhat Works Clearinghouse: Strategies and programs that are researched basedDoing What Works: U.S. Department of Education resources on interventions that are research based
57 Helpful WebsitesFlorida Center for Reading Research: reading research based informationPikes Peak Literacy Strategies Project:Strategies for the 5 components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension and vocabulary)National Progress Monitoring Organization: progress monitoring tools
58 Helpful Websites Colorado Department of Education--RtI Resources National Association of State Directors of Special Education
59 RtI: Meeting the Needs of ALL Students Education, compensatory education, special education, and gifted education in operating as a seamless, unified system.Ensures all students receive high quality instruction and are held to high standards of achievement.Provides help more quickly to struggling learners, preventing the “wait-to-fail” phenomenon.Alternate interventions – special education or other eligibility-driven programs not only pathway.Shifts focus from eligibility to a focus on effective instruction and results.Lowers proportion of minority students misidentified as needing special education.
60 Excellence can be achieved if you… Care more than others think is wise…Risk more than others think is safe…Dream more than others think is practical…Expect more than others think is possible…- Roland Barth